The Du`ā' yawm al-mubāhala

دُعاء يوم المباهلة 

The Du`ā' yawm al-mubāhala  ("Supplication for the Day of Mutual Execration") :

devotional work paralleling and closely related to the Du`ā' al-saḥar (Dawn supplication) of the 5th Imam Muhammad al-Bāqir (d. 126/743),  as  transmitted by the 8th Imām `Ali al-Ridā' (d. 201/818).

Now being corrected, revised and completed - 29-08-2016

INTRODUCTION AND TRANSLATION.

Stephen Lambden UC Merced,

    The Du`ā' yawm al-mubāhala ("Supplication for the Day of Mutual Execration") is a devotional supplication paralleling and closely related to the Du`ā' al-saḥar (Dawn supplication) of the 5th Imam Muhammad al-Bāqir (d. 126/743) (transmitted by Imām Ridā'; see Mafātīḥ 351). A version of it is contained in al-Qummī's Mafātīḥ al-jannān (pp.  351-355.  Therein it is stated that it was transmitted  from the 6th Imam Ja`far al-Ṣādiq (d.183 799) (marwiyā `an al-Ṣādiq; ibid). The original transcript manuscript (naskh) of this supplication contains numerous textual variants. The naskh ("version") of the Shaykh (al-Ṭā'ifa, Muhammad b. Ḥasan al-Ṭūsī, d.460/1067) differing from that of the Sayyid (?) as it exists in his 'Ad`iya asār ramaḍān (p.237). The version translated here is that printed in very popular Mafatīḥ al-jinān (Keys of Paradise) of `Abbās al-Qummī (d.1359/1940)  and follows that of the al-Ṭūsī in his al-Miṣbāḥ  (p.351),  the مصباح المتهجد  Misbāḥ al-Mutahijjad [al-Kabir] ("The [Greater] Lamp of the Nightly Vigil") of Shaykh Abu Ja`far Muhammad  ibn Ḥasan  al-Tūsī (d. 460/1067),

         The Arabic text of  the   Du`ā al-mubāhalah is also found in other Shi`i literatures including, for example,  in works of the Shī`ī theologian  Raḍī al-Dīn Ibn Tāwūs al-Ḥasani aI-`Alawī al-Hillī (d.  673/1274-5) and a number of the devotional and related compilations of Taqī al-Dīn al-Kaf`āmī (d.900/1494-5), including his Miṣbāḥ (Beirut, 1414/1994, pp. 911-918 + Beirut, 1425/2004, pp. 879-881) and his al-Balad al-amīn wa'l-dir` al-ḥaṣīn ("The Secure Land and the  Protective Armor") (Beirut, 1417/1997, pp. 372-379).

The original Islamic Mubāhalah

    Resulting from a Christological dispute, the episode of the mubāhala was an historical `ordeal'. In the ninth year of the Hegira Muhammad sent out a series of letters to rulers and notables summoning them to accept Islam. Among them letters addressed to the Christian town of of Najran (between Medina and the Yemen). According to Sunni and Shī`ī tradition the mubāhala episode took place in the 10th year of the ḥijrā (632-3 CE) being proposed by the Prophet Muhammad to the deputation of a Christian named Balārith b. Ka`b from Najrān. This mubāhala was postponed at the request of the Christians who came to be accorded the protection  accorded dhimmis. (Schmucker, Mubāhala, 276, EI2 VII:276). In Shī`ī Islam this episode is of great moment. It is commemorated and celebrated as a feast on the 21st of Dhu'l-Ḥijja (the lunar pilgrimage month [first two weeks]; Schumaker, EI2: 276).

        In al-Qummī's Mafātīḥ  the Du`ā' yawm al- mubahalah is part of the commemoration held on the 24th Day of Dhu'l-Ḥijja and closely linked with the celebration of the yawn al-ghadīr ("Day of the Pool [Marsh]").  For Shī`īs this is the day of the appointment of `Alī as Walī ("successor") and is set a few days earlier (on the 22nd [or 18th] day of this month). The yawm al- mubahalah is traditionally reckoned a noble day associated with a number of devotional acts including the performance of an obligatory prayer of two rak`ats ("prostrations") comparable to the ṣalat of the Feast of Ghadīr but with an additional recitation of the āyāt al-kursī ("Throne verse" = Q.2:255). On it the Du`ā' yawm al- mubahalah should be recited twice; the second recitation coming after the obligatory prayer of two rak`ats ("prostrations") and seventy pleas for divine forgiveness being introduced with "Praise be to God, the Lord of all the worlds" (p. 351, 354). Charitable acts should also be undertaken after the example of Imam `Alī (Qummī, 354).

        The recitation by the Shī`ī faithful of the Du`ā' yawm al- mubahalah (on the 24th of most sacred month of Dhu'l-Ḥijjah) is highly potent in that it is a means of commemorating the `Day of Mutual Execration' (yawm al- mubahalah); the day on which the Prophet Muhammad engaged in confrontation or mutual execration ( mubahalah) with select Christians of Najrān. It was on this Day that the Prophet gathered the (subsequently named) "people of the cloak" (ahl al-kisā' see Qur'ān 33:32 = apart from [1] Muhammad himself, [2] `Alī, [3] Fāṭima, [4] Ḥasan and [5] Ḥusayn) beneath his garment (`abā') or under his cloak (al-kisā') referring to them as the "people of my house" (ahl baytī).

 

The Du`ā' yawm al- mubahalah ("Supplication for the Day of Mutual Execration").

Translation by Stephen N. Lambden (199X) - from the Arabic text  transmitted from the 6th Imam Ja`far al-Ṣadiq

The verse numeration here compares the position of lines in this devotional text with those in the Du`a al-Sahar (Ramadan `Dawn Prayer') attributed to the 5th Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (see this website at :

[1=1]

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ مِنْ بَهَائِكَ بِأَبْهَاهُ

 وَكُلُّ بَهَائِكَ بَهِيٌّ، اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ بِبَهَائِكَ كُلِّهِ

O my God! 

I beseech Thee by Thy Bahā'  ("Beauty-Splendor")  in its utmost Glory (abhā')   for all Thy Beauty (bahā') is truly brilliant (bahiyy). I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee  by the fullness of Thy splendor (bahā').

[2=2]

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ مِنْ جَلاَلِكَ بِأَجَلِّهِ  وَكُلِّ جَلاَلِكَ جَلِيلٌ  

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ بِجَلاَلِكَ كُلِّه

O my God!

I beseech Thee by Thy Jalāl  ("Glory")  in its supreme loftiness (ajall) for all Thy Glory (jalāl) is truly sublime (jalāl).  I, verily, O my God!  beseech Thee by the totality of Thy Glory (jalāl).

[3=2]

 اللَّهُمَّ إنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ مِنْ جَمَالِكَ بِأَجْمَلِهِ  وَكُلُّ جَمَالِكَ جَمِيلٌ  

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ بِجَمَالِكَ كُلِّهِ

O my God!

I beseech Thee by Thy Jamāl  ("Beauty") at its most beautiful (ajmal)  for all Thy Beauty (jamāl) is truly beauteous (jamāl). I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the whole of Thy Beauty  (jamāl).

[3+]

O my God!

I supplicate Thee in accordance with what Thou commanded me! Then answer me! just as Thou promised me!

[4]

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ مِنْ عَظَمَتِكَ بِأَعْظَمِهَا  وَكُلُّ عَظَمَتِكَ عَظِيمَةٌ

 اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أِسْأَلُكَ بِعَظَمَتِكَ كُلِّهَا

O my God!

I beseech Thee by thy `AẓImat ("Grandeur") at its most Majestic (a`ẓam) for all Thy Grandeur (`aẓImat)  is truly magnificent (`aẓīm). I, verily, O my God!  beseech Thee by the fullness of Thy Magnificence (`azimat).

[5]

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ مِنْ نُورِكَ بِأَنْوَرِهِ، وَكُلُّ نُورِكَ نَيِّرٌ  

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ بِنُورِكَ كُلِّه

O my God!

I beseech Thee by Thy Nūr  ("Light")  through all of its Rays (anwār)  for all Thy Light (nūr) is truly luminous (nayyīr).  I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by all of Thy Light (nūr).

[6]
 

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ مِنْ رَحْمَتِكَ بِأَوْسَعِهَا  وَكُلُّ رَحْمَتِكَ وَاسِعَةٌ

 اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ بِرَحْمَتِكَ كُلِّهَا

 

O my God!

I beseech Thee by thy Raḥmat  ("Mercy")  by virtue of its All-Encompassing nature (awsa`)  for all of Thy Mercy (Raḥmat ) is All-Embracing (awsa`). I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the whole of Thy Mercy (Raḥmat ).

[6+]

O my God!

I supplicate Thee in accordance with what Thou commanded me!  Then answer me just as Thou promised me!

[7=8]

 اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ مِنْ كَمالِكَ بِاَكْمَلِهِ وَ كُلُّ كَمالِكَ كامِلٌ

اَللّـهُمَّ  اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ بِكَمالِكَ كُلِّهِ

O my God!

I beseech Thee by Thy Kamāl ("Perfection")  in its absolute Perfectness (akmal)  for Thy kamāl  ("Perfection") is truly Perfect (kāmil).  I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by  the completeness of Thy Perfection (kamāl).

[8=7]

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ مِنْ كَلِمَاتِكَ بِأَتَمِّهَا وَكُلُّ كَلِمَاتِكَ تَامَّةٌ

 اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ بِكَلِمَاتِكَ كُلِّهَا

O my God!

I beseech Thee by Thy kalimāt  ("Words") in their Perfection (atamm) for all Thy kalimāt  ("Words")  are truly Complete (tāmmat). I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the totality of Thy Words (kalimāt).

[9]

اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ مِنْ اَسمائِكَ بِاَكْبَرِها وَ كُلُّ اَسْمائِكَ كَبيرَةٌ  

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ  بِاَسْمائِكَ كُلِّها

 O my God!

I beseech thee by thy asmā' ("Names") by virtue of their Greatness (akbar)  for all Thy Names (asmā') are truly Great (kabīr). I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the totality of Thy Names (asmā').

[9+]

O my God!

I supplicate Thee in accordance with what Thou commanded me! Then answer me just as Thou promised me!

[10]

 

اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ مِنْ عِزَّتِكَ باَعَزِّها وَ كُلُّ عِزَّتِكَ عَزيزَةٌ

اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ بِعِزَّتِكَ كُلِّها

O my God!

 I beseech thee by Thy `Izzat ("Might")  at its most Mighty (a`azza)  for all Thy `izzat  ("Might") is truly Powerful (`azīz). I, verily, O my God!  beseech Thee by the fullness of Thy Might (`izzat).

[11]

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ مِنْ مَشِيَّتِكَ بِاَمْضاها وَ كُلُّ مَشِيَّتِكَ

ماضِيَةٌ  

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ بِمَشِيَّتِكَ كُلِّها

O my God!

I beseech thee by Thy mashiyyat  ("Will") at its most conclusive (amā), for all of thy Will (mashiyyat) is truly conclusive (māshiyyat). I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the totality of Thy Will  (mashiyyat).

[12]

  اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ

مِنْ قُدْرَتِكَ بِالْقُدْرَةِ الَّتي اسْتَطَلْتَ بِها عَلى 

شَيْء وَ كُلُّ قُدْرَتِكَ مُسْتَطيلَةٌ كُلِّ

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ بِقُدْرَتِكَ كُلِّها

O my God!

I beseech thee by Thy qudrat ("Power")  through the Power (qudrat) of which Thou overshadow  all things  for all of Thy Power (qudrat) is truly All-Subduing (mustaālat); I, verily, O my God!  beseech Thee by the fullness of Power (qudrat).

[12+]

O my God!

I supplicate Thee in accordance with what Thou commanded me! Then answer me just as Thou promised me!

[13=12]

اَللّـهُمَّ  اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ  مِنْ عِلْمِكَ بِاَنْفَذِهِ

وَ كُلُّ عِلْمِكَ نافِذٌ

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ بِعِلْمِكَ كُلِّهِ

O my God!

I beseech Thee by Thy `Ilm ("Knowledge") at its most acute (anfa) for all of Thy Knowledge (`ilm) is truly penetrating (nāfi).  I, verily, O my God!  beseech Thee by the whole of Thy Knowledge (`ilm).

[14]

 اَللّـهُمَّ  اِنّي

اَسْاَلُكَ مِنْ قَوْلِكَ بِاَرْضاهُ وَ كُلُّ قَوْلِكَ

رَضِيٌّ 

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ بِقَوْلِكَ كُلِّهِ

O my God!

I beseech Thee by Thy Qawl ("Speech") at its most Delightful (arā) for all Thy Speech (qawl) is especially pleasing (raḍiyy). I, verily, O my God!  beseech Thee by the whole of Thy Speech (qawl).

[15]

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ

مِنْ مَسائِلِكَ بِاَحَبِّها اِلَيْكَ وَ كُلُّ مَسائِلِكَ اِلَيْكَ حَبيبَةٌ

 اَللّـهُمَّ  اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ بِمَسائِلِكَ كُلِّها

 O my God!

I beseech Thee by Thy Masā'il ("Questions") which are most Agreeable (aḥabb) of Thee for all of Thy Concerns (masā'il) are truly beloved (ḥabīb); I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the whole of Thine Affairs (masā'il).

[15+]

O my God!

I supplicate Thee in accordance with what Thou commanded me! Then answer me just as Thou promised me!

[16]

اَللّـهُمَّ  اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ

مِنْ شَرَفِكَ بِاَشْرَفِهِ وَ كُلُّ شَرَفِكَ شَريفٌ  

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ بِشَرَفِكَ كُلِّهِ

O my God!

I beseech thee by thy Sharaf  ("Honour") at its most Noble (sharaf) for all of Thine Eminence (sharaf) is truly celebrated (sharāf). I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the whole of Thine Honour (sharaf).

[17]

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ مِنْ سُلْطانِكَ بِاَدْوَمِهِ وَ كُلُّ سُلطانِكَ دائِمٌ

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ بِسُلْطانِكَ كُلِّهِ

O my God!

 I beseech thee by thy Sulṭān ("Sovereignty") at its most Permanent (adwam) for the whole of Thy Dominion (sulṭān) is truly Enduring (dā'im). I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the absoluteness of Thy Sovereignty (sulṭān).

[18]

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ مِنْ مُلْكِكَ بِاَفْخَرِهِ وَ كُلُّ مُلْكِكَ فاخِرٌ  

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ بِمُلْكِكَ كُلِّهِ

O my God! 

 I beseech Thee by Thy Mulk ("Dominion") at its most Magnificent (afkhar) for the whole of Thy Dominion (mulk) is truly Excellent (fākhir). I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the whole of Thy Dominion (mulk).

[18+]

O my God!

I supplicate Thee in accordance with what Thou commanded me! Then answer me just as Thou promised me!

[19]

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ مِنْ عُلُوِّكَ بِاَعْلاهُ وَ كُلُّ عُلُوِّكَ عال  

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ بِعُلُوِّكَ كُلِّه

O my God!

I beseech Thee by Thy `Alā  ("Loftiness") at its most Lofty (a`lā) for the whole of Thy Loftiness (`Alā') is truly Lofty (`āl[ān]. I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the whole of Thy Loftiness (`Alā).

[20=21]

اَللّـهُمَّ  اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ مِنْ اياتِكَ بِاَكْرَمِها وَ كُلُّ آياتِكَ

كَريمَةٌ  

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ بِآياتِكَ كُلِّها

O God!

I beseech thee by thy Āyāt ("Verses"[ "Signs"]) at their most Marvellous (ā`jab) for all Thy verses (āy āt) are truly Marvellous (`ajāb). I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the totality of Thy Verses (āyāt).

[21=20]

  اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ مِنْ مَنِّكَ بِاَقْدَمِهِ وَ كُلُّ مَنِّكَ قَديمٌ

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ بِمَنِّكَ كُلِّهِ

O my God!

I beseech Thee by Thy Mann ("Benevolence") at its most Immemorial (aqdam) for the totality of Thy Benovlence (mann) is truly Pre-existent (qadām). I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the whole of Thy Benevolence (mann).

[21+]

O my God!

 I supplicate Thee in accordance with what Thou commanded me! Then answer me just as Thou promised me!

[22]

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ بِما اَنْتَ فيهِ مِنَ الشَّأنِ وَالْجَبَرُوتِ ، وَاَسْاَلُكَ بِكُلِّ شَأْن وَحْدَهُ جَبَرُوت وَحْدَها  

 اَللّـهُمَّ اِنّي اَسْاَلُكَ بِما تُجيبُني بِهِ حينَ اَسْاَلُكَ فَاَجِبْني يا   ADD اَللهُ  

I, verily, beseech Thee, O my God!

by that whereby Thou hast Gravitas  (sha'n) and Omnipotence (jabarāt) and I supplicate Thee by virtue of every single quality (sha'n) and dimension of Power (jabarāt) that Thou do indeed answer me therewith at the very moment I request of Thee! O God! (yā Allāh)! O no God is there except Thee (yā lā ilāha illā inta)!

[23]

 

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ مِنْ بَهَائِكَ

ADD

I beseech Thee by Bahā' ("Splendour")!

No God is there except Thee! O no God is there except Thee (yā lā ilāha illā inta)!

[24]

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ مِنْ جَلاَلِكَ

ADD

 I beseech Thee by Jalāl ("Glory")!

No God is there except Thee! O no God is there except Thou (yā lā ilāha ilā inta)! I beseech Thee by no God is there except Thee!

[24+]

 O my God!

I supplicate Thee in accordance with what Thou commanded me! Then answer me just as Thou promised me!

[25]

 O my God!

I supplicate Thee by Thy Rizq ("Providence") at its most universal (bi-a`amm) for all of Thy Providence is All-Embracing (`amm). I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the whole of Thy Providence (rizq).

[26]

 O my God!

I supplicate Thee by Thy `Atā'  ("Bestowal") at its most Beneficial (ahnā')  for all of Thy Bestowal (`atā') is truly wholesome (hanā'). I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the whole of Thy Bestowal (`atā').

[27]

 O my God!

I supplicate Thee by Thy Khayr ("Goodness") at its most Expeditious (ahnā') for all of Thine Excellence (khayr) is truly Immediate (`ājil). I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the whole of Thy Goodness (khayr).

[28]

O my God!

I supplicate Thee by Thy Faḍl ("Grace") at its most Gracious (afḍal) for all of Thy Favour (faḍl)  is truly Overflowing (fāl). I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the whole of Thy Grace (faḍl).

[28+]

O my God!

 I supplicate Thee in accordance with what Thou commanded me! Then answer me just as Thou promised me!

[29]

 O my God!

Blessings be upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad.  Revive my faith in Thee and [my] attestation of Thy Messenger (rasūl)  (upon him and his family be peace) and of the wilāya ("providential authority") of [Imam] `Alī  ibn Abī Ṭālib  and [give me] freedom from his enemy and power to follow the example of the  Imams of the family of the Muhammad  (upon them be peace).  Thus am I, verily, contented with this O Lord!

 

[30]

 O my God!

Blessings be upon Muhammad, Thy servant and Thy Messenger in the Initial Age (? al-awwālān).  And blessings be upon Muhammad in the Eschatological Age (al-ākhirān). And blessings be upon Muhammad in the Supreme Concourse  (al-malā' al-a`lā ). And blessings be upon Muhammad among the Messengers  (al-mursalān).

[31]

O my God!

Grant  Muhammad, the .....