ʻAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʻīd ibn Ḥazm (d. 456 /1064),

Abū Muḥammad ʻAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʻīd ibn Ḥazm

(d. 456 /1064)

ابن حزم

Ibn Ḥazm (384-456 =  994-1064), 

Andalusian poet, jurist, historian, theologian, polemicist...

IBN ḤAZM, Abū Muḥammad `Alī b. Aḥmad b. Sa`īd, born at Cordova in 384/994, died at Manta Līsham in 456/1064, Andalusian poet, historian, jurist, philosopher and theologian, one of the greatest thinkers of Arabo-Muslim civilization, who codified the Zahirī  doctrine and applied its method to all the Qur'ānic sciences." (from Arnaldez art 'Ibn Hazm' in EI2  III:790).

 

`Alī ibn Aḥmad Ibn Ḥazm (d. 456 /1064)

The  prolific Andalusian theologian, jurist and ultimately Ẓāhirī (literalist) writer, `Alī ibn Aḥmad Ibn Ḥazm (d. 456 /1064) was perhaps the most virulent anti‑Bible Muslim thinker. He authored his anti‑biblical encyclopaedia, the Fiṣāl fī’l‑milāl... (Differentiation of the Religious  Communities) and several other works with a view to exposing the absurdity and falsity of Jewish  and Christian scripture and tradition. Ibn Ḥazm spelled out some of the many "errors" and "distortions" he felt underlined the to him obviously non‑revealed nature of the Hebrew Bible and Christian Gospels / NT (Palacious, 1927; Arnaldez, EI2 III:795; Chejne, 1982; Pulcini, 1998, Adang, 1996:237‑248).

On similar though even more focussed lines is Ibn Hazm's Iẓḥār tabdīl al-yahūd wa’l-nasārā  (Exposition on  the Alternation [of the Torah and Gospel] by the Jews and the Christians). According to Pulcini, Ibn Ḥazm’s numerous Arabic biblical quotations (which sometimes differ significantly from the Masoretic text and the Greek LXX)  are derived from a complete Christian produced Arabic Bible fundamentally based upon a Latin Vorlage  (source document) (Pulcini, 185).

 

`Alī ibn Aḥmad Ibn Ḥazm (d. 456 /1064).  

الفصل في الملل والاهواء والنحل

 Kitāb al-Fiṣal fi'l-milal wa 'l-aḥwā" wa'l-niḥal. 

  • Kitāb al-Fiṣal fi'l-milal wa 'l-aḥwā" wa'l-niḥal, Cairo: ADD.,  1317/1899 + XXXX/ 1904.

  • Kitāb al-Fiṣal fi'l-milal wa 'l-aḥwā" wa'l-niḥal, + ed. Sayyid Aḥmad Naji Jamālī and `Abd al-Raḥman Khalʾifah.  Maktab al-Muthna: Baghdad + Cairo: Mu`assat al-Khānjī, 1321/1903. *

  • Kitāb al-Fiṣal fi'l-milal wa 'l-aḥwā" wa'l-niḥal,1904. 5 vols. in 2 + In margin (wa-bi-hāmishihi) al-Milal wa-al-niḥal lil-Shahrastāni ; ṣaḥḥaḥahu wa-dhayyalahu bi-hawʾamish mufʾidah. Vol.1 = 223+ivpp. + Vol.2 193+iii pp. (= Vols. 1-2) + 293+ii +227+i + 132+ii (= vols. 3-5).*

  • al-Faṣl fī al-milal wa-al-ahwāʾ wa-al-niḥal. 5 vols. in 1  + in the margin = al-Milal wa-al-niḥal lil-Shahrastāni ; ṣaḥḥaḥahu wa-dhayyalahu bi-hawʾamish mufʾidah `Abd al-Raḥman Khalʾifah.  Cairo: Yuṭlabu min Maktabat wa-Maṭbaʻat Muḥammad ʻAlī Ṣubayḥ, 1347-8/1928-9.

  • [Kitab] al-Faṣl fī al-milal wa-al-ahwāʾ wa-al-niḥal. ed. Muḥammad Ibrāhīm Naṣr, ʻAbd al-Raḥmān ʻUmayrah. 1982

  • Kitāb al-Fiṣal fi'l-milal wa'l-aḥwā" wa'l-niḥal,  5 vols. ed. Muhammad Ibrahim Basir and `Abd al-Rahman `Umayrah, Beirut: Dar al-Jīl, n.d. [1996]. *

Asín Palacios, Miguel (1871-1944) trans.

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miguel_Asin_Palacios

  • Sp. trans. almost complete, by M. Asin Palacios, Abenhazam de Cordoba y su historia critica de las ideas religiosas, Madrid: Real Academica de la Historia, 1927-32. includes a valuable introduction on Ibn Hazm... 

  • Abenházam de Córdoba y su Historia crítica de las ideas religiosas, por Miguel Asín Palacios  5 vols.... Madrid, Tip. de la "Revista de archivos," 1927-32.

  • Abenházam de Córdoba y su historia crítica de las ideas religiosas. Madrid : Turner, [1984?] Description: 5 vols. = ISBN: 8475061257 (set)

  •  
  • Eng. trans., with commentary, of sections on the Šī`a by  I. Friedlander, in JAOS, xxviii (1907), 1-80 and xxix (1908), 1-183. 

  • Un cňdice inexplorado del cordobés Ibn Hazm, Al -Andalus, II (1934), 1-56 .

  • La indiferencia religiosa en la Espana musulmana según Abenhâzam, historiador de las religiones y las sectas, en Cultura Espanola, V (1907),  297-320.

  • La tesis de la necesidad de la revelación en el Islam y en la escolástica, en Al-Andalus, III (1935), 349-89.

Aasi, Ghulām Haider.

  • Muslim understanding of other religions : a study of ibn Hazm’s Kitab al faṣl fi al-milal wa al-ahwāʾ wa al-niḥal. Islamabad : International Institute of Islamic Thought and Islamic Research Institute, 1999. (xviii, 231 pp)

Arnaldez, `Ibn Hazm' in  EI2 III:790-799.

Adang, C,

  • Ibn Hazm on Jews and Judaism, Doctoraalscriptie Semitische Taal-en Letterkunde, Univ. de Nijmegen, 1985.

Behloul, Samuel-Martin

  • Ibn Hazm's Evalgelienkritik: Eine methodische Untersuchung.(Islamic Philosophy, Theology, and Scienve, vol. 50) Leiden: Brill 2002 (xv+274pp.)

_____

`Alī ibn Aḥmad Ibn Ḥazm (d. 456 /1064).  

al-Radd 'alā Ibn al-Nagrīla al-Yahūdī

  • al-Radd 'alā Ibn al-Nagrīla al-Yahūdī wa-rasā'il ujrŕ, ed. Ihsān 'Abbas, Cairo: ADD.,  1380/1960. 

  • in Rasa'il Ibn Hazm al-Andalusī. ed. Iḥsān Rashīd `Abbās. Vol. 3 pp. 39-70 (2nd ed. ed. 1987)

  • Partial Spanish trans. M Asin Palacious,

Arnaldez, R.,

  • Ibn Hazm in EI2 vol. III: 790-

  • Controverse d'lbn Hazm contre Ibn Nagrila le juif, en ROMM, 13-14 (1973), p. 41-48

_______________

Ṭawq al-hamāma ("The Dove's Necklace")

"An analytical and descriptive bio-bibliography is to be found in appendix II of the Spanish tr. of the Ṭawq al-hamāma by E. Garcia Gomez: El Collar de la Paloma, Madrid 1952. This appendix is devoted especially to a bibliography of works concerning the Ṭawq It is completed by the most recent bibliography given by N. Tomiche at the end of her translation of the Kitāb al-A¦ŠlāÎ wa 'l-siyar: Epitres morales, Beirut 1961. There may be added: Y. Linant de Bellefonds, Ibn \azm et le íāhirisme juridique, in Revue Algerienne (Revue de la Faculte de Droit d'Alger), No. 1 (1960)" EI2 art. Ibn Hazm.
 

  • Ṭawq al-hamāma, ed. D. K. Petrof, Leiden 1914,

  • Ṭawq al-hamāma ed. Ḥasan Kāmil al-‘Ṣayrafī, Cairo 1950. 

  •  

Arberry, A. J. Trans.

Bannīs, Muḥammad (ed).

  • Kitāb al-ḥubb : taqāṭuʻāt fī ḍiyāfat, Ṭawq al-ḥamāmah li-Ibn Ḥazm al-Andalusī,  Ḍiyāʾ al-ʻAzzāwī; taqdīm Adūnīs. al-Dār al-Bayḍāʾ : Dār Tūbqāl lil-Nashr, 1995.
    (135 pp. ) ISBN: 9981880272

  • English tr. by A. R. Nykl, Paris 1931 and A. J. Arberry, London 1953
  • Russian tr. by A. Salie, Moscow-Leningrad 1933

  • Italian tr. by F. Gabrieli, Bari 1949

  • French tr. by L. Bercher (with a new edition of the Arabic text), Algiers 1949
     

Weisweiler, Max

  • Halsband Der Taube Uber die Liebe und die Liebenden von Abu Muhammad `Ali Ibn Hazm al-Andalusi Aus dem Arabischen Ubersetzt. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1942 (238pp.). * Includes German trans. by W. Weisweiler, Leiden 1941

Ramon Mujica Pinilla

  • Collar De La Paloma Del Alma: Amor Sagrado y Amor Profano En La Ensenanza De Ibn Hazm Y De Ibn Arabi. 1990  (153 pp.)  = ISBN 8475173063
    __________________________

 

Kitāb al-Muḥallā́ ("The Book of ADD ) a "Treatise on Law".

  • Kitāb al-Muḥallā.  11 vols. ed. Ahmad Shākir. al-Maktab al-Tijalī li'l-Ṭibā`a wa'l-Nasr wa Tawzī`, Cairo 1347-52/1928-33.
     

Ibn ʻAbd al-Raḥīm, Ashraf = Ashraf ibn ʻAbd al-Maqṣūd ibn ʻAbd al-Raḥīm. 

  • Fahāris al-Muḥallá Beirut:: Dār al-Jīl, 1996. (404pp.) =  فهارس المحلى / إعداد أشرف بن عبد المقصود بن عبد الحيم.
     

Ibn Ḥazm ed. Bājī, Sulaymān ibn Khalaf, 1012 or 13-1081?  = Abū al-Walīd Sulaymān ibn Khalaf al-Bājī.

  • Ishārah ilá maʻrifat al-uṣūl wa-al-wajāzah fī maʻná al-dalīl,  Yalīh, Qaṣīdah fī uṣūl fiqh al-Ẓāhirīyah / ; [kilāhumā] aʻaddahā Muṣṭafá al-Waḍīfī wa-Muṣṭafá Nājī.
     al-Ribāṭ : Markaz Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-Maghribī, [1988?]  (79 pp.)

Al-Nubdhah al-kāfiyah fī uṣūl aḥkām al-dīn

  • Al-Nubdhah al-kāfiyah fī uṣūl aḥkām al-dīn ed. Abī Muṣʻab Muḥammad Saʻīd al-Badrī. 1991

Historical works and Compendia:

Asmāʾ al-Ṣaḥābah al-ruwāh wa-mā li-kull wāḥid min al-ʻadad.

  • Asmāʾ al-Ṣaḥābah al-ruwāh wa-mā li-kull wāḥid min al-ʻadad  ed. Sayyid Kasrawī Ḥasan. 1992

  • Jamharat ansāb al-`arab, ed. Levi-Proven±al, Cairo 1948

Rasā'il ("Treatises")... on morals, on law and on theology...

  • Rasā'il Ibn Hazm al-Andalusī. ed. Iḥsān Rashīd `Abbās Cairo: ADD., *

  • Rasā'il Ibn Hazm al-Andalusī. 2nd printing,  4 vols. ed. Iḥsān Rashīd `Abbās, Beirut: al-Mu`assat al-`Arabiyya li'l-Dirāsāt wa'l-Naṣr,  1983*, 2nd printing   *

  •  Risāla fī fa·ā"il ahl al-Andalus, in MaÎÎarī, Analectes, ii, 109 ff.  French. trans. by Ch. Pellat, in al-Andalus, xix/1 (1954).

  • One of these epistles has been translated into Spanish by M. Asin Palacios, Los caracteres y la conducta, tratado de moral practica por Abenhazam de Cordoba, Madrid 1916
     

  • N. Tomiche has published a new ed. with Fr. tr.: op. cit.  on the history of the manuscripts and the text, cf. Introd., xlviii f.

Kitāb al-Iḥkām fī uṣūl al-aḥkām

  • Kitāb al-Aḥkām fī uṣūl al-aḥkām, Cairo 1345-8

  • Aḥkām fī uṣūl al-aḥkām,  li-Abī Muḥammad ʻAlī ibn Ḥazm al-Andalūsī al-Ẓāhirī , ed. Aḥmad Muḥammad Shākir.  ADD: ADD., 1988

Jawami' al-Sirah al-Nabawiyya

  • Jawāmi' al-sirah al-nabawiyya : Ibn Hazm al-Andulusi, ed. `Abdul-Karim Sāmī al-Jundi : Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyya, PBk 160pp. *

Mulakhkhaṣ ibṭāl al-qiyās wa 'l-ra"y, wa 'l-istiḥsān, wa'l-taqīd, wa'l-ta`līl

  • Mulakhkhaṣ ibṭāl al-qiyās wa 'l-ra"y, wa 'l-istiḥsān, wa'l-taqīd, wa'l-ta`līl, ed. Sa`īd al-Afghānī, Damascus 1379/1960

Marātib al-ijmā` fi 'l-`ibādāt wa 'l-mu`āmalāt, Cairo 1357

  • Marātib al-ijmā` fi 'l-`ibādāt wa 'l-mu`āmalāt, Cairo 1357

Nakq al-`arūs,

  • ed. Shawkī Dayf, Cairo 1951 

  • Nakq al-`arūs, ed. C. F. Seybold, in Revista del Centro de Estudios Historicos de Granada y su reino, 1911.

  • Spanish tr. by L. Seco de Lucena, in Boletin de la Universidad de Granada, 1941

al-Taqrīb li-ḥadd al-manṭiq

  • al-TaÎrīb li-ḥadd al-manṭiq, ed. Iḥsān `Abbas Manshūrāt Dār Maktabat al-Ḥayāt. ADD

al-Talkhīṣ li-wujūh al-takhlīṣ,

  • al-Talkhīṣ li-wujūh al-takhlīṣ,   ḥaqqaqahu wa-ʻallaqa ʻalayh, wa-qaddama ed. ʻAbd al-Ḥaqq al-Turkumānī. 2003

Collected Texts and Studies (Sezgin et al., eds).

  • Ibn Hazm Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Said (d. 456/1064): texts and studies collected and reprinted by Fuat Sezgin ; in collaboration with Mazen Amawi, Carl Ehrig-Eggert, Eckhard Neubauer . Frankfurt am Main : Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, 1999 ( 368 pp.) [= Series Publications of the Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science. Islamic philosophy (v. 73)  ISBN = 3829860781. 

SECONDARY SOURCES

Afghānī, Saʻīd.

  • Ibn Ḥazm al-Andalusī  wa-risālatuhu fi al-mufāḍalah bayna al-Ṣaḥābah, 1940. ( 418 pp. )

 al-Albānī, Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn

  • تحريم آلات الطرب، أو، الرد بالوحيين وأقوال أئمتنا على ابن حزم ومقلديه المبيحين للمعازف والغنا وعلى الصوفيين الذين اتخذوه قربة ودينا .
     

  • Taḥrīm ālāt al-ṭarab, aw, al-Radd bi-al-waḥyayn wa-aqwāl aʾimmatinā ʻalá Ibn Ḥazm wa-muqallidīh al-mubīḥīn lil-maʻāzif wa-al-ghinā wa-ʻalá al-Ṣūfīyīn alladhīna ittakhadhūhu qurabatan wa-dīna. ̄ al-Jubayl al-Ṣināʻīyah [Saudi Arabia] : Maktabat al-Dalīl, 1996.

Arnaldez, R.,

  • Ibn Hazm in EI2 vol. III: 790-

  • Controverse d'lbn Hazm contre Ibn Nagrila le juif, en ROMM, 13-14 (1973), p. 41-48

  • Controverses théologiques chez Ibn Hazm de Cordoue et Ghazali, en Les Mardis de Dar el-Salam 1956, p. 207-248.

  • Grammaire et théologie chez Ibn Hazm de Cordoue. Essai sur la structure et les conditions de la pensée musulmane, Pan's, 1956.

  • Grammaire et théologie chez Ibn Hazm de Cordoue: essai sur la structure et les conditions de la pensée musulmane. Paris: Vrin. 1984.

  • La Guerre Sainte selon Ibn Hazm de Cordoue, en Etudes d'Orientalisme dédiées ŕ la mémoire de Lévi-Provençal, 2 vols., Paris, 1962, II, p. 445-59.

  • La raison et l'identification de la vérité selon Ibn Hazm de Cordoue, en Mélanges L. Massignon, vol. 1, Damasco, 1956, p. 111-121.

  • Sur une interpretation economique et sociale des theories de la "zakāt" en Droit musulman, in Cahiers de l'Institut de Sciences Economiques et Appliquees: L'Islam, l'Economie et la Technique, no. 106 (October 1960) (Series v, no. 2)

Aasi, Ghulām Haider.

  • Muslim understanding of other religions : a study of ibn Hazm’s Kitab al faṣl fi al-milal wa al-ahwāʾ wa al-niḥal.  Islamabad : International Institute of Islamic Thought and Islamic Research Institute, 1999.(xviii, 231 pp. )

Chejne, A. 

  • 1982. Ibn Hazm, Chicago: Kazi Publications.*

Fadhel Ben Ashour,

  • Un ouvrage inconnu d'Ibn Hazm, in Actes du 22e Congres des Orientalistes (1951), ii (1957).

Goldziher, Ignaz.

  • 1884. Die Zahiriten, ihr Lehrsystem und ihre Geschichte: Beitrag zur Geschichte der muhammedanischen Theologie.  Leipzig: O. Schulze.

Hourani, G.

  • 1985 . 'Reason and Revelation in Ibn Hazm's Ethical Thought', in G. Hourani (ed.) Reason and Tradition in Islamic Ethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 167-89.

Ibn ʻAqīl, Abū ʻAbd al-Raḥmān.

  • Nawādir al-Imām Ibn Ḥazm -kharrajahā wa-ʻallaqa ʻalayhā Abū ʻAbd al-Raḥmān ibn ʻAqīl.
    Beirut : Dār al-Gharb al-Islāmī, 1983/4.

Ljamai, Abdelilah

  • Ibn Hazm Et LA Polemique Islamo-Chretienne Dans L'Histoire De L'Islam. Leiden: E.J. Brill Academic Pub., 2003 (246 pp.)  = ISBN 9004128441.  *
     

Turki , Abd al-Majid [Abdel Magid Turki]

  • Polemiques Entre Ibn Hazm et Bagi Sur Les Principes de la Loi Musulmane: Essai Sur La Litteralisme Zahirite et La Finalite Malikite. Alger: Etudes et Documents, n.d. [c. 1974] (467pp.). *

  • Polemiques Entre Ibn Hazm et Bagi Sur Les Principes de la Loi Musulmane: Essai Sur La Litteralisme Zahirite et La Finalite Malikite.1975   (467 pp.) =  8439944942

Uways, Abd al-Halim.

  • Ibn Hazm Al-Andalusi wa-Juhuduhu fi'l-Bahth al-Tarikhi wa'l-hadari , 1979  (453 pp.) ISBN= 9777318375

Weisweiler, Max

  • Halsband Der Taube Uber die Liebe und die Liebenden von Abu Muhammad `Ali Ibn Hazm al-Andalusi Aus dem Arabischen Ubersetzt. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1942 (238pp.). *