The Bab- The Persian Bayan II - The Second Unity (al-wāḥid al-thani), Section I ff.

THE PERSIAN BAYAN OF THE BAB (1819-1850 CE).

II-I

The Second Unity (al-wāḥid al-thani).

Trans.  Denis MacEoin   (1990s   > Tue, 8 Jul 1997 22:48:34 +01 OO (BST). The translations below are also printed with occasional corrections by MacEoin in his 2009, The Messiah of Shiraz (Leiden: Brill 2009), `Bayan-i Farsi', pp. 659-704 (= Persian Bayan up to Wahid II: bab 8).  From Persian Bayan II:9 I shall include my own very tentative translation. Here and there I shall include PDfs of various printed texts, mss.  and other pertinent notes.

In progress 2017.

I shall here and there insert transliteration and clarificatory comments in square brackets [ ] within the Wahids (Unities) translated below also offering occasional endnotes of exposition or commentary.  Stephen Lambden 2017...

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

The First Chapter of the Second Unity

ln explanation of the recognition of the Proof and the Evidence.

The substance of this chapter is that God, the Knwoing, glorified be His station, sends down His Proof in every dispensation according to whatever is the highest degree of exaltation wherein the people of that dispensation pride themselves. Thus, for example, in the time when the Qur'an was sent down, all prided themselves in eloquent speech. God, therefore, revealed the Qur'an in the highest degree of eloquence and made it the miracle of His Prophet. ln the Qur'an, God has not established the truth of His Prophet or of the religion of Islam by any means other than its verses, which are the mightiest of explanations. The proof of their might is that all men speak using the letters of the alphabet, whereas God, the Knowing, sent down the words of the Qur'an in such a manner that, if all that are on earth were to gather together, desiring to produce a single verse with which to confront the verses of the Qur'an, they would be unable to do so and would all remain powerless.

The hidden reason for this is that God sent down the Qur'an from the Tree of His Will, which is the Reality of Muhammad, by the Prophet's own tongue. That inaccessible Tree does no cause a single word to descend unless it takes the spirit from it at the moment of its descent Thus, for, example, should He reveal the words We have originateds that creation through a command from Our own Self. We are, indeed, powerful over all things, the mention of 'origination' refers to whatever may be called by the name of 'all things'; for none save God can encompass ail things, in that His Word is the protector of ail things, and by it ail things are originated.

lt is the same if God should reveal the words We shall cause that creation to return, as a promise binding upon Us; We are, indeed, Mighty over all things, for, at the time of their revelation, the spirits of the return of ail things are taken away in the manifestation of this verse, in order that they may appear before God on the Day of Resurrection, that the return of ail things may be rendered true. None but God is capable of achieving this, for whatever God utters from the Tree of Reality, the true self of that thing is brought into being. Should it be non-paradisical, it will become a letter of negation; but if it should be one of the letters of paradise, it will become a letter of affirmation. For the Word of God is true.

Wherefore was it revealed previously that 'hell is a reality, and paradise is a reality'. The explanation of the creation of the spirit of the word 'reality' has been given in its proper place.

Whoever ponders upon that will see with certainty that the true spirits are realized in their essences through the appearance of the Primal Point in the verses of God within the realities of the souls and the horizons, as was mentioned by God before this in the Qur'an, in the verse We shall show them Our signs in the horizons and in their souls, that it may be made clear to them that He is the Truth. So long as anyone fails to behold the inner reality of ail things, which is the spirit of his own heart, he shall not attain to an understanding of the holy words the word of God is the truth, since it is by the (mere) mention of the word that the reality is realized within the inner being of the thing. This refers to God alone, exalted and glorified be He, for none but He is a creator of anything, or a sustainer of anything, or a slayer of anything, or a vivifier of anything.

Any word through which, in the realm of His dominion, negation is negated or affirmation affirmed, will be resurrected in the shadow of whatever He has sent down of His verses. Nay, those words are not in their essences anything but what is manifested from the manifestations of God's verses and His words. For, at the moment when God mentions a believer, his creation takes place through the medium of that act of mentioning. And at the moment when He sends down the non-paradisical letters, the creation of their spirits takes place through the medium of that revelation. This is the secret behind the fact that God's verses are a proof for all created things, and that they are the mightiest of explanations and the greatest of revelations affirming His power and His knowledge. No doubt is there that, in the dispensation of the Point of the Bayan, the intellectuals prided themselves on the science of divine unity, the subtleties of gnosis, and the exalted matters taught by the Imams. For this reason, God, the Knowing, placed the proof [of the Bab), like that of the Prophet of God, within the verses themselves. There streamed forth from his tangue words concerning the exaltation of divine unity and the elevation of divine singleness, before which everyone possessed of the spirit of oneness bowed down, except for those who hsa failed to comprehend that concerning which he had spoken about with his Beloved. And limitless philosophical and scientific explanations appeared from him, whose number is known and understood by God alone.

The Sun of Reality is, in itself, the director of the affairs of all contingent beings, from the elevation of its own understanding; and yet, through the words and verses that God has placed within it, it draws all things to the light of its own utterances. Does He have a peer, that He may be comprehended? Or a rival, that He may be described through him? Or a likeness, that he may be compared to it? Or a partner, that He may be associated with him? Or a resemblance, that He may be likened to it? Exalted be He above that, in the height of exaltation. For nothing may be seen in Him but God, and we are all His worshippers. ln this dispensation, God, the Knowing, has bestowed his verses and explanations upon the Point of the Bayan, and made him the exalted Proof for all things. Should all that are on earth gather together, they would be unable to produce a single verse like the verses which God has caused to flow from his tongue. Everyone possessed of spirit who considers with the eye of certitude will see that these verses are not within the capacity of a human being, but are, on the contrary, attributable solely to God, the One, the Single, He Who causes them to flow upon the tangue of anyone He pleases. He has never caused such verses to flow, nor will He ever make them flow, from anyone but the Point of the Divine Will, for He it is Who has despatched every Messenger and sent down every holy book.

If this had been something that could have been manifested by the power of a human being, someone would have brought forth a verse from the time of the revelation of the Qur'an until the time of the revelation of the Bayan - a period of one thousand, two hundred, and seventy years. But, even though all men desired to extinguish God's word with the exaltation of their own power, they were powerless and were incapable of doing so.

ln this day, if anyone ponders closely, he will certainly see that, from the beginning of the revelation of the Bayan to this moment, those who have confessed to the evidentiary nature of the verses, and who have carried them to all men, have been the proofs of God. Although it was not evident that they were proofs, the exaltation of their understanding is not hidden from anyone. For the lowliest student of the late Sayyid trod underfoot the most exalted of the scholars and philosophers upon the face of the earth. There can be no doubt in the mind of anyone concerning the elevation of the piety of those men who have recognized the evidentiary nature of the verses, whether they belonged to this school or not.

This is mentioned only in view of the weakness of men. Otherwise, the testimony borne by God can never be compared with that of all that are on earth. And there can be no doubt but that the testimony of God is only manifested through the testimony of that individual whom He makes His Proof. The testimony of the verses themselves is sufficient proof of the inadequacy of all that are on earth, for this is a proof that will remain constant on the part of God until the Day of Resurrection.

Should anyone consider the revelation of this Tree, he will without doubt testify to the exaltation of the cause of God, inasmuch as, for someone of twenty-four years of age and devoid of those branches of learning in which others are well-versed, to receive verses in this manner, with neither thought nor hesitation, and to write one thousand verses of devotions in the space of five hours, without lifting his pen from the page, and to reveal Quranic commentaries and scientific treatises in the highest degrees of gnosis and divine unity, when the divines and philosophers have confessed their inability to comprehend these matters, is unquestionably entirely the work of God. To what a degree do scholars who, from the beginning to the end of their lives, have exercised independent reasoning, take care over the writing of a single line of Arabie; yet, when all is said and done, their words are not fit to be mentioned.

All of this is for the sake of providing evidence to men. Otherwise, God's cause is too glorious and too exalted to be recognized through anything but itself. lndeed, all other things are themselves recognizewd through it. I swear by the essence of God, Who was and is alone in His singleness, that His words are brighter than the light of the sun at mid-day, and the words of those who have been guided by the exaltation of His guidance, should they attain to the highest rank of knowledge and understanding, are like the stars in the night.

Nay, I  ask forgiveness of God for such a suggestion. How can the ocean of eternity be grasped through the ocean of temporal existence, and how can the mention of the First be known through the mention of limitations? Praised be God and exalted be He above all the references that are made to Him within the kingdom of the earth and the heavens. All such references have been made with regard for the limited degrees of created things. Otherwise, this is what will be advanced as a proof on the Day of Resurrection (to corne), just as the same proof was advanced in this Resurrection. When God asked by the tongue of His Tongue, 'Whose Book is the Qur'an?', all those who believed in it said. 'it is the Book of God'. They were then asked, 'can you see any difference between the Qur'an and the Bayan?', and those possessed of hearts replied, 'No, by God! Both are from God. None but those possessed of clear vision shall take heed.' God, the Knowing, then revealed these words: 'The first (of these two books) was My word sent down by the tongue of Muhammad, the Messenger of God, and the second is My word sent down by the tongue of the Essence of the Seven Letters [= `Ali Muhammad containing 7 Arabic letters `+ l+ y +m +h +m +d], the Gate of God. Whosoever has believed in the first has no choice but to believe in the second, if he wishes to remain constant in faith. He must either believe in these verses or render his own reality and his own deeds valueless, as on the day when nothing was mentioned before God.' He then revealed the following: 'O My creatures, you strive to the full extent of your ability from the beginning to the end of your lives in order to attain to My good-pleasure. If you perform any secondary act, it is because I Myself revealed it in My Book. And if you have believed in the Imams of Guidance, or have sought nearness to Me by visiting their graves, it is because their names have been sent down in cipher in the Qur'an.

'If you testify to the prophethood of Muhammad, the Messenger of God, it is because he was My Messenger. And if you circumambulate the Ka'ba, it is because I called it My House. And if you hold the Qur'an in esteem, it is because it is My Word. Whatever action a man performs, even though he be of the community of Adam (the first Prophet), it is necessarily performed because of his relationship to Me, as he has understood within himself. Yet now he has become veiled, and has imagined things that are contrary to reality, and has failed to recognize My subsequent manifestations. For there is nothing whatever whose decree does not return to this human temple, which has been created at My command. And that temple returns by decrees until it reaches My Prophet. And My Prophet is only confirmed by a Book sent down on Him and a Proof granted unto him.

'Today, which is the Day of My revelation, in which I have appeared in person - and this mention of "in person" is like the mention of the word
"Ka'ba", which I called "My House"; otherwise, My Essence has neither beginning nor end, manifestation nor concealment - yes, today, whatever returns to this personage who recites My verses on My behalf, shall return to Me. And whatever faits to return to him, shall not return to Me. This is My appearance in My own persan and My concealment in My own Essence. For anything else is impossible in the realm of contingent being, nor can anything more exalted than this be expressed in words.

'How veiled you are, O creatures, that all of you imagine you enjoy My good-pleasure, through your relationship to me in your own places. Yet the Sign that is My token and that recites by My permission the verses of My power, whose treasuries are his true nature, you have unjustly placed upon a mountain, none of whose inhabitants is fit to be spoken of. With him - that is to say, with Me - there is only one other person , who is one of the Letters of the Living of My Book, and in front of him - that is to say, in front of Me - there burns in the night but a single lamp. Yet in the seats that by degrees return to him, innumerable lamps are shining, while all that are on earth, who were created for his sake, enjoy his benefits, although they are veiled from him to the extent of a single lamp.

'Thus do 1 bear witness in this day against My creatures, for the testimony of any other than Myself counts for nothing in My sight. There is
no higher paradîse for My creatures than that they should appear before Me and believe in My verses. Nor is any hellfire fiercer than the veiling of these creatures from the manifestation of My self or their failure to believe in My verses. If you should ask how he speaks on My behalf - do you not behold My verses? Are you no ashamed to repeat what you said in former days concerning My Book (the Qur'an)? And yet you have seen that My Book was confirmed and that today you are all believers in Me because of it. You shall soon see that your glory would reside in your belief in these verses, but today, when the demonstration of faith would benefit your souls, you have remained veiled by what neither benefits nor harms.

'No harm has befallen, nor can any befall the manifestation of My self. Any harm that has befallen and that shall befall (him) shall (in reality) return to your own souls. Have pity on yourselves, and soar into that heaven wherein you imagine My good-pleasure resides. While My good-pleasure has been realized through that proof whereby the religion of all men is confirmed, you have remained vailed by them that associate themselves with the Qur'an. I swear by My own holy Essence that there is no higher paradise for these creatures than my revelation and My verses, no is there any hellfire tiercer than being veiled from Me and My verses.

'If you should say, "our failure has not been demonstrated conclusively to us," why don't you travel the earth from East to West (and see the evidence)? And yet these words of Mine are meaningless, for in this day the truth of all that is on earth is referred back to the decree of
Islam. So, if the eloquent among (the people of) this decree have failed, it proves that all other men must have failed as well. 'If they should say, "We have not failed", why do they not produce a single verse resembling Our verses, out of innate capacity, and not through study or by stealing from one another? Although they ought to reveal whatever lies within them, alongside each and every truth, to the same degree demonstrated by the magicians in Moses's day, yet, God be praised, from the beginning of the revelation till now, not even that much
has been manifested by the learned men of this religion. They themselves daim that they are soaring in the heights of God's good-pleasure, whereas they are, in fact, veiled from that which confirms God through the verses of His power. This alone is sufficient to disgrace the divines of Islam, that, with respect to Islam, they show forth the learning of that faith, yet remain veiled from him whose word is its confirmation.

'Had they been content with their own condition of being wrapped in veils; had they done injustice to no other souls; and had they not decreed things that had not been sent down in the Qur'an - they would have cast nobody but themselves into hell. But both they and those that have considered them the learned ones of Islam, indeed ail men, have been and still are veiled from God's revelation. Yet the punishment of these others shall fall upon them too. Had they pondered upon the verses of God, they would have recognized their own powerlessness, and, in that case, neither the king of Islam nor they that dwelt beneath hîs shadow would have been content to be veiled from the truth, for the glory of all men resides in following the truth. Had the divines not caused them to go astray, matters would not have reached this point, for there can be no doubt that, in the end, God shall manifest the truth unto all men through His proof.

'Thus, in this day, should someone who associates himself with Islam, whether he be a state official of a divine, wish to confirm the evidentiary nature of the verses, he may do so in the twinkling of an eye. For, if he possesses the power to do so, he is capable of summoning all the divines together (in one place) and saying to them: "I remained veiled from him who is the Possessor of Verses, on account of your decrees. Now let the matter be put to the test: either you should produce a book yourselves, to compare with his verses. Or, if you are incapable of doing so, you should be content with the following verse, written in this connection: Praise be to Thee, 0 my God! You are the King of Kings. You grant dominion to anyone you wish, and you take it away from anyone you wish. You glorify anyone you wish, and you abase anyone you wish. You make victorious anyone you wish, and you bring defeat on anyone you wish. You bestow wealth on anyone you wish, and you cast into poverty anyone you wish. You make manifest anyone you wish to anyone you wish. ln your grasp is the kingdom of all things. You create whatever you wish by your command. You are, indeed, All-Knowing, Mighty, and Powerful.

'Speak as he has spoken, by your innate nature. And write as he has written, without hesitation and without lifting your pen from the page. But, if you cannot do so, that proves that what you have done was done unjustly, and that the Possessor of these verses is a truth from God. There is no doubt that God has sent these verses down on him, just as he sent them down (previously) on His Prophet. Verses like these have now been spread about among men to the number of one hundred thousand, apart from his epistles and prayers, or his scientific and philosophical treatises.

Within the space of five hours, one thousand verses are revealed by him, or else he dictates the verses of God as fast as the scribe beside him can write them down. You may use this as a basis on which to calculate Just how many of his writings would have been distributed by now, had he been given the liberty to do so.

'If you should say that these verses are not, in themselves, any sort of proof, take a look at the Qur'an. Were it the case that God demanded anything but the verses (of that book) as a means of proving the prophethopod of His Messenger, then you might well hesitate when it cornes
to these verses. But, on the contrary, God revealed the following words:

Only those who have disbelieved in Him dispute God's verses. Do not let their sudden fortune in the land catch you out. The people of Noah and then the Confederates cried 'lies!' before them; and every people plotted against its prophet in order to take violent hold of him, and they disputed (with him) by means of falsehood, hoping that they might refute the truth. So, I laid hold of them, and how great was My punishment! Thus was the truth of the Word of your Lord brought home to those who did not believe. They are now residing in hell.

'And He has also revealed the following verse, regarding the self-suficiency of the Book: ls it not enough for them that We have sent
the Book down upon you, that it may be recited to them? lt contains a mercy, as well as a warning for people who believe. Since God has
testified that the self-sufficiency of the Book consists in the verses in and of themselves, how can anyone say that the evidentiary nature of the Book is not an adequate proof of its truth?

'If someone should repeat what the people of former days said about the verses, there are two possibilities. lt may be that he is not setting
out to establish the truth at all; in that case, no proof will have any effect on him whatsoever, just as God has revealed: If they saw every sign
they would not believe in one of them or, again, Those against whom the Word of your Lord has corne to pass will never believe, not even if every sign reached them, until they catch sight of the severe punishment (that awaits them).

'If, on the other hand, he merely wants to be cautious in matters of religion - something which is quite understandable - than, in what
statement will they believe, if not in God and His verses? Either such a person should corne in person and ask whatever he wants about any subject, to be answered in the form of verses, so that he may hear for himself how the Source does not hesitate and does not compose artificially and does not consciously the order of the words he writes. Or he should send someone else, in order to sit with him [i.e. the Bab) for an hour and write down whatever he recites of God's verses, after which he may ponder on them until it is clear to him that they have not been put together by conscious thought or deliberate ordering of words, one after the other. If this had taken place from the beginning of the lslamic faith until the present day, it would have occurred with respect to the Qur'an, and from the beginning of this revelation until today someone would have challenegd me in precisely this way.

'Should someone criticize my use of vocalization or textual readings or Arabie grammar, I would reject their criticism. For such (grammatical) rules are based on the verses, not vice versa. lt cannot be doubted that he has rejected for himself all such rules and the learning that is based on them. lndeed, in the eyes of thinking people, no proof is greater than being ignorant of such rules, when ignorance is combined with
the ability to reveal such words and verses as these. This is because the fruit of these sciences is (real) understanding of God's Book, although it is quite unnecessary for the Tree on which the Book of Godin person has alighted to have the slightest knowledge of them.

'On the contrary, all the grammatical rules and the systems of vocalization are established by what God has revealed. How many individuals
there are who have acquired every conceivable form of learning, even though their faith (in God) is established through their faith in His verses, since the fruit of learning is to know the laws of God and nothing else, provided such knowledge is combined with conformity to His good-pleasure.

For, if the sciences (of Arabie grammar and syntax) were capable of bearing fruit purely by themselves, there would be more experts in that field among the Arabs than among the (Persian-speaking) lranians, wherever the fact is that the former lack any real distinction in this area. lndeed, distinction consists in obtaining God's good-pleasure, in knowing the nature of divine unity, and in dwelling beneath the shadow of His obedience and good-pleasure.

'There is no doubt that whatever they accomplish between Him and themselves, they have no aim other than to make themselves pleasing to Him. And yet few are aware of His good-pleasure, with the exception of those who are informed of the good-pleasure of him who is His Proof [i.e. the Bab]. ln this day, God's good-pleasure is confined to that of His Proof and of them who dwell in his shadow. Although other men imagine they are guided, yet whatever God bears witness to endures, whereas whatever is done by those who do not follow the divine command will become as nothing.

'ln the same way that mention is still made in this day of those people who called the Qur'an a lie in the early days of Islam, including Christian monks and the eloquent among the Arabs, in this day the mention of those who are shut out as though by a veil will also endure. Today, no-one can perform a more profitable action for himself than to look justly on the verses of the Bayan, so he may see the truth of God with the eye of certainty and may not remain veiled from the presence of the manifestation, whose presence is equivalent to the presence of God, and whose good-pleasure is God's good-pleasure. For all men have been created to this end, even as God has revealed: God it is Who has raised up the heavens without visible pillars, then seated Himself upon the Throne, and the sun and the moon, that each of them may run to an appointed decree. He controls the affair and makes clear the verses, that you may be sure of meeting your Lord (Qur'an ). No doubt is there that any mirror that should be placed in front of the sun will light up (with its reflection);otherwise the sun itself rises and sets again.

'The glory of all beings lies in their attainment to the fruit of their own existence - and that is for them to reach God's presence and to have faith in His verses. Otherwise, anything is worthless in itself. lt is this very tree that planted the tree of the Qur'an in the hearts of mankind
for the sake of this day; today all men pride themselves in it and glory in their relationship to it - yet they are doing what they are doing. This is the meaning of the words: No power nor strength is there save in God (Qur'an ) in the holy religion; otherwise, if men were to divest
themselves of this relationship - a relationship which actually has no reality - they would not have as muchas the strength of a housefly. This
is sufficient disgrace for those who are shut out as though by a veil, who commit what they commit by asserting this (spurious) relationship to Him, and who, instead of attaining to the fruit of their existence - which in this day means coming to his assistance [nusrat-i amr ) - have failed to help him at all.

'lndeed, they are not content with their failure to render him aid, for had they been content with that, this Tree would never have been placed upon this mountain. God is sufficient for all His servants. He shall issue a decisive decree, and His decree is that self-same decree that has been made manifest at this moment in these words, that shall distinguish until the Day of Resurrection between them that have turned towards Him and them that have failed to do so. Whatsoever things God decrees shall corne to pass. He is the Best of Helpers and the Best of Protectors, the Best of Guardians and the Best of Judges.'

Expository Notes Stephen Lambden

 
 ♦

II-II

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

Trans.  Denis MacEoin   (1990s   - 14 Jul 1997 18:23:04 +01 00 (BST)

In progress 2017.

The Second Chapter of the Second Unity.

Concerning this, that none shall comprehend fully what God has sent down in the Bayan, except those whom He wishes.

The substance of this chapter is that no-one shall grasp what God has revealed in the Bayan except him whom He shall manifest or him to whom He has given knowledge. This is just like the Tree from which the Bayan sprang forth [i.e. the Qur'an], for, were all the oceans of the heavens and the earth to become ink and were all things pens and all souls enumerators, even then they would be unable to provide an adequate interpretation of a single word from among all the words of the Bayan, for God has created neither a beginnîng nor an ending for any of His words.

None is permitted to interpret what God has sent down in the Bayan, other than to relate all the letters of paradise to him whom God shall
manîfest or to his Letters of the Living, and all the letters of hellfire to the gates of his inferno. For all the letters of paradise shall be resurrected beneath his shadow whîle all the letters of hell shall be raised up again in the shadow of rejection. What has gone before resembles what is yet to corne: there is no alteration in the Cause of God, just as what preceded what went before resembles what shall follow that whîch is yet to corne.

The whole Qur'an was one hundred and fourteen suras, and every six suras were sent down according to the exaltation of the station of each letter of the letter 'ln the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate' [Bism Allah al-Rahman al-Rahim ]. Thus, the first six suras were from the Point and the last six from the mim [?], and all the letters of paradise return unto these nineteen manifestations, while the letters of hell return to the nineteen manifestations of the gates of hell, just as all the gates of hell return to their first gate, in the same manner that all the gates of paradise return to their first gate - for ail of them are joined together in the phrase 'No god is there but God' (la ilaha illa 'llah ]: whatever belongs to the letters of hell is connected to the (words of) rejection [i.e. la ilaha ], and whatever belongs to the letters of paradise is connected to the (words of) affirmation [i.e. illa 'llah ]. All the letters of hell in the Qur'an were extinguished in the shadow of the first gate of hell, and all the letters of paradise in the Qur'an endured in the shadow of the word of affirmation. Thus does God cause to perish whatever He wills and thus does He cause to endure whatever He wishes. He, indeed, is Powerful, Mighty, and Strong.

lt is not permissible to interpret the Bayan other than in accordance with the interpretation given by its Tree [i.e. the Bab]. All its goodly words may be fittingly applied to the lights of the hearts of them that believe in it, while all its letters of hell may be construed as refrring to the realities of those who do not believe in it.

The Bayan has ever been and ever will be like the soul of a man who is alive; and all its letters of light and fire provide explanations of (what is in) the horizons and the souls of men. Thus, in this day, whoever wishes to make distinction [tamyiz dahad ] is able to do so, since this is the day of the appearance of God; but once the Tree has been uprooted [i.e. after the Bab's deathJ no-one shall be able to distinguish (matters) in
accordance with their reality, other than in the outward sense. He in whom the limits of God are no numbered [?] belongs to the letters of paradise, and he in whom they are numbered belongs to the letters of hell, that God may cause all created things to rejoice in that through the appearance of His own Self on the Day of Resurrection. Wherefore, the Point of the Bayan shall not decree at its end according to what was decreed at its beginning. Whoso believes in it is one of the letters of paradise. And whoso does no believe in it is one of the letters of hell. God shall dinstinguish in truth  between them both. He, indeed, is the best of distinguishers.

Matters have reached the point where there shall be no further mention of the letters of hell, except in the pages of the Book. The Tree
ogf Negation imagines itself to be one of the Letters of Paradise and curses itself, all the time unaware that it is doing so. (Things shall continue like this) until the Sun of Truth rises up; at that moment, his lack of true faith shall be revealed, for whoever lives during that resurrection shall see things with the eye of certitude. This is similar to the way in which all men in this day say 'we are believers in God and in
the verses of the Qur'an', whereas the Tree of Truth who actually sent the Qur'an down, dwells on this mountain with only a single companion.

Thus, at the time of the reappearance of the Sun of Truth, its realities have been uncovered and the veils that concealed it have been raised. Men who have had no thought other than to obtain the good-pleasure of God have issued decrees for actions that the pen is ashamed to mention, all directed against the Treasury of the divine good-pleasure, through whom alone God's good-pleasure is shown to men. Wherefore, 0 men of insight, take heed and fear God's command.

Expository Notes Stephen Lambden

II-III

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

Trans.  Denis MacEoin   (1990s   -  14 Jul 1997 18:23:09 +01 00 (BST)

In progress 2017.

The Third Chapter of the Second Unity

ln explanation of what is in the Bayan, there being within it the decree of all things.

The substance of this chapter is that God provides two proofs for all men: the divine verses and the individual to whom those verses are revealed. The first proof endures and remains visible until the Day opf resurrection, whereas the second is only manifest as long as the period of revelation lasts; during the period of concealment he is a proof unto all things while remaining known to no-one.

From the time of the setting of the sun, he has witnesses who guide men unto the abiding proof, which is the word of God [Bayan], so that they may act as proofs through his utterance until the day of his reappearance. But woe to them if, when he appears to them again, they should be veiled from the one for whom they acted as proofs. Even so, in this day, the divines have regarded themselves as arbitrators (hakam) on behalf of the Imam, according to the words of one of the imams: consider whosoever relates our traditions ; and they attribute to themselves unworthy names. Yet, if they were sincere in what they say, they would not have been veiled from the one through whose word bath the lmamate and the rank of Prophet have been confirmed. But, since they saw that the appearance of the truth conflicted with their position - according to the relationship which they themselves have decreed and which they have assigned to themselves - they went so far as to issue a decree against God, even though God has not revealed in the Qur'an anything more terrible than the one who was mentioned by the verses of God and yet turned aside from them.

No doubt is there that the verses of God are verses that shine forth from this Tree, for the Eternal Essence has ever existed in His state of singleness, whereas the verses are a matter for creativity, which is the work of the Primai Will, in whom none can be seen save God alone.
Although, in his day men do not look upon the verses of God, yet before long these same verses shall be recited in the most exalted manner and Bayans worth one thousand mithqals of gold shall be written; men shall pride themselves thereon and regard themselves as related to God. ln the same way, the Qur'an was revealed over a period of twenty-three years, yet there was no-one to write down the original text,
until the Prince of the Believers wrote it on the shoulder blades of sheep and other available tablets (alwah-i mumkina), as is mentioned in the
Tradition of the Cloak. And today one may see how innumerable Qu'rans are written, in values ranging from one thousand thousand (alf alf) to one thousand dinars, just as printed copies at this price are in the possession of most people. This is the limit of created beings (hadd-i khalq) in the eyes of God.

No doubt is there that God has made distinctions between all things in the most high degree, according to the abiding proof. Whosoever should say that there is something whose decree has not been revealed in the Bayan according to its proper state and station, such a man has, without any shadow of a doubt, failed to believe in it. For all things fall into one or two categories : they are either mentioned in the category of rejection or in that of affirmation. Whatever God does not like returns to the former in the first, and every true name in the second. This is the pivot round which all things form in the Bayan. Whoever testifies unto that, let him also bear wîtness that we have not neglected anythîng therein. God, indeed, encompasses all things.

There is no condition in which God has not decreed for the silent book a speakîng book. The latter would not exist but for the former, nor would the former exist but for the latter. He that does not transgress what is in the silent book, he is the speaking book. And the speaking book is he whom God shall manifest, unto whom all things return. If any man should refrain from passing beyond the limits set down in the Bayan, he is a servant who has obeyed him and who is a witness on his behalf before hîs appearance. But when he appears, faith shall be removed from all who possess it, save whomsoever believes in him. And if faith be cut off, how will testimony remain for men that are witnesses? For bearing witness is itself but an offshoot of faith. Wherefore, fear God, O witnesses, lest you should pass judgement against your Lord, even as they that are witnesses on behalf of the Qur'an passed judgement against me. Whoever passes judgement against me has but passed judgement against God his Lord. For such as here, God has but a ninth of a ninth of a tenth of a tenth of a goodly mention. Such are the transgressors.

Expository Notes Stephen Lambden

II-IV

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

Trans.  Denis MacEoin   (1990s   -   14 Jul 1997 18:23:14 +0100 (BST)

In progress 2017.

The Fourth Chapter of the Second Unity

ln explanation of the mention of the Letters of Paradise and the Letters of Hell.

The substance of this chapter is that God has not sent down any letter other than with its own spirit, which is connected to it. lt is for this reason that the believer rejoices in the mention of paradise and the good-pleasure of God, but is depressed by the mention of hell and God's
displeasure. And this is to such a degree that you might say the first (mention) is a cause of pleasure and the second a cause of pain.

All the words that God has sent down in the Bayan fall into two categories : They either belong to the words of paradise or to those of
hell. The spirits of the former are in paradise, while those of the latter are in the tire. All the letters of hell return to the phrase 'there is no
God', whereas all the letters of paradise return to the words 'save Him'. ln the same way, all the letters of hell originated from the first phrase,
whereas all the letters of paradise had their origin in the second. From eternity, the former have been raised up in the highest seats of paradise, while the latter have disappeared beneath the dust.

Similarly, if in this day someone should look upon the origin of the Tree of the Qur'an, he shall behold with certainty how the five letters of negation disappeared beneath the dust - these being the first, second, third, fourth and fifth. And how the five letters that lead unto affirmation were raised up in the highest place in paradise, these being Muhammad, 'Ali, Fatima, Hasan, and Husayn.

When the five words of tire are broken down into their separate letters, they are nineteen, as God has revealed: 'Over it are nineteen' (Qur'an 74:30). ln the same way, when the letters of the five names are split up, they make up the number of unity (i.e. 19 ). Just as the letters of hell return to this word, so do all the letters of paradise return to the word of affirmation.

God, the Knowing, has created negation and decreed the tire for it, and He has created affirmation and decreed paradise for it. For negation
does not give any indication of Him, whereas affirmation does. This refers to the bring into being of negation and affirmation within the natural realm (takwin); their existence in the realm of religion (tadwin) is on the same basis.

Whatever branched out from the word of negation has on the Day of Resurrection, returned unto it. Ali the letters of hell, together with the
spirits attached to them, have been raised up in the shadow of that same word. ln like manner, all that has branched out from the word of
affirmation has, on the Day of Resurrection, returned into it, and all the letters of paradise and the spirits attached to them have been raised up in its shadow. Whatever individual has entered into negation, shall remain in the divine tire until the day of him whom God shall manifest. But whoever has dwelt in the shadow of affirmation shall remain in the divine paradise until the day of him whom God shall manifest.

The exaltation of the servant consists in paying heed to what branches forth from these two words, how the one is endlessly made as nothing, and how the other is endlessly raised up. The proof of God is the same for both, for His verses are made clear to both. The manifestations
of negation having failed to accept them, they have been rejected, and the manifestations of affirmation having accepted them, they have been brought to dwell in the shadow of affirmation. No fire is fiercer than a manifestation of the word of negation, nor is any paradise greater than a manifestation of affirmation, for the letters of hell circle about the former, while the letters of paradise turn around the latter until all
shall return to him whom God shall manifest on the day of his appearance. Those that accept him shall belong to paradise, and if not, to hell.
Blessed be he that clings to the cord of God and relies upon his Lord, that he may not enter into hell, but may corne into paradise by his Lord's permission. That, indeed, is the mighty grace.

lt is for this reason that, when a servant recites the letter of paradise he is made content, for their spirits attach themselves unto him. This is the highest paradise of them that render God's praise, them that sanctify Him, them that proclaim His unity, them that magnify Him, and them
that extol His greatness. But if a servant should recite the letters of hell, he wishes for God's justice to descend upon them, for their spirits may attach themselves to him. He must take refuge at such times in God, glorified be His name, that he may be protected from their spirits. For everyone whom God in the Qur'an has promised paradise on the Day of Resurrection, He has caused to return to the tree of His love, which is the highest of the ranks of paradise, where they may attain unto His good-pleasure and take delight in conferring to His singleness. Whereas everyone whom God has promised hell, He has caused to return to the word of negation, wherein they have tasted their punishment, for there is no torment greater than to be shut out as by a veil from God and from faith in Him. But there is no paradise greater than belief in God and His verses.

Should anyone possessed of insight behold, he will see how the people of paradise have preceded the rest into heaven, even though their
food was no more than the leaf of a tree; whereas the people of hell have entered therein by their own consent, bringing with them those things (shu'un) in which they benefited from the word of negation, in which they pride themselves, and by which they are tormented in the fire, although they are unaware of that. Even as God has revealed: 'they eat a fire within their own interiors'. (Qur'an 4:10). ln this way, the letters of hell return to their own spirits, while the letters of paradise return to theirs.

There is no-one but that, should he mention the letter of paradise, the spirits of the angels connected to them shall at that moment, gaze upon him and bless him on behalf of God. But when someone mentions the letters of hell, should he do so out of love for them, the spirits of the satans of hell shall gaze upon him. If he does not seek refuge with God, they shall bring upon him whatever they are capable of, even if it be only a perturbation of the heart. But if he should seek refuge with God, and invoke his anger against them, they shall be unable to find any faith into him, nor shall they be able to have his faith even to the extent of nine ninths of ten tenths of a grain of mustard-seed.

Yet, it is as if 1 can see that the letters of negation shall, at the time of the appearance of him whom God shall manifest, seek refuge in negation, even though they are themselves its very source. At that time, none shall provide them with refuge from their own hell save he whom God shall manifest. For, at the moment when a servant says 'I take refuge with God', if he does not enter within the religion of the Bayan, he shall not be granted refuge from hell. Nay, he shall not pronounce those words except through his entry into the faith, even as those individuals who have not entered into faith in the Qur'an do not say it. For taking refuge with Gad means taking refuge with His proof. Whoever believed in Muhammed before this was granted refuge from the fire of God. Although the letters of hell themselves say these very words, it is of no benefit ta them, for they do not seek refuge with the Proof, an account of what Gad has revealed in the Quran : 'He who does not believe in God' ( 48:13) and joined to the word that follows it . And yet he reads the words themselves while failing to take heed of them. ln the same way, at the beginning of Islam, this phrase was interpreted as meaning the second, yet while he read the entire Qur'an, the manifestation of the sign of divinity was 'Ali, the Prince of the Believers. If he had taken refuge in him, he would have been saved from the words that follow it.

Thus it is that, until the day of him whom God shall manifest, all will seek refuge with God and with the Point of the Bayan, but when that
day cornes it shall not be of any benefit to them, for on that day taking refuge with God will mean taking refuge with him (whom he shall manifest), and taking refuge with the Point of the Bayan will be the same. Even as, from the beginning of the appearance of this tree, all have uttered the words '1 seek refuge with God', and yet they are dwelling in the midst of hell, save those whom God has willed, who have recognised the manifestation of His name and, having taken refuge with him, have been preserved from the absolute fire.

Otherwise, everyone says these word unnumbered times every day, and yet here can be no salvation for him, for God has associated the taking of refuge with him with seeking refuge in His Messenger, and linked his latter with seeking refuge [p. 27) in his Successors , and linked this again with seeking refuge in the Gates of his Successors . The first of these is of absolutely no benefit without the last, nor is the outward of any use without the inward. For taking refuge in the Messenger is identical to taking refuge in God, and seeking refuge with the Imam is identical to seeking refuge with the Messenger, and taking refuge in the Gates is identical to taking refuge in the Imams. ln this day, whoever enters into the Bayan shall be granted refuge from hell, just as the letters of the Gospel were not granted refuge from it unless they entered the letters of the Qur'an. The letters of paradise from among the letters of the Bayan shall remain in heaven until the day of him whom God shall manifest, while its letters of hell shall be in their own stations. When his day cornes, whoever enters into his book shall be saved from the tire, or else his continuing in the Bayan shall prove of no benefit to him whatsoever, just as remaining in the Gospel was of no benefit to the letters thereof after the revelation of the Qur'an; and the same was true of the letters of the Qur'an after the revelation of the Bayan. And the letters of paradise shall progress in the highest exaltation unto whatsoever God desires. And the letters of hell shall be rejected to
the limit of their non-existence. Blessed be he that gives his heart nourishment from the letters of paradise. And should the letter of hell be
mentioned, let him take refuge with God, his Lord, who shall render him sinless. They that make mention must, of necessity, refer to them, but the mention of them shall not harm them. Even so did they that believed in the Qur'an mention them that had been given the earth before them. Thus does God make clear the signs that you may be confident in the verses of God.

II-V

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

Trans.  Denis MacEoin   (1990s   -  Before  14 Jul 1997 18:23:14 +0100 (BST)

In progress 2017.

The Fifth Chapter of the Second Unity.

Concerning this, that every good name sent down by God in the Bayan refers to him whom God shall manifest, in the primary reality, and every evil name sent down by God in the Bayan refers to him who shall in that day be the Letter of Negation confronting him, in the primary reality.

The substance of this chapter is that every goodly name that has been sent down in the Bayan refers to him whom God shall manifest, in the
primary reality. Then, in the secondary reality, it refers to the first to believe in him, and so on until the furthest limits of existence. Thus, where the earth has been mentioned, the meaning is the earth of his person, and so on down until it reaches the earth of dust which is related to him and wherever he dwells, which constitutes the highest chamber of paradise in the Book of God. ln the same manner is this true of every evil name, that has been sent down in it (the Bayan). ln the primary reality, it refers to the tree that has been rejected before him. And if there should be a mention of 'earth' [p.28] in a context relating to hell, its meaning is the earth of his person, and so on down until it reaches the earth of dust which is his abode, which is the uttermost limit of hell, in the earth of hell, even though there should rest upon it a throne of glory.

ln the same way, whatever goodly mention was sent down by God in the Qu'ran, in its primary reality it is a reference to the Messenger of
God, whereas every inauspicious mention is a reference to the first Negation, which stood face to face with the first Affirmation. If there
was any mention of the earth of paradise, it was a reference to his person, and so on down to the earth of dust which was the abode of his physical body. Ali of these things refer back to the Qa'im of the Family of Muhammad, on whom be peace, for whatever goodly mention there may be in the Qur'an is a reference to him in the primary reality, even as in the Bayan such mention is interpreted as him whom Gad shall manifest. And whatever ill mention was revealed in the Qu'ran, even though it was just a reference to the earth, was a reference to the earth of the persan of him who was the first to fail to recognise him. ln the same manner that this was realised in the Qur'an, so it has been confirmed before God in the Bayan. Whatever goodly name resides in the knowledge of God is a reference in the primary reality to the Point of the Will, and its opposite refers to him who did not recognise him.

ln this manner, whatever mention has been made of the earth within the realm of existence returns in this day to the Point of the Bayan, so that it may descend from the earth of the heart to the earth of the spirit, and from the earth of the spirit to the earth of the soul (nafs), and from the earth of the soul to the earth of the body Uasad), and from the earth of the body unto all things, the nearer relating ta the nearer, until it finally reaches that earth situated above the mountain, which is but three feet by four: this is, at this moment the essence of all the physical earths. If the place whereupon he sits should be altered, then the situation would likewise alter (in this respect), until he should dwell
where there is no alteration.

lt is likewise in the shadow of the (letters of) paradise, letter for letter, point for point. This is the most exalted earth of paradise (al-ridwan), and that is the lowest earth of hell; 1 seek refuge with God from what He does not love, and 1 beg of Him all that He loves - He, indeed, is the Gracious, the Bountiful.

The goodly names of the Qur'an from the Prophet onwards gradually shone forth in their degrees in each one of his successors. And it was the same with the names of hell, until the highest exaltation of the earth of paradise attained to the place of the martrydom of the Prince of Martyrs (Husayn), while the lowest earth of hell reached the place of the dominion of him that opposed him (Yazid). Thus was it decreed by God. And thus is His decree put into operation in the manifestation of each one of the proofs of God.

ln this day, all the goodly names are, in the prîmary reality, contaîned in the person of the Point, even the mention of the earth, whîch was used as an analogy. And in the second reality, they are contained in the letter Sin, and so on to the furthest limit of existence. Wherefore,
fear God, 0 you people, all of you together.

Expository Notes Stephen Lambden

II-VI

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

 

Trans.  Denis MacEoin   (1990s   -  Before  14 Jul 1997 18:23:14 +0100 (BST)

In progress 2017.

I shall here and there insert transliteration and clarificatory comments in square brackets [ ] also offering occasional endnotes of exposition or commentary.  Stephen Lambden 2017...

The Sixth Chapter of the Second Unity

Concerning this, that the Bayan is the balance [mizan =  measure, standard, balance] on the part of God until the day of him whom He shall manifest. Whoever follows him is light, and whosoever turns away from him is fire.

The substance of this chapter is that the Bayan is the balance of God until the Day of Resurrection, which is the day of him whom God shall
manifest. Whoso acts in accordance with whatsoever is therein is in paradise and he shall be resurrected beneath the shadow of Affirmation and the letters of Paradise. But whoso turns aside, be it even to the extent of a grain of barley is in hell and shall be resurrected beneath the shadow of Negation.

This same concept was likewise made manifest in the Qur'an, for in numerous places God has revealed that whoso decrees other than what God has sent down is an infidel (kafir). Whatever returns to that word belongs to its degrees. The decree of someone who transgresses the decree of God is thus. How, then, shall he be should he transgress against the very person of God's own appearance? For God has revealed : `I have not created jinn and men but that they should worship Me.'

No doubt is there that obedience is unacceptable except through obedience to the Proof of God. Had that not been so, then the deeds of them that showed enmity towards the People of the House would have been mentioned before God, whereas in this day, all decree that none should worship them, nor have their deeds borne any fruit. ln this way, the non-Shi'is today act in accordance with the decrees of the Qur'an, whereas, since they have turned aside from the lmamate (vilayat), these deeds are worthless in the sight of God.

But today there are few who act in accordance with the balance of the Qur'an, indeed one can only see men whom God has willed (so to act).
And if there should be such a person, if he faits to enter within the balance of the Bayan, then his piety shall not be of the least benefit to
him, even as the piety of the monks of the Gospel (alif) did not benefit them when they clung to it as their balance on the appearance of the
Messenger of God. Had they acted according to the balance of the Qu'ran, such decrees would not have been issued concerning the tree of truth. 'The heavens might almost cleave apart [at that minhu omitted], and the earth split asunder, and the mountains collapse in tiny pieces' (19:90). Their hearts are harder than these mountains, for they are not at all affected.

There is no paradise more exalted in the eyes of God than to be in His good-pleasure [p.30). Praised be He that, in this day, this bounty is
restricted to the people of the Bayan. Hereafter, whoso does not transgress its limits shall remain in this bounty until the day of him whom
God shall manifest. But if - 1 seek refuge with God - he should turn aside, he shall have harmed only his own self. God is independent of all
the worlds. At the beginning of his revelation, the whole of the Bayan is (simply) obedience to him and to none other, in the same way that the whole religion of the day of the Gospel at the time of the appearance of the Prophet of God was to follow him and not to remain in one's own balance. For, in that case, the decree of falsehood would be passed against remaining therein. Whosoever is guided, (he is guided) for his own self; and whoever remains, remains veiled, that rests upon his own self. God is independent of all the worlds.

Expository Notes Stephen Lambden

 

II-VII

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

Trans.  Denis MacEoin   (1990s   -  Before  14 Jul 1997 18:23:14 +0100 (BST)

In progress 2017.

I shall here and there insert transliteration and clarificatory comments in square brackets [ ] also offering occasional endnotes of exposition or commentary.  Stephen Lambden 2017...

The Seventh Chapter of the Second Unity.

Concerning the explanation of the Day of Resurrection.

The substance of this chapter is that the meaning of 'the Day of Resurrection' is the day of the appearance of the Tree of Reality. lt is clear that none of the adherants of the Shi'i sect have understood (the meaning of) the Day of Resurrection. On the contrary, they have all vainly
imagined something that possesses no reality in the eyes of God. The meaning of 'the Day of Resurrection' in the sight of God and in the
terminology of the people of truth is that, from the moment of the appearance of the Tree of Reality in every age and in every name, until the
time of its disappearance, constitutes the Day of Resurrection.

Thus, for example, from the day on which Jesus was sent ( by God) until the day of his Ascension was the Resurrection of Moses, for the revelation of God was manifest during that period through the revelation of that Reality, who rewarded by his words everyone who was a believer in Moses and punished by his words everyone who did not believe in him. For whatsoever God had witnessed in that age (of Moses) is what He witnessed in the Gospel. And from the day on which the Messenger of God (Muhammad) was sent until the day of his death ('uruj-i an} was the Resurrection of Jesus, for the Tree of Reality was manifest in the (human} temple of Muhammad, who rewarded all who believed in Jesus and punished by his words all who did not believe in him.

Similarly, from the time of the appearance of the Tree of the Bayan until its disappearance in the Resurrection of the Messenger of God, which
was promised by Godin the Qur'an. For it began when two hours and eleven minutes had passed on the night of the fifth of Jumada 1 of the year one thousand two hundred and sixty ( 1260), which is the year one thousand two hundred and seventy from the beginning of (Muhammad's} mission. This was the beginning of the resurrection of the Qur'an, and it will last until the disappearance of the Tree of Reality, [p.31] for, until a thing has attained the stage of perfection, it cannot be resurrected. The perfection of the religion of Islam took until the beginning of the revelation, and from then until the time of disappearance the fruits of the tree of Islam will be manifested, whatever they may be.

The Resurrection of the Bayan will take place on the appearance of him whom God shall manifest, for today the Bayan is in a state of seed, but
at the beginning of the revelation of him whom God shall manifest, the Bayan will be in the final stage of perfection. lt will become apparent
that the fruits of the trees that were planted are to be plucked, just as the revelation of the Qa'im of the Family of Muhammad is identical to the revelation of the Messenger of God hiumself; but this does not become apparent except through the plucking of the fruits of Islam from the Qu'ranic verses that were planted in the hearts of men. This plucking of the fruit of Islam consists only in faith in him and affirmation of his truth, and yet the only fruit that has been given has been in the contrary sense.

He manifested himself in the very heart of Islam, where all declare themselves Muslims through their relationship to him. Yet they have brought him without any right to dwell on the mountain of Maku. And this despite the fact that, in the Qur'an, God promised all men that the Day of Resurrection would corne, for that is a day whereon all shall be presented before God, which means their being presented before the Tree of Reality; and all shall attain to the presence of God, which means his presence. This is because men cannot be presented before the Most Holy Essence, nor is it possible to conceive of entering into its presence. What is possible in terms of presentation and meeting refers to the primal Tree.

God has established the clay (tin-ra) as His own House (i.e. the Ka'ba) so that whoever presents himself on the Day of Resurrection before the Tree of Reality shall not regard himself as far removed from admitting that he has been presented before God or from meeting with Him through entering into his presence.

A ninth of a ninth of a tenth of a tenth of a moment in the Day of Resurrection is better than years spent between resurrections, for the fruit of more years shall be manifested upon the Day of Resurrection. ln this way, the fruit of the one thousand two hundred and seventy years of
Islam will appear from the beginning of this revelation until its end, which is the beginning of the setting of the Sun of Reality. The fruits of
the period from the beginning of this revelation until the revelation of him whom God shall manifest shall return to the next resurrection, which is his appearance.

0 people of the Bayan! Have mercy on yourselves, and do not render worthless your long night when the day of resurrection appears, even as was done by those who remained veiled among the people of the Qur'an. For one thousand two hundred and seventy years they prided themselves on (being believers in) Islam, and yet, when the day came when the fruit was to be plucked, which was the Day of Resurrection, the decree of unbelief in Islam was passed against them [p.32). They were rendered worthless by this decree until the next resurrection.

How many individuals have undergone mortification from the beginning of their lives and have striven earnestly for the good pleasure of God, and have taken pride in their dreams if they beheld the Qa'im of the Family of Muhammad in them. And yet, now that he has appeared in the
revelation of God, which is the most manifest of revelations, bringing the verses and explanations upon which the religion of Islam is established, they do not present themselves before God, nor do they manifest the fruit of their faith, nor do they arise unto that for which they were created, and they even issue decrees against him through whom they turned to God by night and by day, saying 'Thee do we worship' . If they only contented themselves with that, but they do not. On the contrary, they desire to cause distress unto the Friends of God.

0 people of the Bayan! Do not commit what the people of the Qur'an have committed, in rendering worthless the fruits of your might. If you are believers in the Bayan, at the time of the appearance of his verses say: 'God is our Lord, with whom we associate no-one. This is what God promised us of the manifestation of His own self. We call upon none beside Him.' Obey him in whatever you do, for then you shall have manifested the fruit of the Bayan. If you do not do so, you shall be unworthy of mention before God. Have mercy on yourselves! If you do not arise to aid the manifestation of Lordship, do not, at least, cause him any sadness, for he shall manifest himself much as 1 manifested myself, and he shall cause the creation of the Bayan to return to life. Yet you have in your hearts considered nothing but (the possibillity) of your own faith (in him). Hasten to respond to God and to affirm the truth of his verses, for that wil be to respond to him whom God shall manifest and to affirm the truth of his words. Let not yourselves be veiled from your beloved by anything whatsoever, for if a decree should issue forth from his utterance it will last until the Day of Resurrection, and through it the people of paradise shall enjoy its pleasures, while the people of hell shall be tormented in it.

ln this day, which is the Day of Resurrection, the locus of the distinction of (men's) fate (mahall-i fasl-i qada) resides upon this mountain. All do what they do, imagining that it is done for his good-pleasure, yet they accept for him what they would not accept for their own selves. Should you enter into a covenant with God that you will not accept for anyone anything but what you would accept for yourselves, maybe
in the next resurrection, even if you don't attain to God's presence, you will not bring sadness upon His sign. [p. 33] lt would pass beyond even the benefit of all that believe in the Bayan were you to avoid bringing harm upon him - and yet 1 know that you will not do so. Even so have I , in this resurrection, passed beyond the benefit of them that believe in the Qur'an, but you have not avoided doing me harm. There is no hell tiercer for you before God than that you should turn through me towards God by night and by day, while decreeing for me what you would no accept for yourselves. God shall judge between me and you in truth. He, indeed, is the best of judges.

Expository Notes Stephen Lambden

II-VIII

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

 

Trans.  Denis MacEoin   (1990s   -  Before  30 Jul 1997 21 :42:48 +01 OO (BST).

In progress 2017.

I shall here and there insert transliteration and clarificatory comments in square brackets [ ] also offering occasional endnotes of exposition or commentary.  Stephen Lambden 2017...

The Eighth Chapter of the Second Unity

ln explanation of the reality of death, that it is a reality.

The substance of this chapter is that there are in the sight of God, unnumbered meanings of "death", which none but He can remunerate. One of these meanings in outward terminology is the death that all men shall taste, which takes place at the time when the spirit is taken away from the human soul. Whatever meaning is given to death before God is true.

But the "death" to the truth of which all are obliged to testify is not this death which is well known to men, but rather that death in the presence of the tree of reality (which involves dying to) all save him. This death is established only in five degrees : either the phrase there is no God but He (la ilaha illa huwa) or there is no God but I (la ilaha illa ana) or, there is no God but God (la ilaha illa 'llah), or there is no God but thee (la ilaha illa anta) or, there is no God but He in whom all are confident (la ilaha illa 'lladhi kullun bihi mawqinun). The reality of death is that at the time of the appearance of the Tree Of Oneness, unto whom these five degress belong, all beings die, whether by negating negation or affirming affirmation. Even if the oceans of the heavens and the earth and what lies between them were ta become ink, it would not be sufficient to recount all that lies hidden in this subtle mystery.

The essence of the matter is that who so possesses no will but the will of him who God shall manifest, and no volition but his volition, and no
destiny but his destiny, and no fate but his fate, and no premition but his premition, and no time appointed but his time appointed and no book but his book, such a man has at that moment understood the meaning of death. For his will is the essence of the will of Gad, and his volition the essence of the volition of God, and his destiny the essence of the destiny of God, and his fate the essence of the fate of Gad, and his premition the essence of the premition of Gad, and his appointed time the essence of the appointed time of Gad, [p.34] and his book the essence of the book of God.

Likewise, in the case of the point of the Bayan, who sa died testified that death is a reality otherwise what he had read of the Quran and of prayers would have been on no benefit to him. How many individuals said that death was a reality, and yet their wills were not his will, sa that they became worthless and the falsity of their words was made manifest in the sight of God. And so it continued until it reached the degree of the book, so that his book, which is identical to the book of God, was sent down upon those individuals who regarded themselves as the most learned of their age. The pen is ashamed to mention what they committed, and yet by night and by day they said death is a reality and acted in accordance with his previous book and proclaimed themselves as believers in the face of Islam, and expended their knowledge, and took hold of whatever God had decreed for him in the Qur'an, through the relationship which they claimed for themselves (with God?), but which had, in fact, been severed. And all the time their very breaths were not lawful for them, for they did not draw them out of faith in God. Such is the fruit of knowledge of the book of God that is not accompanied by action. As they understood (the meaning of) death, they were not of opposed their own confession, for they confess that it is a reality, yet remained veiled from the conditions of him through whom that reality is itself made real. This is that very death that benefits all men upon the day of resurrection and afterwards in the interworld (Barzakh), until the reappearance of the Son of Reality. The term "interworld" refers to (the period) between two revelations and not to the popular meaning related to the condition of men after their physical death. This latter (i.e. their fate after death) is not a matter (the knowledge of which) has been imposed on men as a duty (by God), for, after their deaths, God alone knows what shall be their destiny but they are obliged to know that in which they believe. Should anyone voyage upon the ocean of death, he shall become wondrous things that are neither number nor end. Thus, for example, had someone died in the days of the messenger of God, he would have beheld all the conditions relating to who so did not believe in Mohammed : from the world of pure abstraction (tajarrut) to that of limitation (tahaddud), they are nothing but absolute negation and the essence of hell fire. (And he would have beheld) all the conditions relating to who so believed in the Muhammad : from the world of pure abstraction to the furthest limits of (the realm of) limitation, they are the conditions of the Tree of Affirmation and the Paradise of Prophet hood. The first of these was not dead but the second was but because the second had not died he had passed into nothingness within negation, whereas, since the second had died, he had endured in affirmation. So, in this day there has been manifested the fruit of the deaths of them that believe [p.35] in the degree to which they mention is loved by God and by his creation that believes in him. All the believers in this day originate from the multiplication of such as them. (Also manifest) is the fruit of the failure of the unbelievers to die, in that no mention whatever is made of them. And should the numbers be multiplied, those who would be thus produced would not be pleased with such a relationship and would even declare themselves free of any connection with them. Or, in this day, should they utter falsehoods against the primai tree their very words shall seek to be free of them and shall demand God's punishment upon them.

When, in the year 1270 (i.e. 1260), just as the Tree of Reality had advanced so had they (the unbelievers) become lower and even more severe
(in their disbelief). But, since the manifestations have become numerous, only the Proof that is manifested (directly) on the part of God is able to distinguish between them, for he recognises all things in their own places and should he wish to distinguish between an atom of hell and an atom of paradise, he is able to do so.

Should unworthy thoughts concerning the point of the Bayan enter the mind of anyone, at that very instant he shall not be decreed as dead. The matter is as delicate as that - nay, it is even more delicate. None shall take heed save they that are possessed of insight. The signification of death is valid from the essence of the exultation of God's singleness down to the furthest degree of limitation, to such an extent that, should someone find a letter "B" or an "A" should have been written, and should he proceed to remove the "B" and write the word correctly such an action is a deed of the angel of death for he is manifest in it but if he leaves things as they are, the letter "B" shall cease loosely, call upon God, its Lord, saying : "take my spirit from me and cause me to live". And, if God should wish to answer its prayer, he shall inspire one of his holy ones to take from the letter its spirit as a "B" (  ) and to give it the spirit of an "A" ( ) whereupon it will be possible to read the word for before that its meaning had been altered. Thus, after the word "Allah", the word "A'zam" (greater) requires an "A", but, if it is written with a "B" the meaning will not be apparent. The same holds true in every general and every particular interest as the people of insight are aware.

Even if there were to be found on this paper a tiny mention of non whiteness, were you to erase it that would be a death wherein would lie the life of this tablet. ln its own degree, this is the same as removing from a man's soul something that causes harm to his faith. Should someone who does not believe in God possess a tablet, he who says "I am dead" must be dead to it, nor should he pay any attention to it, for it belongs to the degrees of hellfire and rests therein. But if he should behold a tablet in the possession of one who believes in God, [p.36] he must preserve it as he preserves his own self, or it belongs to the degrees of light. This is a matter of which, at the same moment that it is more manifest than any revelation, is more hidden than any concealment.

Who so understands death is eternally dead in the presence of God, for he wishes only what God wishes, and that is to die in the presence of the point of the Bayan, for that which God wills may only be manifested through his will. This is the reality of death unto who so has desired to die in God. God is not created in the world of existence anything more glorious than death with him.

All believe that their will is the will of him whom Gad shall manifest, but when he appears they will not remain faithful to their love and to their word. ln the same way, those w ho believed in the Qur'an convince themselves that, if Muhammed were to return to this world, they would not respond to his words by saying "why" or "wherefore". But he did return in a more exultant manner than that of his first appearance which was his "second creation" ( ) after his "first creation", whereupon all who said "Muhammed is the messenger of God" remained veiled from him and failed to believe in him. They did not even accept for him what they accept for their own selves concerning their relationship to Islam. Had they accepted even that, they would not have committed what they committed, for that is what no Muslim would accept for another Muslim. This is the state of men in the eyes of God.

His prophethood is confirmed in this day are the same things whereby it was confirmed previously and yet all were unveiled from him. The number of those who relate themselves to his faith can't be computed, and yet when he returns the believed in him only those whom God willed, until there appeared what appeared. For them that had failed to recognise him, there is no hell fiercer than their condition of being veiled from him who made Islam their religion and mainly for Qur'an their book. There is no honour for anyone in the next life unless he has attained to the presence of his Lord and spread abroad hîs messages and detached himself from all but him, so far as he was able. This is an honour whereon all pride themselves.

If someone should say "we did not recognise him at the beginning of his revelation", it will be replied that "it has been confirmed before all men that he was the first to respond in the world of pre-existence (fi '1-dharr), when God said unto him "Am 1 not your Lord?" and he replied
"Yes. Praised be thee. No God is there but thee; thou, indeed, art the Lord of all worlds'". And if they should say 'we did net recognise the
revelation of God', (it would be pointed out that) the Qur'an, which is the book of God, and which all declare in this day to be the book of God, is in the possession of ail men. As soon as they heard or saw the diverses of God have been revealed by a certain persan, no doubt or uncertainty remained for the possessors of intellect that that individual was the manifest of persan of God and that the previous verses had been (revealed) by him, even if the later verses were his. [p. 37]

The first to respond îs the first of created beings, even as was said in the past, that the first to respond was Mohammed, who was the first to be created. So ail in this day confess that, if they say that the response took place in the world of pre-existence, this is that same world, for the realm above the throne of heaven is identical to the earth on which the manifestation of God dwells. From eternity God has regarded his nearness to his creation and his distance from them as being the same. No single thing is nearer to him than any other thing, nor is anything further removed from him than any other, whether it be the throne that rests above the heavens, as the possessors of fantasies claim, or the dwelling place of the tree that speaks forth on behalf of God. This belief [that some are nearer and some further] is pure fancy and imagination. ln the terminology of them that dwell among the concourse of reality, the meaning (of the throne) is that same place of revelation [i.e. the body of the manifestation]. ln the same way, all say, when they perform the pilgrimage to (the shrinal) the Prince of Martyrs [Husayn), those words that are written in the tradition : "who so visits Husayn with a full understanding, it is as if he has visited God upon his throne". lt is manifest to the possessors of intelligence that that is the very locus of the throne of God, and that he is the throne of Mohammed, the messenger of God. lt is as if no-one has been observed to progress beyond the world of limitations. Whatever is heard concerning all the worlds is realised within this world. Thus, for example, the Prince of Believers ('Ali), on whom be peace, became the first to believe in Mohammed within this world. This is an evidence that he was a believer in all the worlds. Ali these latter are made real beneath the shadow of this world and to manifest here before them that are possessed of intelligence. Blessed be he who beholds all things in their reality and does not imagine a fanciful matter that has no reality in the eyes of God or of them that possess intelligence. The outward appearance of the divine essence has ever been and ever shall be identical with its concealment and its concealment identical with its outward appearance.
Whatever is mentioned concerning the "appearance" of Gad (Zuhur Allah) refers to the Tree of Reality, which is a token of none but him. That is a tree which has been and is responsible for sending forth all the divine messengers and causing all the books to descend. He has been and ever shall be the throne of God's revelation and concealment in the world of creation. ln every age, Gad has manifested him in accordance with his own desire, just as at the time of the revelation of the Qur'an, he revealed his power through the manifestation of Mohammed. Likewise, at the time of the revelation of the Bayan, he revealed his power through the point of the Bayan, and he shall affirm his religion through him whom he shall manifest at the time of his appearance, as he wishes, for what he wishes, unto what he wishes.

He it is [p.38) who has been with all things, although nothing has been with him; and he it is who is within nothing nor is he above anything, nor is he with anything. What has been mentioned concerning his seating himself upon the throne (Qur'an ) refers te the seating of his manifestation of his power, and not this physical throne which is a chair or a seat set above the earth or the crystalline sphere (falak-i atlas) or
the sphere of the throne within the heavens.

He has been and ever shall be without beginning or end, and none has known or every shall know him, for all save him have been created by his command and shall be created thereby. He is exalted above every mention and station, and sanctified above every description and likeness. Nothing can comprehend him, but he comprehends all things. ( ) lndeed, the words nothing can comprehend him refer to the mirror of his revelation, which is he whom he shall manifest. [or "whom he manifests".] He is too glorious and too exalted for any indicator to point towards him.

He whom he shall manifest is the first being whom he created, and any mention of his Heart refers to his heart. Both he and his heart were
created by him from all eternity, God was Lord with none over whom to exercise his Lordship; from eternity God was a divinity with none to
worship him as such; from eternity, God was powerful, was none over whom to exercise his power; from eternity, God was knowing, with none whom he might know; from eternity God was single, with none to be numerated besides him. These last words, "from eternity, God was single, with to be enumerated besides him" apply to the time when, in the revelation of him whom God shall manifest the number of unity (i.e. 19) will have placed a faith in him and made their hearts tokens of his singleness (wahdaniyyat) - none shall be enumerated save them. All (other) names and attributes are the same. Do not gaze upon the limitations, for from all eternity, God was single.

If you have not attained to servitude concerning this is revelation, you do at least confess to the truth of the first revelation (i.e. of Muhammad), and you behold all names and attributes in the Messenger of God. If you should wish to say He is the King, you will see that there are those in his community who consider themselves his servants, and yet the sovereignty of his own self is exalted above being mentioned in the same breath as this king {Muhammad Shah?). And if you should wish to say he is powerful, you will behold the possessors of might dwelling beneath the shadow of obedience unto him and priding themselves in the confession that they belong to his community. And yet the power of his own essence is exalted above any connection with this power. And if you should wish to say He is knowing, you will see them that are possessed of knowledge priding themselves on the relationship to him, [p.39] and yet the knowledge that belongs to his essence is exalted above any connection with even the most learned of these scholars. And if you should wish to say He is a judge you will see a great many possessors of judgement who pride themselves on ruling beneath the shadow of his decree. And yet the judgement of his role of nature is exalted above any connection with the manifestations of these judges who rule on his behalf. Look with your own eye in the same manner upon all the names and attributes. At the moment when uncertainties "knowing", there is, nevertheless, none who knows but he. Or if he has power in a certain matter, there is, nevertheless, none with power but he. For in every revelation, that which guides men to that revelation are his conditions. Thus, for example, should you consider from the first revelation, which was that of the first Adam, and to the end which has no end, you will behold nothing possessed of existence save through God nor will you be able to recognise the manifestation of divinity except through the tree of his revelation which is the Primai Will. Nothing else is possible within the contingent realm.

This is the meaning of the words of the Prince of Martyrs, upon who we peace? "O my God, I have realised through the diversity of things and the shifting of conditions that your intention with me is to make yourself known to me in all things, that I may not remain ignorant of you in anything." For this is the fruit of the existence of all things that one should regard all things as coming into existence (Qa'im) through the
primai will, and that one should not behold at anything art else but the manifestation of God, in accordance with the capacity of the thing which is the bearer of his self revelation. This (difference of capacity) part, the relationship of God's revelation is the same to any one thing as to another. One kind of revelation consists of the verses of God; and from that same source out of which the divine verse is issued concerning the prophet hood of a prophet, there are also sent down concerning his opponent, according to what is fitting. The relationship of these two
revelations to these two things (i.e. the prophet and his opponent) is exactly the same, except that the first belongs to the highest rank of
affirmation, whereas the second is of the lowest evasement of negation. If you have observed this truth in the revelation of (mere) words, then you shall also behold it realised in the revelation of the actuality. I do not mean to suggest that you can see the essence of God in everything, for that would be impossible, since he, may his mention be praised, is exalted above being contained within anyone thing or being connected with it or preceding it, or following it, or being above it or beneath it. That unto which the quality of being a "thing" may correctly be applied is God's will (mashiyyat) which subsists through its own self. From ail eternity unto all eternity all names have been beneath its shadow, while it itself dwells in the shadow of God.

The station of the will is that of the point of the Bayan, for there is not manifest within anything ought but (p.40] one of the conditions of his
revelation. He who speaks these words does not intend by them that the essence of the (divine) will may be seen in everything, which essence is that of the Messenger of God, but rather that within everything one may see how its quality of being an existent thing is realised through that essence. For example, if someone should expend 1000 mithqals of gold in travelling to the house of God, in such an action nothing may be seen but the command issued by the Messenger of God on God's behalf. ln this same way, if you should ask, "how was the true nature of the gold brought about?" it must refer back to a command, which in its turn refers back to the tree of reality, even though it be in only one of its manifestations.

For there is nothing which can be termed a "thing" except by being made truly a thing through the will. This latter is self subsistent in God, may he be praised and glorified. lt is the circling kaf (i.e. the first letter of the creative word kun, "be"), which from all eternity revolves about its own self. lt has been and is a token of God alone, praised and glorified be he, who possesses the most beautiful names in the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and what lies between them. No God is there but he the mighty, the beloved.

Every name possesses a referent to which it applies. If, for example, one should say God, praise be he and glorified, then he must have to loci of manifestation which are mentioned before the Primai Will, and which have from ail eternity been established as tokens of him and him alone. Blessed be he that sees nothing unless he beholds therein the manifestation of his Lord, who dwells not in anything except through God, who sees nothing but him, and who believes not concerning God what he believes concerning his creatures. For God, praised and glorified be he, is not within anything, nor does he corne from anything, nor is he rest upon anything, nor does he go towards anything, nor is he mentioned by anything. Ali save him are his creatures. None but him may know him in the depth of his being, nor may any other than him extol the oneness of his essence.

To the extent that you have recognised the will, you have recognised none but its own reality, but to the extent that you have recognised the created beings, you have only recognised the emanations of the will within them. God, praised be he and glorified, cannot be known in his essence, nor can he be comprehended or praised or sanctified. None may find a path under him, unless by reason of his failure to know him, or by coming to dwell within the shadow of his singleness and independence. Ali things have ever belonged to him in his true nature, his essence, his pure being, his absoluteness, his firstness, his lastness, his outwardness, his inwardness, his purity, and his simplicity. That he is, in the highest degree of the sovereignty of his might, and the brightest elevation of the dominion of his holiness, exalted above all mention and praise and sanctified above all description and exaltation.

From all eternity God was a divinity, single, unique, eternal, alone, living, mighty, everlasting, unending and trustworthy. He does not take
any consort for himself, nor any Son. Ali save him are his creatures who have been brought into being at his command. [p.41 ]. He is and ever has been independent of ail things in and by himself. How could he not be able to dispense with all but himself when he is independent in and by his essence? And how could he not be independent of ail but him? Praised be he and exalted be he as befits the exaltation of his holiness and the elevation of his mention. He is exalted, exalted.

Expository Notes Stephen Lambden

II-IX

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

 

Trans.  Denis MacEoin   (1990s   -  Before  14 Jul 1997 18:23:14 +0100 (BST)

In progress 2017.

The  Ninth Chapter of the Second Unity

 

 

II-X

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

Translation Denis MacEoin Before Mon, 4 Aug 1997 18:43:57 +0100 (BST).

In progress 2017.  I shall here and there insert transliteration and clarificatory comments in square brackets [ ] also offering occasional endnotes of exposition or commentary.  Stephen Lambden 2017...

The  Tenth Chapter of the Second Unity

ln Explanation of the Questioning by the Angels in the Grave.

The substance of this chapter is that, on the Day of Resurrection, those who believed in him whom God shall manifest can ask men : "on what have you established your religion?", and they shall reply "upon the evidentiary naure of the Bayan". If, on that day, there are believers in the verses of God, they shall reply to the angels according to the proof which God sent down previously and in which they had been educated. But if not God's proof shall be complete against them and, since they have not believed, the word "torment" shall be confirmed in their respect. After this, the angels shall return to the presence of God and describe their condition, whereupon, if the all-knowing God responds in affirmation of any man's faith, he shall cause the verses of mercy to descend upon him. Otherwise (he shall send down) the words of torment. Whatever God reveals shall be applied to that man upon that day. ln the same way, whatever the Point of the Bayan sends down concerning anyone shall remain applicable to him until the day of resurrection : the manifestation of negation shall stay in hell, and the manifestation of light in (the state of) affirmation. The former shall be tormented in the non-paridisial letters, while the latter shall dwell forever in God's mercy, that has been sent down upon the Letters of Paradise. ln this there is a grace with which nothing can compare, until the Day of Resurrection.

Whatever is ordained for someone in this (metaphorical) grave, shall fall to his lot in the physical grave. If he is a believer, his tomb shall be
one of the gardens of paradise, and if he is an unbeliever, it shall be among the dwelling places of hell (p.46] even as he was during his lifetime counted among the dead by the possessors of understanding.

If a believer should sit upon the earth of clay, that place shall become a portion of paradise upon the Day of Resurrection, by the permission of God, praise be he and glorified. Otherwise, it shall become part of the land of hell fire, by the command of God, praised be he and glorified. The meaning of the return of the angels to God and the representation under him, is the return unto him whom God shall manifest of them who guide men to him. No path is there and non has there been for anyone to the eternal essence, neither at the beginning nor in the return. Praised be God above all that to which the term "thing" may be applied, in the past and the future. Both creation and command are his in the kingdom of the earth and the heavens and all that is between them. No God is there but He, the Mighty, the Exalted.

Expository Notes Stephen Lambden

 

II-XI

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

Translation Stephen Lambden, summer 2017.

The  Eleventh Chapter of the Second Unity

ln Explanation of the Veracity of the the Sirat Bridge.

Expository Notes Stephen Lambden

See also EGBBF: 333-4.

II-XII

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

Translation Stephen Lambden, summer 2017.

See also EGBBF: 333-4.

The Twelfth Chapter of the Second Unity

ln Explanation of the 

Expository Notes Stephen Lambden

II-XIII

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

Translation Stephen Lambden, summer 2017.

See also EGBBF: 333-4.

The Thirteenth Chapter of the Second Unity

ln Explanation of the 

Expository Notes Stephen Lambden

 

II-XIV

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

Translation Stephen Lambden, summer 2017.

See also EGBBF: 333-4.

The Fourteenth Chapter of the Second Unity

ln Explanation of the 

Expository Notes Stephen Lambden

II-XV

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

Translation Stephen Lambden, summer 2017.

See also EGBBF: 333-4.

The Fifteenth Chapter of the Second Unity

ln Explanation of the 

Expository Notes Stephen Lambden

II-XVI

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

Translation Stephen Lambden, summer 2017.

See also EGBBF: 333-4.

The Sixteenth Chapter of the Second Unity

ln Explanation of the 

Expository Notes Stephen Lambden

II-XVI

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

Translation Stephen Lambden, summer 2017.

See also EGBBF: 333-4.

The Eighteenth Chapter of the Second Unity

ln Explanation of the 

Expository Notes Stephen Lambden

II-XVI

Chapter Two -  Persian Bayan

[of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab 1817-1850]

The Second Unity.

Translation Stephen Lambden, summer 2017.

See also EGBBF: 333-4.

The Ninteenth Chapter of the Second Unity

ln Explanation of the 

Expository Notes Stephen Lambden