Tafsir II = Select Primary Tafsir Sources - Alphabetical


Islamic Tafsīr, Qur'ān Commentary : Select Primary and Secondary Sources with occasional academic articles

Stephen Lambden UCMerced (CA, USA).

Under revision and supplementation 2016-7

Last uploaded 08-03-2016.

The Web page(s) below are constantly under revision and updating. They will evolve into the bibliography of a forthcoming book about Islamic hermeneutics and Tafsīr  perhaps entitled Dimensions of Tafsīr ("Exegesis") and Ta'wīl ("Eisegesis") in Islamic Qur'ān Commentary, A Literary Survey and Bibliographical Handbook. This book will give special attention to attitudes about exterior (ẓāhir) and interior (bāṭin) dimensions of meaning within diverse approaches to Qur'ān commentary as illustrated within varieties of  Sunnī and Shī`ī Tafsīr and related literatures. It will attempt to give weight to those Islamic traditions (hadith, akhbar) and thinkers which sanction or put forth a deeper level of Qur'ānic understanding that may go beyond the merely literalistic. It will pay attention to those who have treasured both the straightforward senses of the Qur'ān and what might be its inner meanings or deeper senses. Corrections and suggested additions to these Web page(s) would be greatly welcomed - mailto:  slambden@ucmerced.edu



Select Arabic, Persian and Turkish sources with notice of occasional academic articles.


`Abduh, Muhammad (1266-1323 AH = 1849-1905 CE)

Egyptian religious scholar and reformer. A key fīgure in the emergence of Islamic modernism and grand mufti of al-Azhar.

  • Tafsīr al-Fātiḥah. n. p. n.d.  1323 /1905  (104 pp. ).
  • تفسير الفاتحة : يحتوي على مقدمة في علم التفسير، تفسير الفاتحة، وثلاث مقالات تفسيرية  =
  • Tafsīr al-Fātiḥah lil-Imām Muḥammad ʻAbduh. al-Jamāmīz [Cairo] : Maktabat al-Ādāb wa Maṭbaʻatuhā, 1986. ( 127 pp.)  ISBN: 977472027X
  • al-A`māl al-Kāmila li'l-Imām  Shaykh Muhammad Abduh.  ADD HERE,  XXXX/1974.
  • al-A`māl al-Kāmila li'l-Imam  al-Shaykh Muhammad Abduh.  5 vols. Ed. Dr. Muhammad `Imarah.  Beirut: Dār al-Shurūq, 1414/1993. Qur'ān interpretation is fundamental to certain of these volumes. *

Mark J Sedgwick

  • Muhammad Abduh. Oxford, England ; New York : Oneworld, 2010.

محمد رشيد رضا

Tafsir al Manar (1/12 w/indices)  فسير المنار

+ Muhammad Rashid Ridā' (1865-1935), the Syrian Islamic reformer and disciple of Abduh who lived in Egypt from 1897. 

تفسير المنار = تفسير محمد رشيد رضا

  •  Tafsīr in al-Manār (the Lighthouse) an Egyptian journal published between 18XX and 19XX.
  • Tafsīr in al-Manār, 12 vols. Beirut: Dar al-Ihya al-Turath al`Arabi. XXXX/2000[??].
  • Tafsīr al-Qur'ān al-Hakīm al-Shahīr bi-Tafsīr al-Manār, 12 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Ma`rifa, 1414/1993.  *
  • Tafsīr in al-Manār, 12 vols. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyya, XXXX/XXXX.. 5168pp.

Skovgaard-Petersen J.

`Portrait of the Intellectual as a Young Man: Rashd Rid's Muhwart al-muslih wa-al-muqallid (1906)' in Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, Vol. 12/1, (2001), pp. 93-104(12). 


"Rashd Ridā's ideas and ideals of the intellectual are to be found pre-eminently in a work serialized in Al-Manār, in 1901, called Muhwart al-muslih wa-al-muqallid (The Debates of the Reformer and the Traditionalist). This work contains much of Ridā's thinking on religious reform. A very interesting aspect of the work is that it is a work of fiction. It is Ridā's only experiment with fiction, and its aim is to furnish the reader with a portrait of the model Muslim intellectual. The Muhwart can be taken as an example of a representation of a decidedly modernist Muslim intellectual whom the readers of Al-Manār are invited to identify with and take as a role model."

`Abd al-Jabbār = al-Qaḍī `Abū al-Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad `Abd al-Jabbār Asadābādī ( c. 386-415 AH = c. 935-1024 CE).

Major late Mu`tazilite theologian. See Sezgin 1:624-626.

  •  Mutashābih al-Qur'ān. ed. 'Andan M. Zarzũr. Cairo: Dar al-Turāth, 1969.
  •  al-Mughnī fī  abwāb al-tawḥīd wa'l-`adl. 14 vols. ed. Taha Husayn, Cairo: Dar al-Misriyya li'l-Ta'lif wa'l-Tarjama. 1958-1965.
  •  al-Mughnī fī  abwāb al-tawḥīd wa'l-`adl. XX vols. Cairo: al-Mu`assa al-Miṣriyya al-`Āmma li'-Kitāb. [Cairo]  n.d.  *
  •  al-Mughnī fī  abwāb al-tawḥīd wa'l-`adl.  Cairo: Dar al-kutub, 1370/1960. Rep.  c. 2000??  Introd.  Ibrahim al-Abyārī + Ibrahim Madkur, et. al.  ed. Muhammad `Ali Najjār / `Abd al-Halim Najjār  /  Ṭāhā Ḥusayn. 16 vols.*
  • Sharh al-usul al-khamsa bi-ta'lîq al-imam Aḥmad b. al-Husayn b. Abi Hāshim. ed. 'Abd al-Karim 'Uthmān. Cairo: Maktabat Wihba, 1965. : "This work is by 'Abd al֊ Jabbār's Zaydite student Manākdim" so Mourad 2006: 313)
  •  Sharh al-usul al-khamsa. ed. ADD Dar al-Ihya' a;-Turath al-`Arabi, 1422/2001 (567pp.).*

`Abd al-Rahmān, Ā'isha.

  • al-Tafsīr al-bayānī li’l-Qur'ān al-karīm. 2nd printing. Cairo: Dar al-Ma`arif (Maktabat al-Dirāsāt al-Adabiyya No. 25), 1385/1966. 
  • al-Tafsīr al-bayānī li’l-Qur'ān al-karīm. 3rd ed., Cairo 1387/1968
  • al-Tafsīr al-bayānī li’l-Qur'ān al-karīm. 3rd impression. 2 vols. Cairo :  Maktabat al-Dirāsāt al-Adabiyya [25] 1387/1968..

 Abu Ḥayyān al-Andalusi (d. c. 745 /1343).


  • تفسير أبي حيان الأندلسي  = تفسير البحر المحيط
  • Tafsir al-baḥr al-muḥīt.   9 vols. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyya, 200? . 4704 pp =  2-74513-250-4
  • تفسير البحر المحيط
  • Tafsir al-baḥr al-muḥīt.   9 vols. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyya, 200? . 4704 pp =  2-74513-250-4

`Abū 'Ubayda. Ma'mar b. al-Muthanna al-Taymī (ADD/ADD).

  • Majāz al-Qur'ān, ed. F. Sezgin, 2 vols., Cairo 1954-62

al Aḥsā’ī =  Shaykh Aḥmad ibn Zayn al Dīn al-Aḥsā’ī  (b. Ḥasa [Aḥsa] c. 1166/1753 - d. Medina 1241/1826).

احمد بن زین الدین بن ابراهیم الأحسايي

Early Qajar period Arab born Shi`i philosopher and mystic who lived for many years in Persia-Iran and whose followers were known as al-Shaykhiyya (Shaykhis) or Kashfiyya ("Disclosers") as well as Balasaris (literally, "Facing the Head [Persons]")... Many of al-Ahsa'is numerous writings and treatises are expository of the Qur'ān and related Hadith texts.

  • Tafsīr Sūrat al-tawhīd wa āyat al-nūr . This was written in reply to Sayyid Muhammad Bakā'  and printed within vol.1 of the Jawāmi` al-kalim,
  •  Tafsīr Sūrat al-tawhīd 2nd ed. in Majmū`a al-rasā'il al-ḥikma'  (2nd ed.) Kirmān: Maṭba`at al-Sa`āda, 1379/ 1960. pp.1-16. * trans. Stephen Lambden (forthcoming) URL:
  • Jawāmi` al kalim. (= JK. ) 2 vols. Tabrīz: Muhammad Tāqī Nakhjavānī, 1273/1856-7 .  Vol.1 / i, ii and iii and 1276 /1859-60 = vol. 2/i and ii. *
  • Sharḥ al `arshiyya. 2 vols. 2nd. ed. Kirmān: Sa`adat. n.d.

Abū al-Suʻūd Muhammad ibn Muḥammad, al-ʻImādʾu (ADD  = c. 1490-1574).

  • Tafsīr Abī al-Suʻūd,  Irshād al-ʻaql al-salīm ilá mazayá al Qurʾān al-karīm. 5 vols. in 2 1928.
  • Tafsīr Abī al-Suʻūd, Irshād al-’aql al-salîm ilkh. ed. Ḥasan Aḥmad Mar’î ed. Muhammad al-Sādiq Qamhāwī. Beirut, c. 1976. 9 vols. in 4. (278, 2 + 265, 1+ 312+312+ 284, 3+ 308+ 288+ 271+ 220 pp.).

Akhfash, Abū ’l-Ḥasan Sa'īd b. Mas'ada al-Akhfash al-Awsat,

  • Ma'ānī al-Qur'ān, ed. Fā'iz Fāris al-Hamad, 2nd ed., 2 vols., Kuwait 1981.
  •  ed. 'Abd al-Amīr Muhammad Amīn al-Ward, Beirut 1405/1985; • ed. Huda Maḥmūd Qurrā'a,

`Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (b. Mecca c. 600 CE - d. Kufa 40/661).

The fīrst Imam for the Twelver Imami Shī`ī Muslims and fourth Caliph of the Sunnis

The cousin, son-in-law, and (for Imami Shi`is  and others the immediate)  successor to the Prophet Muhammad (d. 632 CE). He was very widely respected as an important expert on all aspects of Tafsīr. Ibn `Abbās (d. c. 68 / 687) who is regarded as the "Father of Tafsīr" (see below) is reported to have said, "What I took from the interpretation of the Qur'ān is from `Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib".  The  possibly proto-Shī`ī companion Ibn Maṣ`ūd allegedly stated that `Alī was heir to both the inward and outward dimensions of the Qur'ān.  `Alī is reckoned to have compiled one of the earliest chronologically organized recensions of the Qur'ān (see Modarressi 2003: 2-4). Many ḥadith on Qur'ān commentary are attributed to  and relayed from `Alī and his Imami associates and sympathizers. He remains a foundational figure of the greatest importance. A number of Tafsīr books or crystallizations of Tafsīr tradition are attributed to him. In recent years some of them have been the subject of academic evaluation. Sunni anti-Shi`i polemic to some extent appears to have eclipsed or  lessened the full appreciation of his central position in the genesis of Qur'ān commentary.

  • Qur'ān codex. An early recension probably represented  by the reading of `Āṣim ibn Abī Najūd al-Kūfī  (d.    ; one of the seven "readers" of the Qur'ān) and transmitted by Ḥafṣ ibn Sulaymān al-Kūfī  (d.180/796) also a `Reader of the Qur'ān' and the former's student and step-son (Modarressi 2003:3 fn.10).
  • Monograph on the recension of  `Alī by the Sunnī writer Abū Ṭāhir `Abd al-Waḥīd ibn `Umar al-Baghdāī al-Bazzāz (d.349/960).
  • See below on the Tafsīr attributed to Ibn `Abbās (d. c. 68 / 687).

Modarressi, Hossein.

  • 'Early Debates on the Integrity of the Qur'ān: A Brief Survey' Studia Islamica, No. 77. (1993).

Abū al-Thanā' Shihāb al-Dīn Maḥmūd ibn `Abd-Allāh Baghdādī  al-`Ālūsī (d.1270/1854). 

al-`Ālūsī  was an important`Alid Sunni scholar and commentator of 19th century Ottoman Baghdad. 

  • Rūḥ al-ma` ānī fī Tafsīr al- Qur'ān al- 'azīm wa al-sab' al-mathānī, ("The Spirit of the Meaning in the Commentary upon the Mighty Qur'ān") 30 vols, in 15, Cairo 1345/1926.
  • Rūḥ al-ma` ānī fī Tafsīr al- Qur'ān al- 'azīm wa al-sab' al-mathānī, Cairo:  Dār al-Zayni lil-Tiba`ah wa'-l-Nashr, c. 1346/ 1927 [1930]?.
  • Rūḥ al-ma` ānī fī Tafsīr al- Qur'ān al- 'azīm wa al-sab' al-mathānī, Cairo: Mu'assasat al-Halabåi lil-Nashr wa-al-Tawzåi, XXXX/1964.
  • Rūḥ al-ma` ānī fī Tafsīr al- Qur'ān al- 'azīm wa al-sab' al-mathānī. (= rep. of   Cairo: Idarat al-Tiba`ah al-Munairiyah, Cairo, ca. 1353.) 31 vols. in 16  Dār al-Ihya al-Turath al-`Arabī,  XXX/ 1970.
  • Rūḥ al-ma`ānī fī tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-`azāīm wa-sab` al-mathānī, Cairo, 1353; reprint 30 vols. in 15, Beirut, 1405/1985.
  • Rūḥ al-ma` ānī fī Tafsīr al- Qur'ān al- 'azīm wa al-sab' al-mathānī, 30 vols, in 15 + Index vol. 16.  Dār al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyyah, 1415/ 1994.*
  • Rūḥ al-ma`ani fī  tafsīr al-qur'ān al-`aẓīm . Repr. Beirut, n.d.
  • Rūḥ al-ma`ani fī  tafsīr al-qur'ān al-`aẓīm. CD Rom.  *

al-'Āmilī al-Isfahānī, `Abū 'l Ḥasan (d. Najaf, 1138/1726). A student of Muhammad Baqir Majlisi...

  • Muqaddimat [al-Burhan Tafsīr al-Qur'ān] tafsīr mir'āt al-anwār wa-mishkāt al-asrār, ed. Mahmud b. Ja'far al-Mūsawī al-Zarandī, Tehran 1374/1954
  • Mir’āt al‑anwār wa mishkāt al‑asrār fī tafsīr al‑Qur’ān (Mirrors of Lights and Niches of Mysteries in Commentary upon the Qur’ān). [3rd ed?]. 1374/1954-5. *

al-'Āmulī, Sayyid Ḥaydar ibn `Alī ibn Ḥaydar al-`Alawī al-Ḥusayni al-'Āmulī  (d. 787/1385).

Shi`i philosopher and mystic... exponent of Ibn al-`Arabi...  See Brockelmann, GAL II:213; Supp. II:209.

  •  Tafsīr al-muḥīṭ al-a`ẓam wa'l-baḥr al-khidamm fi ta`wīl kitāb Allāh al-`azīz al-muḥkam.  2 vols. 2nd ed./printing. Tehran: Mu`assasat al-Tiba`ah wa'l-Nashr Wizarat al-Thaqafah wa'l-Irshad al-Islami,  1995.
  • انوار الحقيقة و اطوار الطريقة و اسرار الشريعة=
  • Anwar al-Haqiqah wa Atwar al-Tariqah wa Asrar al-Shariah. Qum: Nur `ala Nur, 2004.

  • تفسير المحيط الاعظم و البحر الخضم في تاويل كتاب الله العزيز المحكم
  • Tafsir al-Muhit al-`A`zam va al-Bahr Fi Ta`vil Kitab Allah al-`Aziz al-Muhkam / 7 vols.
  • Tafsīr al-Muhit al-a`zam wa al-bahr al-Khiḍrim fi Ta`wil Kitab Allāh al-`Aziz al-Muhkam. 7 vols.  Qum: Nur `ala Nur  2007 . 2974pp. ISBN: 9789648016031

al-Anbārī =  Abū ’l-Barakāt 'Abd al-Rahmān b. Muhammad ibn al-Anbārī  (ADD/ADD).

  •  al-Bayān fī Gharīb i'rāb al-Qur'ān, ed. Tāhā 'Abd al-Ḥamīd and Muṣṭafā al-Saqqā, 2 vols., Cairo 1969-70
  •  Nuzha = Nuzhat al-alibbā' fī ṭabaqat al-udabā', Cairo 1294.
  •  Stockholm 1963;
  • ed. Ibrāhīm al-Sāmarrā'ī, Baghdad 1970

`Ā'isha' bint Abi Bakr, third wife of the Prophet Muhammad (d. 58/678).

  •  Tafsīr umm al-mu'minīn. ed. `Abd-Allah Abū  al-Su`ūd Badr. Cairo:  Dār al-`Ālam al-kutub. 1416/1996.  *

al-`Askarī, al-Ḥasan ibn `Ali (d. c. 260/874).

The 11th Imam of the twelver Shi`ites and the alleged father of Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi. See Brockelmann, GAL 1:333; Goldziher, Richt., 278; Gacek, ALB 1996:201.

تفسيرالإمام العسكري

  • Tafsīr al-`Askari. Mss. Brit. Mus. Or. 5582.  Check.
  • Tafsīr al-`Askari. Tehran Lithograph 1268/1851-2. ?
  • Tafsīr al-`Askari,  in the Margins of Tafsīr al-Qur'ān of `Ali Ibn Ibrahim al-Qumi. Lithograph [Tabriz?] by Hasan ibn Muhammad Amin al-Karamrudi. al-Tabrizi. Karkhanah-i Aḥmad Aqa and `Ali Aqa  Ramadan 1315/1898.  (pp.332+21). See Gacek ALB 1996: Nos.361 and 362.
  • Tafsīr al-`Askari.  Lucknow:  ?.
  • Tafsīr al-`Askari [attributed to the 11th Imam Ḥasan] al-`Askarī.  Qumm: ADD., 1409/ 1988-9.10410
  • http://www.ahl-ul-bait.org/newlib/Quran/Al_Emam_Al_Askari/index1.htm

Bar-Asher, Meir M.

  • Scripture and Exegesis in Early Imami Shiism. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1999 (274pp.).*

al-Ayyāshī = Abū'l-Nadr Muhammad ibn Mas`ūd ibn al-Ayyāsh al-Sulami al-Samarkandi (fl. early 4th/ 10th cent.) (d. c. 320/932)
Early  Shi`i Tafsīr. See Brockelmann GAL ADD+ GAL-S ADD. EI2 1:794-5 art. B. Lewis;

  • Tafsīr al-Qur'ān. ed. Hashim al-Rasul al-Maḥallātī.  2 vols.  Qumm: Chapkhanah-yi `Ilmiyya. 1380-1/   Tehran 1380/1961.  *
  • Tafsīr al-Qur'ān. ed. Hashim al-Rasul al-Maḥallātī.  2 vols.  Beirut: Mu`assat al-A`la. 1380-1/  1411/1991. *
  • Tafsīr  al-Ayyāshī, 2 vols. Beirut: ADD., XXXX/200X

al-Baghawī   البغوي =  al-Ḥusayn ibn  Mas'ūd  ibn Muhammad al-`Allama  Abu Muhammad al-Farrā' al-Baghawī al-Shāfī 'ī (d. c. 510/1117 or 516/1122).

Shāfi`ī traditionalist born near Herat  died Marw al-Rudh.  See XXX  + Ridell, Peter G. art. `al-Baghawi' in Leaman ed.   Q-Enc pp.108-9. His  Sunni, al-Shāfī 'ī  Tafsīr work  is perhaps to some degree a condensed version of the Tafsīr of al-Tha`labī (d. 427/1035) (so Rippin, EI2 X:434).

  • Ma'ālim al-tanzīl ("Instruction in the Revelation")   
  •  Ma'ālim al-tanzīl [Instruction in the Revelation] / Tafsīr al-Baghawī... [Cairo] Būlāq 1294/1877.•Tafsīr al-Khazin al-musamma libab al-ta`wil fi ma`ani al-tanzil. 4 vols.  has Tafsīr al-Baghawi in margin.  Beirut: Dar al-Fikr,  1402/1982. *
  • Ma'ālim al-tanzīl / Tafsīr al-Baghawī, al-musammá, Maʻālim al-tanzīl   4 vols. ed. Khālid ʻĀbd al-Raḥmān al-ʻAkk, Marwān Sawār. Multān : Idārat Taʾlīfāt Ashrafīyyah.  198? 
  • Tafsīr al-Baghawī al-musammā bi-Ma 'ālim al-tanzīl,  4 vols. ed. Khālid ʻĀbd al-Raḥmān al-ʻAkk, Marwān Sawār.  Beirut: Dar al-Ma`rifa, 1987.
  • Tafsīr al-Baghawī al-musammā bi-Ma 'ālim al-tanzīl,  4 vols. ed. Khālid 'Abd al-Rahmān al-'Akk and Marwān Sawār,  Beirut:  Dār al-Kutub al-`ilmiyya, 1414/ 1993.*

al-Baghdadi = `Alā' al-Dīn `Alī ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Baghdadi al-Sufi (d. 741/1340)  = al-Khāzin

al-Khāzin, `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim  al-Baghdadi al-Sufi (d. 725/1340).

  • Quran commentary  written in 725 / 1325  = Tafsīr Khāzin =
  • Lubab al-Ta`wīl fi ma`ānī al-tanzil.  4 vols. Cairo: al-Matba`at al-Maymaniyya, 1311/1893 + in margin  Madarik al-tanzil va haqa'iq al-ta`wīl  Abu'l-Barakaat `Abd-Allah Nasafi (d. 701/ 1301).
  • Tafsīr al-Qur'ān al-Jalil... Lubab al-Ta`wīl fi ma`ānī al-tanzil. ed. Abi al-Barakat `Abd-Allah ibn Mahmud al-Nasafi. Beirut: Dar al-Ma`rifa, 1970.
  • Tafsīr al-Khazin al-musamma libab al-ta`wil fi ma`ani al-tanzil. 4 vols.  has Tafsīr al-Baghwi in margin.  Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1402/1982. *
  •  Tafsīr al-Khazin... 4 vols. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyya, 1995..Check..
  • Mukhtasar Tafsīr al-Karim li'l-Khazin ...2 vols. (1251pp.)  Lubab al-Ta`wīl fi ma`ānī al-tanzil. ed. Muhammad `Ali Qutb. Beirut: Dar al-Masira, 1987.

Bahāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn ʻIzz al-Dīn Ḥusayn ibn ʻAbd al-Ṣamad ibn Shams al-Dīn (953-1030= 1547-1621 CE)

See URL: Shaykh Bahā'ī : Shaykh Bahā'ī

Bahā' al-Dīn al-`Āmilī = Shaykh Bahā'ī.   بهاء الدين محمد بن حسين عاملي   =

The son of Shaykh Ḥusayn ibn `Abd al-Ṣamad al-`Āmilī (919-984 AH = 1512-1576 CE) who was appointed Shaykh al-Islam at the then Safavid capital Qazvin by Shah Ṭahmasb (930-984 AH =1524-1576 CE). He was born near Baalbek 27th Dhu'l-Ḥijja 953 AH = 18th February 1547 CE and  died Isfahan  12th Shawwāl 1030 AH = 30th August 1621 CE. A polymathic and widely traveled individual Shaykh Bahā'ī is viewed by some as the Islamic Mujaddid ("Renewer") of the 11th/17th century. He was an accomplished theologian, philosopher, mathematician, Sufi inclined mystic, architect, grammarian and more besides. He was a one-time Shaykh al-Islām at the then Safavid capital Isfahan under Shāh `Abbās I (r. 996/1588- 1038/1629). Shaykh Baha'i is a key Safavid period Shī`ī commentator whose Tafsīr works have been neglected. See Brockelmann,  GAL II: 414-15; Supp. I:76, 741; Supp. II: 595-97. Kohlberg in EIr. III: 429-30.

Tafsīr `Ayn al-Ḥayat ("The Commentary of the Wellspring of Life").

  • تفسير عين الحيوة   = Tafsīr `Ayn al-Ḥayat ("The Commentary of the Wellspring of Life"). in ms.

al-`Urwat al-Wuthqā'  ("The Firm Handle")

  •   العروة الوثقى  = al-`Urwat al-Wuthqā'  ("The Firm Handle"),  A Tafsīr work seems only to have been a few times partially printed:
  • al-ʻUrwah al-wuthqá [fī tafsīr Sūrat al-Ḥamd] in Rasa'il al-Shaykh Baha' al-Din Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn `Abd al-Samad  al-Harithi al-ʻĀmili. Lithograph Tehran [?]: Hajj Shaykh Aḥmad Shirazi, 1319/1901[3],  pp. 386-410
  • al-ʻUrwah al-wuthqá [fī tafsīr Sūrat al-Ḥamd] in Rasa'il al-Shaykh Baha' al-Din Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn `Abd al-Samad  al-Harithi al-ʻĀmili. Qum: Maktabat Baṣīratī / Intishārāt-i Baṣīratī, 1398/ 1978. pp. 386-410.
  • al-ʻUrwah al-wuthqá : tafsīr Sūrat al-Ḥamd by Bahāʼ al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ḥusayn ʻĀmili.  Qum : Dār al-Qurʼān al-Karīm, 1412/ 1992. 
  • al-ʻUrwah al-wuthqá fī tafsīr Sūrat al-Ḥamd... Qum : Qum: Būstān Kitāb, 1422 /2001.
  • علوم قرآنى = `Ulūm Qur'ānī. ("On The Qur'ānic Sciences") , in mss..
  •  حل الحروف القرآنيه  =  Ḥall al-ḥurūf al-Qur'ān   ("On the status of the Qur'ānic [Isolated] Letters"), in mss.

Ms. UCLA Qayeni Coll. No. 21. "Shaikh Baha'i (Baha' al-Din Muhammad al-Amili, universal scholar and wazir of Shah 'Abbas the Great, died 1030 / 1621): "Sharh suwar al- Qur'ān" (Coranic commentaries); Arabic; varying, always well legible script w. red titles. Main body of text pp.29-318. Beginning, end, margins and pasted-in notes w. a wide variety of marginalia. - Semi-leather binding w. painted ornaments in orange and blue. - 397 pages of text; 14 l/p (main body of text); 190x125 mm. Scribe: Abu Turab Salim b. Rashid. Dated (pp. 47, 318, 369): 1110 and 1117 / 1698 and 1705." - See  http://www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/url/colls/mideast/qayeni.htm

Ḥāshiyya - Glosses on Qur'ān Commentaries...

  • Bayḍāwī, Qaḍī ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿUmar Nāṣir al-Dīn (d. c. 700/1300).   Sunnī commentator and author of the well-known  Anwār al-tanzīl wa-asrār al-ta`wīl  ("The Lights of the Revelation and the mysteries of the Exegesis")
  • حاشيه انوار التنزيل قاضى بيضاوى  Hashiyya = Marginal Glosses of Shaykh Baha'i upon the  Anwār al-tanzīl of Qaḍī   Bayḍāwī
  • Zamakhsharī,  Abū al-Qāsim Maḥmud Ibn `Umar (d. 538/1144).  Persian born   Sunnī Mu`tazili Qur'ān commentator and author of the well-know  al-Kashshāf  'an ḥaqā'iq ghawamid al-tanzi wa 'uyun al-aqawil fī  wujuh al-ta 'wil,
  •  حاشيه كشاف زمخشرى    Ḥashiyya = Marginal Glosses of Shaykh Baha'i upon the Kashshāf of Zamaksharī.

On the Tafsīr works of Shaykh Bahā'ī see

ʻAbbās, Dalāl.

  •  Bahāʾ al-Dīn al-ʻĀmilī : Adīban wa-Faqīhan wa-ʻāliman, Beirut (?): Dar al-Ḥawar,  1995,  Pt III section II on `Ulum al-Qur'ān pp.535-552.  *

Baḥrānī, Sayyid Hāshim b. Sulaymān al-Baḥrānī (d. 1107/1695-96), Safavid period Shi`i exegete.

  al-Baḥrānī  =  Sayyid Hāshim ibn Sulayman ibn Isma'il ibn `Abd al-Jawad ibn `Ali Ibn Sulayman ibn Nasir Husayni Katkani Tubli  (d. 1110/1695 or 1697) = Qaruni Bahrani.

    See Dhar`ia III:94; Madelung in  EIr.III:538.


al-Bāqillānī ("Greengrocer") =  Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Tayyib al-Bāqillānī (d. 413/1013)

Born Baṣra lived Baghdad. Malikī jurist and Ash`arite theologian  who wrote over fī fty works (mostly lost). See  R.J. McCarthy art. EI2 I:958-9.

Bouman, J.

Bal'amī, Abū `Alī (d. c.387/997). He was among a group of `Ulama' who translated-"recreated" al-Ṭabari's Arabic Tarikh ... into Persian. See al-Tabari below.

Bashīr al-Dīn Maḥmūd =

al-Baṣrī, Ḥasan = Ḥasan al-Baṣrī  (d.110/728).

A "towering fīgure in Islamic thought" (Mourad 2006:3). See Ibn al-Nadim, Fihrist, 202; Sezgin GAL I: 592; Mourad, 51ff...

Obermann, Julian.

Al-Ṭanţawī, 'Alī.

Suleiman Ali Mourad

al-Bayḍāwī = Qaḍī  ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿUmar Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Bayḍāwī (d. Tabriz c. 700/1300).

بيضاوي، عبد الله بن عمر

Sunnī, Mu`tazili commentator indebted to al-Zamakshari.

Brockelmann, GAL Supp. 1: no. 27 pp. 738-732; Riddell, `al-Baydawi' in Leaman, Q-Enc.116-118.

    حاشيه : Ḥāshiyya (Marginal Notes- Glosses) on the Tafsīr of al-Bayḍāwī.  Shaykh Baha'i - Baha' al-Din al-Amili - Shi`i Commentator (see above).

al-Qanvi (d. 1195/1781) + Ibn al-Tamciyd (          ) Check this.

  • Fell, Winand (1837-1908).
  • Margoliouth, D. S.
  • Beeston, A. F. L. 

al-Biqa'ī. Burhān al-Dīn Ibrāhīm ibn 'Umar (d. 885/1480). A Mamluk exegete

 Saleh, Walid.

"In 1461, al-Biqa`i, a Mamluk exegete, decided to use the Bible to interpret the Qur'ān. This was an unprecedented decision which contradicted a millennium of Islamic prohibition against the religious use of the Bible by the Muslims. The Qur'ān commentary he wrote soon became the center of a major controversy as to whether it was legal or Islamic to use the Bible as a religious text in Islam. This paper is an analysis of this momentous development in the history of Islamic interaction with the scriptures of Judaism and Christianity. I will draw on two of al-Biqa`i's works to understand why he thought it was permissible to use the Bible and how he used it in his Qur'ān commentary."

al-Bursevī [Bursawī], Ismā'īl Ḥaqqī (d.1063-1137 AH = 1653-1725).

Esmā`īl Ḥaqqī Bursawī (d. Bursa, 1137/1625).

A prolific and polymathic Ottoman Sufī  commentator,  Hadith scholar and commentator, poet, musician and calligrapher,  Bursevi (= `of Busra')  wrote over 100 books in Arabic, Persian and Turkish. He was a Shaykh of the Jalwatiyya order founded by Shaykh Uftade and Aziz Mahmud Hudayi and was much influenced by Ibn al-`Arabi, Sadr al-Din Qunawi and Jalal al-Din Rumi on whose Mathnavi he wrote a commentary. See further  Ali Ayni, Mehemmed, Ismail Hakki: philosophe mystique 1653-1725, Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, 1933;  Namh, Ali, Ismail Hakki Bursevi Hayati, Eserleri ve Tarikat Anlayisi, Istanbul: Insan Yaymlan, 2001; Ibrahim Kalin `Bursevi, Ismail Hakki' in BEIP vol. 1 [2006] :88-90.

Tafsīr  Rūḥ al-Bayān fī Tafsīr al-Qur'ān ("The Spirit of Exposition in Commentary upon the Qur'an")

Apparently written over a 23 year period.



al-Burujirdī, Sayyid Husayn (ADD/ADD). Modern Shi`i Tafsīr.


 al-Bustānī, Maḥmūd. بستاني، محمود.

Charkhī, Khwāja Ya`qūb (d.851/1447).

See Hamid Algar, art. 'Carkī' in EIr. 4: 819-20; Storey, Persian Literature: A Bio-Bihiographical Survey Vol.1 Pt.1 (1970), 9.

Khwaja Ya'qub The Existential Breath of al-rahman and the Munificent Grace of al-rahim

On Charkhī and his tafsīr, see Hamid Algar, art. 'Carķī' in Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 4, pp. 819-20; C.A. Storey, Persian Literature: A Bio-bibiographical Survey Volume I Part I (London: The Royal Asiatic Society, 1970), p. 9.

Other works of Charkhī -- important for the later Naqshbandï order

Rizvi, Sajjad.

Dāmād :  Mīr Muhammad Baqir Āstarābādī  (d. 1041/1641).


Dāmaghānī, al-Husayn b. Muhammad al-Dāmaghānī, (ADD/ ADD) 

 Dārwaza, Muhammad 'Izzat  Dārwaza, (ADD/ ADD)

  • Tafsīr = al-Tafsīr al-ḥadīth, 12 vols., Cairo 1381-3/1962-4

Daylamī : Abū Thābit `Abd-al-Mālik Daylamī,

al-Dāwūdī, Shams al-Din, Muhammad b. 'Alī b. Aḥmad (ADD/ ADD)

  • Ṭabaqat = Ṭabaqat al-mufassirīn, ed. 'Alī Muhammad 'Umar, 2 vols., Beirut 1983. *

Dhahabī, Muhammad Husayn al-Dhahabī, (ADD/ ADD)

  • al-Tafsîr wa ’l-mufassirūn. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Beirut 1396/1976 (492+639 pp. ).

 Esfarayeni, Abū l al-Muzaffar (5th century- CHECK)

al-Farrā’ = Abū Zakariyya' Yaḥyā ibn Ziyād al-Kufi, al-Farrā' (d.207/822)

See Sezgin GAS VIII 123-5; Tehrani, Dharī`a IV 298 No. 1308 + XXI 206 No. 4635. Kohlberg, A Medieval Muslim Scholar at Work, Ibn Ṭāwūs and his Library (Leiden: Brill,   1992). Kohlberg writes,

"Al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī [ d. 463/ 1070] mentions two recensions of this work: (a) that of Muhammad b. al-Jahm al-Simmarï (d. 277/890-891), who wrote at al-Farrā''s dictation (cf. Ta'rtkh Baghdad, II, p. 161); it is this recension which has been published (I, ed. Aḥmad Yûsuf al-Najātî and Muhammad 'Alī al-Najjār, Cairo, 1955, repr. 1980; II, ēd. al-Najjār, Cairo, 1966; III, ed. 'Abd al-Fått ah Ismacīl Shalabī and 'Alî al-Najdī Naşif, Cairo, 1972); (b) the recension of al-Farrā' 's student Salama b. 'Asim. Al-KhaţTb al-Baghdādī reports that after ál-Farra' had completed a session of dictation and the students had left, Salama would arrive and read back the material to ál-Farra', who would enter changes; al-Khatīb gives this as the reason for the differences between the two recensions ( Tā 'rīkh Baghdad, XIV, pp. 152-153).
IṬ [= Ibn Ṭāwūs] possessed two one-volume manuscripts of al-Farrā' 's work. The fīrst manuscript comprised seven parts (ajzā'), numbered ten through sixteen; the excerpts cited indicate that it contained roughly the second half of al-Farrā's text. The second manuscript, with an ijāza dated 409/1018-9, comprised seven parts (ajzā') numbered one through seven; judging by the excerpts cited, this manuscript contained the entire work" (Kohlberg 1992:340).

  • Kitāb al-Farrā' = Tafsīr al-Farrā' = Ma'ānī’ al-Qur'ān. 3 vols. ed.  Muhammad 'Alī al-Najjār et. al. Cairo: Dar al-kutub al-Misriyya, 1955-72.

Kinberg, Naphtali (1948-1997).

al-Farārī , Muḥammad ibn Ḥamzah.

 al-Fīrūzābādī =  Abū al-Qāhir Muhammad ihn Ya'qūb ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Majd al-Dīn al-Shirāzī al-Fīruzābādī al-Shāfi'ī (729- 817 AH = d.1329- 1414 CE).

He is associated with the transmission of the Tafsīr attributed to Ibn `Abbās (see above) and is said to have written five other  works of Tafsīr. See  Brockelmann, EI II:113-14; Fleisch, EI2 II: 926-27.

"One of these works is entitled Tanwīr al-miqbas min tafsīr Ibn 'Abbās. Al-Dawūdī (d. 945/1538) and, probably repeating the information from him, Hājjī Khalifa (d. Ι068/Ι658) report that this was a four-volume work. Brockelmann  lists this work as printed in Cairo in 1290 and 1316, the latter edition being published along with the naskh text of Muhammad ibn Hazm;  Fleisch  then adds mention of a print in Cairo, 1345/1926. Sezgin in his entry on Ibn 'Abbas adds the following list of prints of this al-Fīrūzābādī text (under the supposition that it represents a transmission of Ibn 'Abbas's tafsïr): Bulāq, 1863,1866,1873,1885; Cairo, 1302,1316,1332, 1937, 1960. This list appears to be a somewhat updated restatement of what is found in Brockelmann under Ibn 'Abbas, although Sezgin does not make this explicit." (so Rippin, 1994 [2001]).

Fayḍī =  Abū al-Fayḍ ibn al-Mubarak al-Fayḍī (d. 1004/1596).

Abu al-Qāsim Furāt ibn Ibrahim ibn Furāt al-Kūfī (early 4th cent AH/ 10th cent. CE).

 Furāt al-Kūfī  (d. c. 310/922). Important largely Hadith generated Shi`i Tafsīr writer.

See Sezgin GAS 1:539; Bar-Asher, 1999:29f; Modarressi,  Tradition and Survival., 2003: 82-86.No.6. ; Meir M. Bar Asher, Scripture and Exegesis in Early Imami Shiism (Leiden: Brill, 1999), 29-32:

"Furāt b. Furāt b. Ibrahim al-Kufī is the least known of the commentators that will be discussed here. He is not mentioned in early Shī'ī biographical compositions. From his nisba, we learn that he was associated with the city of al-Kūfa, although it is uncertain whether he was born there or lived there most of his life or at least part of it. The dates of his birth and death are also unknown. His chronology can be estimated on the basis of his relation to several scholars whose hadiths he transmitted or who transmitted hadiths on his authority. They include Abu 1-Hasan 'Alî ibn Babawayhi ([d. 3Z9/940], who according to certain sources transmitted traditions he received from Furāt), and his son, Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. 'Alî ibn Babawayhi (d. 381/991), the more renowned of the two, who also cites Furāt in his various writings (not directly but through the mediation of Hasan b. Muhammad b. Sa'īd al-Hāshimī)" (Bar-Asher, 1999:29 referencing, al-Mamaqani, Tanqib al-maqal, biography 9412; al-Khwansari, Rawdat al-jannat, 5:345; 'Abbas Quramĩ, al-Fawa'id al-radawiyya ft ahwāl 'ulama' al-madhhab al-ja'fariyya (Tehran, 1327Sh/1376), 349; A'yan, 41:170-271; Obana, 4:198-9; Tafsīr Furat (editor's introduction, 2)....

Gātje, Helmut.

al-Ghazālī Abū al-Ḥamīd, Muhammad (d. 505/1111). Ashari theologian and Sufī  mystic.

  • Mishkat al-anwār.

Whittingham, Martin.

Hammūya,  Sa`d al-Din.  (d. 650/1252).

al-Hanbali, `Abd al-Rahman al-Baghdadi  (d. 795/ ADD)

al-Harawī = al-Qāsim ibn Sallām ibn `Abd-Allah Abī `Ubayd al-Harawī (d. 157/224), an early  Sunni Hadith  scholar and philologist.

al-Ḥallaj : al-Ḥusayn ibn Manṣūr / Abū Manṣūr al-Ḥallāj  (executed. 309 /922)

Ḥasan al-Baṣrī  (d.110/728) -> al-Baṣrī, Ḥasan.

 al-Ḥibarī,  `Abū `Abd-Allāh al-Kufī  al-Husayn ibn Hakam ibn Muslim (d. 686 /1287)

al-Ḥillī,  Shaykh `Abū `Abd-Allāh Muhammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Idrīs Ibn Ḥusayn Ibn Qasim Ibn `Īsā' al-Ijlī (fl. 6th cent. AH/13th cent. CE).

al-Ḥibarī, Abū  'Abdullah al-Ḥusayn ibn al-Ḥakam (d. 286 / XXX).

al-Huwaydī,  Shaykh Muhammad  (d. XXXX/XXXX).

Husayni : Kamāl-al-Dīn Ḥusayn ibn `Alī,  Vā`iz-i Kāshifī (d. 910/1504–05).

Sands, Kristin Zahra

al-Huwayzī =  `Abd `Alī ibn Jum`ah al-`Arūsī al-Ḥuwayzī (d. 1112/1700), Shī`ī Tafsīr

حويزي، عبد علي بن جمعة


  • کتاب تفسير نور الثقلين = Kitab Tafsīr Nūr al-thaqalayn. 5 vols. Qum, al-Maṭbaʻa al-ʻIlmiyya, 1383-1385/ 1963-1965.
  • کتاب تفسير نور الثقلين = Kitāb tafsīr Nūr al-thaqalayn. 5 vols. Qum : al-Maṭbaʻa al-ʻIlmiyya, XXXX / 1984[?]. 
  • تفسير نور الثقلين  = Tafsīr Nūr al-thaqalayn. 8 vols. ed. ʻAlī ʻĀshūr. Beirut: : Muʼassasat al-Tārīkh al-ʻArabī, 2001.
  •  تفسير نور الثقلين  = Tafsīr Nūr al-thaqalayn. 8 vols. in 3. Beirut: Dār al-Maḥajjah al-Bayḍāʼ, 2015. Vol.1. [1-3]. Sūrat al-Baqarah - Sūrat al-Tawbah. vol. 2 [3-5]. Sūrat Yūnus to Sūrat al-Sajada. Vol. 3 [6-8]. Sūrat al-Aḥzāb - Sūrat al-Nās... 
  • تفسير نور الثقلين  = Tafsīr Nūr al-thaqalayn / Tarjamah va matn-i tafsīr-i sharīf-i Nūr al-s̲aqalīn. Multi-volume Persian Trans. Tarjamah-i gurūhī az fuz̤alā-yi Ḥawzah-i Tafsīr ; bā pīshʹguftār va ishrāf-i Ustād ʻAqīqī Bakhshāyishī. Qum : Kitāb-i ʻAtīq ; nāshir-i hamkār : Navīd-i Islām, 1391-/2012-. Several editions and printings.

 al-Huwwari, Hud ibn Muhakkam. (ADD/ ADD)

Ibn `Abbās, `Abd-Allāh  (d. c. 68 / 687),

Tafsīr attributed to the paternal fīrst cousin of Muhammad, the 'Father of Tafsīr'.


Veccia Vaglieri, L. ``Abd Allāh b. al-'Abbās.' in EI2 1:40-1.;

On ascription and authenticity see Rippin cited above on al-Fīrūzābādī. 

 Goldfeld, Isaiah.

Rippin, Andrew.

Motzki, H. 
  • `Dating the so-called Tafsīr Ibn `Abbas: some additional remarks' in JSAI 31 (2006 =  Studies in memory of Professor Franz Rosenthal) , 2  pp.

 Tafsīr Ibn `Abbas, trans. Mokrane Guezzou


  • Tafsīr Ibn Abbas (= The Great Commentaries on the Holy Qur’an Series Volume II) Translated by Mokrane Guezzou General Editor: Yousef Meri 931 pp. Amman [Jordon] : Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought & Fons Vitae Publishing (USA).  ISBN: 1891785176 ISBN-13: 9781891785177.

"Tafsīr Ibn Abbas, presented here in complete English translation for the first time ever, is the second work in the Great Commentaries on the Holy Qur'ān series. The series aims to make widely available leading exegetical works in translation for study and research in unabridged form, which are faithful to the letter and meaning of the Arabic. Attributed variously to the Companion Abdullah Ibn 'Abbas (d.687CE) and to Ibn Ya'qub al-Firuzabadi (d.1414CE), Tafsīr Ibn Abbas is one of the pivotal works for understanding the environment which influenced the development of Quranic exegesis. Despite its uncertain authorship and its reliance on controversial Israelite stories, Tafsīr Ibn Abbas nevertheless offers valuable insight into the circulation and exchange of popular ideas between Islam, Judaism, and Christianity during the formative phase of Islamic exegesis. This commentary is unabridged and uncensored, like the other works in the Great Commentaries on the Holy Qur’an series. The traditions attributed to Ibn Abbas that are at the core of this work render it as a seminal work of exegesis. Tafsīr Ibn Abbas is unencumbered with isnads, or chains of transmission, and does not contain elaborate theological or philosophical explanations or technical grammatical explanations, thus making the work accessible to the non-specialist. Muslim scholarship considers the author Ibn Abbas as the real father of the science of Tafsīr. The reports related from Ibn Abbas regarding the interpretation of the Qur’an are quite abundant. In fact, there is almost no interpretation of a Qur’anic verse for which one cannot find an interpretation to Ibn Abbas.

About the Translator: Dr. Mokrane Guezzou is a British-Algerian translator of major Islamic works. His translation of Al-Wahidi’s Asbab Al-Nuzul also appears in the Great Commentaries on the Holy Qur’an series. He is also presently at work on a translation and study of Ibn ‘Ata Allah al-Iskandari’s Al-Qasd al-Mujarrad fi Ma’rifat al-Ism al-Mufrad (Fons Vitae). About the General Editor: Dr. Yousef Waleed Meri is a leading specialist in Islam of the pre-modern period, Islamic cultural and social history and interfaith relations. He received a B.A. (Magna cum laude) from University of California, Berkeley in 1992, an M.A. from the State University of New York Binghamton in 1995 and a D.Phil. from Wolfson College, Oxford University in 1999. Currently, he is a Fellow and Special Scholar in Residence at the Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought (Amman, Jordan), which is under the patronage of Abdallah II, King of Jordan. He has published numerous articles and books dealing with various aspects of Islamic history, civilization and ritual practice."

 Ibn Abī al-Ḥātim (d. 327/939).

Mehmet Akif Koç. (Ankara University)

 Ibn `Abī Zamanayn (d.399/1008).


 Ibn `Ajībah, Sidi (ADD/ADD).

Sidi ibn Ajibah, a Moroccan Sheikh of the Darqarwi Shadhili Sufi order.

 Ibn `Ajībah, Abī al-ʻAbbās Sīdī Aḥmad ibn ʻAjībah al-Ḥasanī al-Tiṭwānī / Aḥmad ibn Muhammad (c. 1747-1809).

  ابن عجيبة، أحمد بن محمد

 Ibn al-'Arabī = Abū  Bakr Muhammad ibn 'Abd-Allāh ibn al-'Arabī al-Ma`āfirī (d. 543/1092). 

Andalusian Mailikī jurist and commentator who was qaḍī (judge) in his native Seville. He journeyed to Syria and Iraq and Egypt and was a one-time pupil of `Abd al-Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī (d.505/1111). See J. Robson EI2 III:707; McAuliffe, 2006 [CCQ] pp.194-196.

Select Other works

al-Mashni, M. I.

Ibn al-'Arabī, Muḥyī al-Dīn = Abū `Abd-Allah Muḥammad ibn `Ali ibn Muḥammad ibn al-'Arabī al-Ḥātimī  al-Ṭā’ī  (b. Murcia 560/1165- d. Damascus 638/1240).


Tomb of Ibn `Arabī [ in Glass case] in Mount Qasyun Damascus

 أبو عبد الله محمد بن علي بن محمد بن العربي الحاتمي الطائي

Ibn al-'Arabī, Muḥyī al-Dīn = Abū `Abd-Allah Muḥammad ibn `Ali ibn Muḥammad ibn al-'Arabī al-Ḥātimī  al-Ṭā’ī  (b. Murcia 560/1165- d. Damascus 638/1240). The "Great Shaykh" (al-Shaykh al-Akbar), the Sunnī central figure in Islamic mysticism. He had a tremendous, foundational influence upon the Sufī  and Shi`i mystical and exegetical worlds.  There is a great deal of Tafsīr in the numerous works of Ibn al`Arabī especially his massive magnum opus the al-Futuḥāt al-Makkiyya ("Meccan Disclosures") and his well-known Fusū s al-Ḥikam ("Bezels of Wisdom")al-Futuhat al-Makkiyah :http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/ibnarabi.html

'Aja'ib al-Irfan fi Tafsir al-QuranThe Tafsīr of `Abd al-Razzaq al‑Kashānī (d. c. 730/ 1330).

The Tafsīr commonly printed under Ibn al`Arabi's name is actually the work of his disciple `Abd al‑Razzāq al‑Kashānī (d. 730/1330)


Modern printings are often unreliable:

Studies of the [Ibn `Arabi = ] al-Kashani Tafsīr

 Lory, Pierre

 Ibn `Atā’ = Taj al-Din Abu'l-Faḍl / Abū'l-`Abbās Ibn `Atā' (d. XXX/XXXX). CHECK THIS


"Editions of separate Qur’an commentaries are available for Ja`far al-Sādiq (Nwyia, 1968a), Nūrī (Nwyia, 1968b), Ibn`Atā’ (Nwyia, 1973, pp. 23–182) and Hallāj (Massignon, 1968, pp. 359–412). These four tafsīrs have been reproduced (with Nwyia’s original French introductions to his editions of the commentaries by Ja`far al-Sādiq and Ibn ‘Atā’ translated into Persian) in Pūrjavādī (1369, pp. 1–292). Apart from Nwyia’s edition of the Qur’an commentary by Ibn `Atā’, Richard Gramlich’s monograph (Gramlich, 1995) should be noted. This provides a complete German translation of the Sufi Qur’an commentary attributed to Ibn `Atā’ (pp. 130–317)." (Rostom, Mohammed in `Forms of Gnosis in Sulamī’s Sufi Exegesis of the Fātiha' in Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, vol. 16, No. 4 ( 2005),  336. fn.4).

Richard Gramlich 1995

Review by Gerhard Böwering:

Ibn 'Atiyya, al-Andalusi  (d. 5XX/ 11XX).

تفسير ابن عطية      


Ibn Durays, Muhammad b. Ayyüb b. Durays (ADD/ ADD)

    • Fada'il = Fada'il al-Qur'ān, ed. Ghazwa Budayr, Damascus 1988

Ibn Furāt al-Kūfī = Furāt  Ibn Ibrahim ibn Furāt al-Kūfī. (fl. second half of the 3d/9th century)

See Tehrani, al-Dhari`a IV 298 no. 1309; Sezgin, GAS 1:539; Kohlberg 1992:  341. Cited in the Biḥār al-anwār of Majlisī.  

For the author and his Qur'ān exegesis see GAS, 1: 539; Bar-Asher, pp. 37-39; the introduction by Muhammad al-Kāzim to his edition of the Tafsīr Furāt (Tehran, 1410/1990). (I am grateful to Dr. Bar-Asher for drawing my attention to this edition.) Muhammad 'Alî al-Gharawĩ al-Ūrdubādī states in his introduction to the Najaf 1354 edition of the Tafsīr Furāt that it was used by IT in the Yaqm; but it is not mentioned in Y. According to al-Kāzim (introduction, p. 13), no author before al-Majlisī (in the Bihar) is known to have cited from this Tafsīr, with the exception of al-Haskānī in his Shawahid al-tanzīl.

Ibn al-Hawwārī, Muḥammad = Abī al-Ḥawwārī al- ʿUmānī al-Ibāḍī ; taḥqīq Walīd ʿAwjān (ADD/ADD).

Ibn al-Jawzi, Jamāl al-Dīn Abū al-Faraj 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Abī'l-Ḥusayn `Ali (d. 597/1200)

Ibn al-Jazarī (d. 833/1429),

Ibn al-Jazarī, Shams al-Dīn Abū’l-Khayr Muhammad b. Muhammad b. al-Jazarī (ADD/ADD).

Ibn Jurayj = 'Abd al-Malik b. `Abd  al-`Azīz Ibn Jurayj (d. 150/ 767). CHECK

Cited by al-Tabari and al-Tha`labi  as well as Ibn Ṭāwūs who possessed "an excellent copy". See Sezgin GAL 1:91 ?? ; Kohlberg 1992:341-2.

al-Jurayrī  =  Abū Sa`īd Abān ibn Taghib ibn Rabāḥ ibn Raba`ī al-Bakrī al-Jurayrī (c. 80-141 AH = c .699? -758 CE)

Prominent Kufān Shi`ite who excelled in Arabic grammar, lexicography, Qur'ān commentary and such other emergent Islamic sciences as Ḥadīth scholarship. An authority on the recitation of the Qur'ān, he is said to have been greatly respected by the sixth Imam Ja`far al-Ṣādiq (d.148/765) through whom important Tafsīr traditions were relayed and generated. Some details about him and his writings can be read in Modarressi's erudite Tradition and Survival  (2003) vol. 1: 107-116 which is drawn upon here.

Ibn Kathīr = 'Imād al-Dīn Abū 'l-fīḍā' Ismā'il ibn 'Urnar ibn Kathīr (701-774 AH =  1302-1373 CE).

ابن كثير، إسماعيل بن عمر

Kitāb Faḍā'il al-Qur'ān

URLs On line Texts

English and other translations : should be used with caution as most are full of paraphrases, bad translation and omissions.

  • al-Bidāya wa-l-nihāya ("The Genesis and the Culmination [of History]")
  • Qiṣaṣ al anbiyā’ (Stories of the Prophets).

Ibn Khāzin al-Shīhi ( ADD/ADD).

Ibn al-Nadīm, Muhammad ibn Isḥāq, (fl. 987.)

His Fihrist ("Index") contains important  bibliographical data on early Tafsīr works.

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Shams al-Din = Muhammad ibn Abī Bakr (d. 751/1350).

Hanbali jurist and disciple of Ibn Taymiyya.


Al-Tibyan fi Aqsam al-Quran التبيان في أقسام القرآن

 Ibn Qutayba, Abī Muhammad 'Abd-Allāh b. Muslim al-Dīnawarī b. Qutayba (d.     /889).

Ibn Salām = Abū  `Ubayd al-Qāsim ibn  Salām [ al-Harawī ](d. 157/224).

Sunnī Hadith  scholar and philologist.

Ibn Shāhīn =   al-Ẓāhiri Ghars al-Din Khalīl Ibn Shāhīn (813- AH = c. 1411-c.1469 CE).  *

See EI2 III:935.

Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muhammad ibn `Alī, Abū Ja`far (d. 588/1192).

Imami Shi`i writer See EI2 III:935 + EIr. ADD.

Ibn Sīrīn, Muhammad (d. XXX/ 728-9).

Major figure in early Islamic dream interpretation.

Ibn Taymiyyah = Taqi al-Din, `Abū 'l-`Abbās Aḥmad ibn `Abd-Allāh al-Halim  (d.728/1328).

Dr. Muhammad Jazbi,

  • Kitāb Muqaddimat al-Tafsīr

Jane Dammen McAuliffe.

Ibn Wahb =  'Abd-Allāh ibn Wahb  (125/743-197/812) or (742 or 3 - 812 or 13 ).

 al-Īmādī, Muhammad ibn Muhammad Abū’l-Su`ūd  (d. 982/1574),

ابو السعود محمد بن محمد

al-Isfahanī, al-Rāghib,  Abū  al-Qasim al-Husayn ibn Muhammad (d. 1108-9)

. al-Mufradat fī  gharib al-Qur'ān : manuscript, [nd]. 1 v. ; 26 cm. ... (ADD/ADD)

Islahī, Amīn Ahsan Işlahī (b. Bamhor, Azamgarh [India] 1904 d. Lahore [Pakistan]1997)

Indian born Urdu Qur'ān commentator and writer.

Qur'ān Commentary & Select works.

 Jābir ibn Yazid ibn al-Ḥārith al-Ju`fī  (d.128/745-6).

Late `Umayyad period Kufan Shi`ite transmitter of Ḥadīth and a close associate of (the fī fth twelver) Imam Muhammad al-Bāqir (d. c.126/743) to whom a Tafsīr is also attributed (see below). He was much lauded by Shiite extremists and widely viewed as an expert in Tafsīr. He often expressed a pro-`Alid Qur'ānic exegesis-eisegesis. For some details see Modarressi 20003 1:86-103.

Ja'far al-Ṣādiq (d.145/765) - the sixth (twelver) Shī`ī Imam.

An important though little studied major fountainhead of Imami Shī`ī hadith and Tafsīr traditions treasured by Sufī s and others.

"Editions of separate Qur’an commentaries are available for Ja`far al-Sādiq (Nwyia, 1968a), Nūrī (Nwyia, 1968b), Ibn`Atā’ (Nwyia, 1973, pp. 23–182) and Hallāj (Massignon, 1968, pp. 359–412)These four tafsīrs have been reproduced (with Nwyia’s original French introductions to his editions of the commentaries by Ja`far al-Sādiq and Ibn ‘Atā’ translated into Persian) in Pūrjavādī (1369, pp. 1–292)... " (Rostom, Mohammed in `Forms of Gnosis in Sulamī’s Sufi Exegesis of the Fātiha' in Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, Vol. 16, No. 4 (October 2005),  p. 336. fn.4.

Nwyia, Paul,

Zadeh, Ensieh Nasrollahi

See also extracts in translation in Michael Sells

Jalālayn - see Tafsīr  Jalālayn : Jalāl al-Dīn al-al-Suyūṭī  (d.911/1505) + Jalāl al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Aḥmad al-Maḥallī (d. 864/1459)  [see al-Suyūṭī  below].

  . محمد بن عبد الرحمن الخميس Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Khamīs  Musa, Sulaiman


 al-Jami' = al-Gāmī'  (= Die Koranswissenschaften), ed. M. Muranyi, Wiesbaden 1992.

Title page in Arabic: al-Jāmi [fī ‘ulūm al-Qur'ān]. xiii, 289 p. : ill. ; 25 cm Series Quellenstudien zur Hadīt- und Rechtsliteratur in Nordafrika /  Facsimile and transcription of Manuskript Qairawān 224; commentary in German Title on added  Includes bibliographical references (p. [137]-148) and index Subjects Koran -- Early works to 1800 Alt name Muranyi, Miklos Other titles Jāmi‘ (fī ‘ulūm al-Qur'ān) OCLC # 29818080 ISBN 3447032839 *

al‑Jāmī`= `Abd al‑Rahman al‑Jāmī` (d. 898/1492). Important Naqhshbandi [Khwājagānī] Sufī  poet and theologian of the school of Ibn al-`Arabī. 

I draw below on the Rizvi 2006 article cited below. A critical edition is planned by this writer who has listed 2006: fn 100 the following mss :

Rizvi, Sajjad H.

 al‑Jīlī, `Abd al‑Karīm ibn Ibrāhīm al-Jilī (d. c. 899/1428).

Shi`i Sufī  of the school of Ibn al-`Arabi. EI 2  ADD.

Secondary Sources

 Zaydān, Yūsuf,

al-Jubbā'ī = Abu 'Alī al-Jubbā'ī (d. 303/915)

Gimaret, Daniel.

al-Jurayrī =  see Abān ibn Taghib =  Abū Sa`īd ibn Taghib ibn Rabāḥ ibn Raba`ī al-Bakrī al-Jurayrī (c. 80/699? - 141/758)

al-Jurjānī  = 'Abd al-Qāhir al-Jurjāni (ADD/ADD).

Ka`bī, Abī al-Qāsim al-Ka`bi  (ADD/ADD).

Kāshifī, Ḥusayn Wā’iz-i (ADD/ADD).

Qur'ān Commentary = Mawāhib-i ’Aliyyah. ADD.

 al-Kāshānī [al-Qāshānī], `Abd al-Razzāq  (d. 730/1330)

An important Persian fīgure in the school of  Ibn al-`Arabi (see above) and the author of around forty fīve Arabic and Persian works including several Arabic writings centered on the allegorical-mystical exegesis of the Qur'ān or portions thereof. His Tafsīr is commonly printed under Ibn al`Arabi's name. Thus:

 Lory, Pierre.

al-Kāshānī = Fayḍ al-Kashānī = Muhammad ibn Murtadā al-Kāshāni /  Mullā Muḥsin Fayḍ al-Kashānī,  (d.1091/1680).



 al-Kāzarūnī = Muhammad Rūzbihān Abū Muhammad ibn Abī Naṣr al-Baqalī al-Fasawī al-Kāzarūnī [Shirazi] (522-606 AH= 1128-1209 CE). See Rūzbihān al-Baqlī below.

 al-Khū`ī. Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim al-Musawī (1317-43 AH= 1899-1992 CE).

Supreme Ayat-Allah of the Imami Twelver Shi`a  who spent 70 year in Najaf  and was imprisoned by Saddam  Hussein. See Sachedina, Prolegomena o the Qur'ān, New York: OUP., 1998; Oliver Leaman in BEIP 2: 33-4.

 al-Khāzin =  See  al-Baghdadi = `Alā' al-Dīn `Alī ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Baghdadi al-Sufi (d. 741/1340)

 Kirmānī, Ḥajji Mīrzā Muhammad Karim Khān Kirmānī (d. 1288/1871). 19th century Qajar period third Kirmānī Shaykhi leader. Pupil of Sayyid Kāẓim Rashtī (d. 1843) and follower of Shaykh Aḥmad al-Ahsa'i (d. 1826). 

Kisāʼī, ʻAlī ibn Ḥamzah (d. XXX/804-5??).

كسائي , علي بن حمزة.

 al-Lāhijī, Muhammad ibn Shaykh `Alī al-Sharīf, `Abd al-Razzaq ( d. 1072/1661). Shi`i Tafsīr.      

  • Tafsīr-i sharīf-i Lāhijī. ed. Mīr Jalāl al-Din Ḥusaynī Armavī. / ed. Muḥammad Ibrāhīm Āyatī. 4 Vols. Tehran: Mu’assasih-i Maṭbū`āt al-`Ilmī, 1340/1961. *
  • Tafsīr-i sharīf-i Lāhijī. ed. Mīr Jalāl al-Din Ḥusaynī Urmawī. Vols. 3-4 ed. Muhammad Ibrāhīm Āyatī. 4 Vols. Tehran: Mu’assasih-i Maṭbū`āt al-`Ilmī, 1340/1961 (4 vols. = 856+ 945+ 938 + 898 pp.). * 

Majlisī, Muhammad-Bāqir b. Muhammad-Taqī Majiisï (d. 1111/1699-1700).

  • Hayat = Ḥayāt al-qulūb.  5 vols. Ed. Sayyid `Alī Imamiyān. Intishārāt Surūr, 1375-6 Sh/ 1997-8.
  • Biḥār al-anwar 1st ed. Tehran 25/15 vols. Tehran: 1887-98. Bihār al-anwār  2  110 vols. Tehran: al-Maktabah al-Islamīyah, 1387-92/1956-72. Bihar 2 Biḥār al-anwār  2nd ed 110 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Iḥyā al-Turāth al-`Arabī, 1376-94/1956-74 and 1403/1983. Bihar 2 vols. XCII+XCIII are especially relevant to Tafsīr.
  • Hayat = Ḥayāt al-qulūb.  5 vols. Ed. Sayyid `Alī Imamiyān. Intishārāt Surūr, 1375-6 Sh/ 1997-8

al-Marāghī, Aḥmad Mustafa (1881-1945 CE).  Egyptian Shaykh of al-Azhar influenced by Muhammad Abduh...

تفسير المراغي

Maybudī, Rashīd al-Dīn Abu al-Fadl (d. after 520/1126) Author of an important ten volume early Persian Tafsīr work.

رشيدالدين ميبدى

This ten volume commentary explains the Qur'ānic verses in terms of (1) literal meaning, (2) historical and doctrinal background, and (3) spiritual signifīcance often exposing Sufī  teachings as derived from `Abd-Allāh al-Anṣārī of Herat (396-481 AH = 1006-1089 CE), author of the Ṭabaqāt al-ṣūfiyya;  Sad Maydan and Manā`zil al-sā'irin.


  • Kashf al-asrār wa`uddat al-abrār = `Tafsir Khwajah `Abd-Allah al-Ansari'.

Masarrat, H.

Keeler, Anabel (Wolfson College, Cambridge).

 مجاهد بن جبر   Mujāhid ibn Jabr.

al-Mujāhid, Abū’l-Ḥajjaj Mujāhid ibn  Jabr al-Makkī (d. c. 104/722).

An important, possibly proto-Shi`i collector of pre-Islamic lore and related exegetical materials.

Stauth, Georg.

al-Mu'ayyad fī'l-Dīn Shirāzī =

Hibbat-Allāh Abū  Naṣr  ibn Mūsā al-Shirazi  = al-Mu'ayyad fī 'l-Dīn Shirāzī (d.470/1077). Fāṭimid Isma'ili commentator. See Poonawalla EI2 5:270; Reynolds, 2001:145-155: Klemm 2003.

"A collection of 800 majālis in eight volumes, each containing 100 majālis on a variety of topics, dealing mainly with Ismaili ta'wïl, ethics, theology, philosophy and eschatology, including esoteric interpretations of Qur'ānic verses and ḥadith. These lectures were delivered by al-Mu'ayyad during the majālis al֊-ḥikma in Cairo." (Klemm 2003:114).

Muhammad Kāmil Husayn (1901-1961)(ed).

"The memoirs of al-Mu'ayyad's activities and experiences in the service of the Fatimid Caliph-Imam al-Mustansir, consisting of two parts and a postscript...." (Klemm, 2003:15).

Cortese, Delia.

Gacek, Adam.

Klemm, Verena.

Poonawala, Ismail K.

Qutbuddin, Bazat-Tahera.

Muscati, Jawad

Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Bāqir (b. Medina c. 56-57/676 - d. c.117/735), the fifth (twelver) Shī`ī Imam. See EI2 VII:397-400 (Kohlberg)

An important though little studied major fountainhead of Imami Shī`ī hadith and Tafsīr traditions. His Tafsīr is mentioned in the Fihrist of Ibn al-Nadīm and seems to have been available to Ibn Tāwūs (see Kohlberg, 1992: 339-341; Modarressi, 2003:37-38)..

Muḥsin,  ʻAbd al-Ḥamīd, Qaḥṭān ʻAbd al-Raḥmān al-Dūrī.

Mukarram, 'Abd al-Āl Salim Mukarram, (add/add).

مقاتل بن سليمان


Muqātil  ibn Sulayman = Abū’l-Ḥasan Muqātil  ibn Sulayman ibn Basir  al-Azdī al-Balkhī [al-Khurāsānī] (d. Basra 150 /767). See  Ibn al-Nadim, 179; Ta'rikh Baghdad XIII: 161,3; Sezgin GAS 1:36-7. Possibly a Zaydī (Shī`ī) commentator and theologian.

Gilliot, Claude

Versteegh, C. H. M.

al-`Arūsī,  Muhammad.

Mehmet Akif Koc (Ankara University, Turkey)

Maghniyya, Aḥmad (XXX/XXXX).

 Najm al-Dīn Kubrā = Shaykh Najm Abu al-Jannāb al-Dīn Kubrā Aḥmad ibn `Umar (540-618 AH =1145-1221 CE).

A great Sufī  teacher whose epithet comes from Q. 79:34 (tammat kubra, "supreme catastrophe") and  reflects his fame as a powerful controversialist. He is regarded as the eponymous founder of the Kubrawiyya Sufi Order of Central Asia and Khurasan. See Meier, 1957; Knysh, Islamic Mysticism, 2000:234-239.

Select other writings: Add


نخجڤاني، نعمة الله محمود

Nakhjavānī, Shaykh Ni`mat-Allāh ibn Mahmūd ( ADD/ADD).،  

al-Nasafī, 'Abd-Allah ibn Aḥmad ibn Mahmud (d. 710/1310).

Hanafi Sunni exegete

 Nisāpūrī, al-Qummī =  Nizām al-Dīn, Ḥasan ibn Muhanmad ibn Ḥusayn (d.728/ 1327-

al-Nisabūrī = Nizām al-Dīn, Ḥasan ibn Muhammad ibn Ḥusayn al-Qummi (d.728/ 1327-8)

al-Naḥḥās, Aḥmad ibn Muhammad (ADD/ ADD)

al-Nu'manĩ,  (d. ca. 360/971). Shi`i Tafsīr.

Nūr al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Shāh (d. 1115/1704),

al-Qasimī, Muhammad Jamāl al-Dīn (d. 1332/1914)

Al-Qasim Ibn Ibrahim (ADD/XXXX)

al-Qunawī, Ṣadr al-Dīn (d. 673/1274). Key disciple of Ibn al-`Arabi and mystical exegete.




al-Qurṭubī, Abū  'Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn Aḥmad al-Anṣarī, (d. 671/1273)

 Aisha Bewley; Abdalhaqq Bewley (ed.) trans.

  • Tafsīr Al Qurtubi: Classical Commentary of the Holy Qur'ān (vol. 1) Surah al-Fatiha and Surat al-Baqara, 2004.

 al-Qummī,  Abū  al-Ḥasan `Ali ibn Ibrahim (d. c. 307/919 or 329/941)


al-Qunawī, Ṣadr al-Dīn Qunawi (d.673/1274).

Stepson of Ibn al-`Arabi and key figure in the genesis of the schollof Ibn al-`Arabi . He was the author of  more than a dozen Arabic and Persian work

al-Qushayrī, Abū al-Qāsim `Abd al-Karīm (d. 465/1074).

Born near Nishapur in Khurasan (Persia-Iran). Sunni Asharite theologian and Sufi theologian...

R. Aḥmad,

Bowering, Gerhard.

Select other books of al-Qushayri:

  Front CoverFront Cover

Sells, Michael,


Rasa'il Ikhwan al-Safa' ('The Treatises of the Brethren of Purity'). 

Fifty-two or so Arabic Isma'ili related epistles eventually set down in the late 4th AH/10th cent. CE.

Poonawala, I. K.,

رشيدالدين طبيب 

Rashīd al-Dīn [Ṭabīb] Faḍl Allāh Hamdānī (d. 718/1348)


A learned and polymathic Jewish convert to Islam and one time physician to various Mongol Sultans. Rashīd al-Dīn is best known as a world historian though he wrote much in Persian and Arabic on a variety of subjects. His writings include sometimes lengthy Persian treatises on Qur'ānic verses.

al-Rāzī, Muhammad ibn `Umar, Abū  al-Su`ud Muhammad ibn, Muhammad Fakhr al-Dīn (d. 606/1209).

G. C. Anawati, 'Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī' EI2 vol. 2:751-5

  تفسير مفاتيح الغيب ، التفسير الكبير  

  • Arnaldez, Roger.
  • Ismā‘īl, ‘Izz al-Dīn
  • Bū  ‘Azīzī, Muhammad al-‘Arabī
  • Shalahudin Kafrawi
  • Rahbar, Daud,
  • Rahbar, Daud.
  • Lagarde, Michel.
  • ‘Abd al-Rahmān, Muhammad Ibrāhīm
  • Hindāwī Aḥmad, et. al. (ed.)
  • Muhibbu-Din, M. A. 1997.
  • Schub, M. B. 1981.
  • McAuliffe, J.D. 1990
  • Iskenderoglu, Muammer
  • Kafrawi, Shalahudin

al-Rāzī = Shaykh Abū ’l-Futūḥ al-Rāzi = Ḥusayn b. 'Alī b. Muhammad b. Aḥmad al-Khuzā`ī al-Nisāpūrī (fl. between 480- 525 AH = 1087-1131 CE). Teacher of the Shi`i thinkers Ibn Shahrashūb and Ibn Babuya.  Early Qur'ān commentator in Persian, possibly a contemporary of Zamakshari (d.538/1144) whose Mu`tazilite orientation may have influenced him. See  Storey sec. I no.6; art. H. Masse, EI2 Vol.1:120;

  • Dr. `Askar Ḥuqūqī ( Ascar Hoghoughi)

Rashid Riḍā', Muhammad (1865-1935) [+ Muhammad `Abduh]. Syrian Islamic reformer who resided in Egypt from 1897. See above on Muhammad `Abduh.

Rashtī, Sayyid Kāzim  = Ibn Sayyid Qāsim Muhammad Kāẓim al-Hāshimi.. al-Ḥusaynī (d. Karbala, 1259-1843).


The Persian born second head of al-Shaykhiyya (Shaykhism) after Shaykh Aḥmad al-Ahsā'ī (see above). Qajar period Persian mystical philosopher and exegete.

Mss contained, for example, in SOAS (London) No. 1141 [unpaginated] Item 8.  [ fols. XXX] (see Ibrahimi, Fihrist No. 270 p. 331). Rashti claims at the outset  to be giving a deep mystico-philosophical exegesis expressive of the ta`wīl ("allegorical") and of the bāṭin ("Interior dimension") of this Qur'ānic verse. This work is an extended several hundred page very complex  exegesis- eisegesis of the Throne Verse. It commences as follows:

الحمد لله الذي اجلي افئدة العارفين لتجليات ظهوره و انار قلوب السالكين لاشراقات نوره و شرح صدور العالمين لتشعشع لمعات بدوره و الصلوة علي سيدنا محمد الذي به استقر عرشه و كرسيه و هو الاسم الذي استقر في ظله فلايخرج منه الي غيره و هو الاسم الاعظم المكنون و النور الانور المخزون به نورت الانوار و به ظهرت الاسرار و به اشرق النور من صبح الازل و به وجدت الموجودات ما قل و جل و علي آله و اصحابه شموس الهدي و بدور الدجي و اعلام التقي و ذوي النهي و اولي الحجي و كهف الوري و ورثة الانبياء عليهم صلوات الله ما دامت الارض و السماء .

"Praised be unto God Who shed the splendor of His radiance upon the inmost hearts of the mystic knowers so as to actualize the disclosure of the orient lights of His theophany. He set ablaze the hearts of the mystic wayfarers through the orient splendors of His Light and explicated the inner retreats [bosoms] of all the worlds for the purpose of dazzlingly illuminating the radiances of His cyclic schemata.

And blessings be upon our Master [the Prophet] Muhammad through whom He settled down upon His Throne (`arsh) and His Seat (kursi) for he is the Name through the shadow of which eyes were solaced. Wherefore there did not emerge from before me aught save what is of Him for he [Muhammad] is the Hidden, Mightiest Name (al-ism al-a`zam) and the Light of Lights treasured up, the very one through whom the Lights found illumination. Through him were mysteries disclosed and Light irradiated from the Dawn of Eternity (subḥ al-azal). And through him did all existence fīnd realization.... " (trans. Lambden).

Rūzbihān al-Baqlī [Shirazi] = Rūzbihān Abū Muhammad  ibn Abī Naṣr al-Baqlī al-Fasawī al-Kāzarūnī  (522-606 AH= 1128-1209 CE). See above on Maybudi. Persian mystical theorist, philosopher and Qur'ān commentator. See his Kashf al-Asrar... (ed. 2006 + bib.).



  • Godlas, Alan Arthur.
  • Firoozeh Papan-Matin in collaboration with Michael Fishbein,

al-Sa`idi, `Abd al-Rahman ibn Nāṣir (d. 1376/1956).   

Sabzawārī, Muhammad ibn Habib-Allah ( XXXX/XXXX )

 Ṣadr al-Din Shirazi [= Mullā Ṣadrā] = Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (c. 970-1050 AH = 1571-1641CE). Massively important Shi`i Islamic philosopher, exegete and theologian.


  •  Nasr,  Seyyed Hossein,
  • Peerwani, Latimah-Parvin
  • Khamanei, Muhammad Hossein
  • Salih, Muhsin
  • Peerwani,  Latimah-Parvin
  • Kalin,  Ibrahim (College of the Holy Cross)

al-Ṣābūnī , Muḥammad ʻAlī Ṣābūni (_). محمد علي الصابوني


al-Sābûnî Abû `Uthmān al-Sābûnî al-Shāfi`î (d 449). Jurist, hadîth Scholar, Commentator on the Qur'ān

 al-Sakūnī =  Isma'il Ibn `Abī Ziyad al-Sakūnī (ADD/ADD; fl. 8-9cent CE).

Imami Shi`i Kufan client and prolific transmitter of hadith from Imam Ja`far al-Sadiq. See Ibn al-Nadim, Fihrist, 36; Modarressi, T&S (2003), No. 116, pp. 304-5.

Saleh, Walid, A.

  • 2004 The Formation of the Classical Tafsīr Tradition: The Qur'ān Commentary of al-Tha`labī. Leiden, Boston: E.J. Brill. *

al-Samʻāni =  Manṣūr ibn Muḥammad, Abī al-Muẓaffar al-Samʻānī, (436-489 AH = 1035-1096.).

al-Samarqandī = Abū  al-Layth Naṣr ibn Muhammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Ibrahim al-Samarqandi  ( d. 375/ 983)

Sayyid Quṭb, Ibrahīm Ḥusayn al-Shādhilī  (B. Musha [Egypt] 1903[6] - executed 1966). سيد قطب




 Shepard, William E.

  • Sayyid Qutb and Islamic Activism. A Translation and Critical Analysis of "Social Justice in Islam". Leiden, 1996.

Sayed Khatab, Monash University, Australia

  • The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb, The Theory of Jahiyyah.  ( =  Rout/edge Studies in Political Islam).  Sayed Khatab takes a literary approach in his study of Sayyid Qutb, one of the most influential political thinkers for contemporary Islamists ... Select Contents: 1. Prologue 2. What the Early Muslims Meant by Jahiliyyah 3. Qutb's Intellectual Life and Character 4. Distinctions between Islam and Jahiliyyah, 2006 (256pp).

Carre,  Olivier.

  • Mysticism and Politics: A Critical Reading of Fi Zilal Al- Qur'ān by Sayyid Qutb (1906-1966) trans. by Carol Artigues,  2003.  ISBN: 9004125906 (Series: Social, Economic and Political Studies ).

Shawkanī, Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Muhammad (d. XXXX- 1250 AH = 1759-1834 CE)

Salafi Sunni exegete born in to a Zaydi family in Yemen...  



  • Fath al-qadīr...  5 vols., 2nd ed. Cairo:  ADD., n. d.
  • Fath al-qadīr al-jāmi`  bayn fana al-riwaya wa'l-dariya min `ilm al-tafsir.  5 vols. Beirut: Dar al-Ma`rifa,
  • Fath al-qadīr... 2 vols.  200? 1100pp.

 Sharbīnī, Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Khatīb (d. 968/1560)  


تفسير الخطيب الشربيني  = السراج المنير

  • Tafsīr al-Khatīb al-Sharbīnī , 4 vols. Beirut: Dar Al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyya XXXX/ 2004 2944 pp,.

Shirazi,  Ḥakim Amīr Fatḥ-Allāh  (d. 992/1584) son of Shukr-Allah Shirazi.

Polymathic author and historian who lived in India and wrote Persian Qur'ān commentaries.

  • Minhaj al-ṣadiqīn. Persian Qur'ān commentary.
  • Minhaj al-ṣadiqīn. 
  • Khulasat al-minhaj.  Summary of the Persian Quran commentary

al-Shirazi,  Nasir Makarim (d. XXXX/XXXX)

ناصر مكارم الشيرازي



  • الأمثل في تفسير كتاب الله ...
  • al-Amthal fi Tafsir Kitab Allah...  20 vols. Beirut: Dar Ihya' al-Turath, 2002

al-Simnānī  = Aḥmad ibn Muhammad ibn Aḥmad Biyānbānkī =  `Alā' al-Dawlah al-Simnānī (d. 787/1336)'

A Kubrāwî, `Ala`al-Dawla Simnānī (d.1336) spent his youth at the Ilkhanid court, a poet and mystical philosopher who modifīed Ibn `Arabi's concept of wahdat al-wujud. A  favorite saint of the later Naqshbandiyya.

  • Tafsīr Najm al-Qur'ān. mss. see Elias 1995 index.
  • al-`Urwah li-ahl al-khalwah wa-al-jalwah. ed. Najīb Māyil Haravī,  Tehran : Intisharat-i Mawlā,  1st ed. 1404 AH =1362/1983. (644pp.)
  • Divan-i kamil-i Ash`ar-i Farsi va `Arabi ,Tihran : Shirkat-i Muallifan va Mutarjiman-i Iran,1985. This Persian Book includes an
    introduction on the life of the poet by Zabih Allah Safa, xix, [10], 515 pp.

Marijan Mole,

  • "Un traité de ^la^ud-dawla Simnānī sur `Ali  ibn Abī Tālib," Bulletin de l'Institut Français de Damas 16 (1958-60).

  Landolt. Hermann

  • "Simnānī on Wahdat al-Wujud," in Collected Papers on Islamic Philosophy and Mysticism, ed. Mehdi Mohaghegh and Hermann Landolt (Tehran, 1971).
  • Landolt, ed. and trans., Correspondence spirituelle, échangé entre Nouroddin Esţarayeni (ob, 717/1317) et son disciple '-Alaoddawleh Sem-nani (ob. 736/1336) (Tehran and Paris, 1972)

Nwyia, Paul.

  • "Muqaddimat tafsīr al-Qur’ān li-`Alā’ al-Dawla Simnānī," al-Abḥāṭ, vol. 26 (1973-77), 141-57.

Elias, Jamal J.

  • Ṣūfī Thought and Practice in the Teachings of `Alā’ ad-dawla as-Simnānī, Ph.D. dissertation, Yale, 1991.
  • The Throne Carrier of God, The Life and Thought of `Ala ad-Dawla as-Simnani. New York, Albany : SUNY Press, 1995.

al-Shāfī 'ī, Muhammad ibn Idris (attrib.) (d. 204/820),

al-Shahrastānī, Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Karīm (b. c. 469 [479]-542[8] = c. 1086-1153[61]).

Outwardly an Asharite Sunni thinker yet most probably a Nizari Isma'ili theologian, Qur'ān commentator and History of Religions expert.



Mayer, Toby.

Select other writings of al-Shahrastānī:

al-Shawkānī , Muhammad b. 'Ali.  (d. 1250/1832)

al-Shirāzī,  Hibbat-Allāh Abū  Naṣr  ibn Mūsā al-Shirazi  = al-Mu'ayyad fī 'l-Dīn Shirāzī (d.470/1077). Fatimid Isma'ili commentator. See Poonawalla EI2 5:270; Reynolds, 2001:145-155: Klemm 2003.

Muhammad Kāmil Husayn (1901-1961)(ed).

Klemm, Verena.

al-Siyalkuti, (ADD/ ADD)

 Sufyān al-Thawrī, Ibn Sa`īd Abu `Abd-Allāh (ADD/ADD).

al-Sulamī,  Abū  `Abd al-Rahman Muhammad ibn  al-Ḥusayn (d. 412/1021 CE). Sufi biographer and exegete from Nishapur. See Patrick S. O'Donnell, BEIP 2:289-293.

Nwyia, Paul.

Böwering, Gerhard.

M. Nuqrāshī, 

Rostom, Mohammed.

Sūr-Ābādī =  Abū  Bakr ’Atīq ibn Muhammad Nishabūrī (d. 494/1101).  Important early 5th/11th cent CE Persian translator and Qur'ān commentator.

Sūr-Ābādī made  a complete Persian translation of the Qur'ān and wrote one of the oldest Persian Tafsīr works upon it which he himself named Tafsīr al-Tafāsīr ("Tafsīr of Tafsīrs") and arranged in seven parts or volumes. There exist a large number of often incomplete mss.  of his Tafsīr on which see Storey, Persian Literature vol. 1:3  and the two introductory pages prefaced to the 1381/2002 printing  which contains details of mss. and publication history (esp. Sūr-Ābādī  Tafsīr vol. 5: 2903ff for numerous mss. variants). 

Orsatti, Paola.

al-Suyūṭī, Jalāl a-Dīn `Abd al-Raḥman (d. 911/1505)

السيوطي/جلال الدين عبد الرحمن

Ṭabaqāt al-Mufassarīn

al-Itqān fī `ulūm al-Qur'ān = الإتقان في علوم القرآن

 Tahbir fi'I-'Ilm al-Tafsīr : التحبير في علم التفسير

+ Jalāl al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Aḥmad al-Maḥallī (d. 864/1459).

  • URLs
  • Translations
  •  Ishaq, Muhammad.
  • Nemoy, L.

al-Suʻūd = Abū al-Suʻūd Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad, al-ʻImādʾ (c. 1492-1574-5 CE) [d. 951/1544] .

 al-Ṭabaranī, Abū-'l-Qāsim Sulaymān ibn Aḥmad  al-Ṭabarānī ( XXX/971)..

 al-Ṭabarsī, see Tabrisi below 

al-Ṭabarī, Abū  Ja`far Muhammad b. Jarīr, (d. 310/923)



EI2 vol. X: ADD;

Al-Tabari: A Medieval Muslim Historian and His Work, ed. Hugh Kennedy Princeton:  Dārwin Press, 2008. 384pp. Contains 20 important contributions by leading academics and a useful bibliography pp.355-361.

A massive, early Sunni Tafsīr work that has been of foundational importance for many subsequent Qur'ān commentators.


Tahdhīb al-āthār: Musnad...

Secondary Sources

  • Loth, O.  
  •  Sourdel, Dominique.
  • Cooper, J., + W. F. Madelung, and A. Jones
  • Cooper, J.
  • Gilliot. Claude.
  • McAuliffe, Jane Dammen.
  • Rahbar, Daud,
  • Rippin, Andrew.
  • Tayob, Abdulkader.
  • Samir, Khalil.

The Persian translation ("recreation") of the Tafsīr of al-Ṭabarī  (d. 310/923). 

Select Mss and Printed editions. Note Storey vol. 1:1f

"1. The first definite landmark in the history of Persian Qur'ānic literature is the translation of the large Arabic tafsīr of al-Ţabarî,1 which is likewise one of the oldest surviving works in the Persian language. 2 Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Jarīr al-Tabarī died at Baghdad in 310/923. 3 Abu Salih Manşūr b. Nūḥ, the Samānid ruler of Transoxiana and Khurasan, for whom this tafsĩr was translated, reigned from 350/961 to 366/976. The precise date of the translation is not recorded, but the Persian preface 4 gives information concerning the circumstances which led to the undertaking. The Arabic original, we are told, was brought in forty volumes to Abu Şalih Manşur b. Nuh, who, finding it difficult to read, desired that it should be translated. The 'ulamā of Transoxiana, whom he convoked and asked for a fatwa concerning the permissibility of translating it, expressed the view that for persons ignorant of Arabic it was lawful to read [ p.2>] and write Qur'ānic exegesis in Persian. They based their opinion mainly on the Qur'ānic verse "We have not sent any apostle save with the language of his people, that he might explain to them " (Surah xiv 4, tr. Palmer), but also on the consideration that from the time of Adam to that of Ishmael all the prophets and kings of the earth had spoken Persian, Ishmael having been the first to speak Arabic. Accordingly, Manşur ibn Nūḥ assembled learned men1 from Bukhara, Samarqand, Balkh, Farghānah and elsewhere, and they by his order elected from among themselves a company of translators. In the process of their work these scholars abridged the original by omitting the isnāds. They also added some historical information up to the year 345.

At the present day this translation and the oldest Persian commentaries on the Qur'ān are of special interest for the light which they throw on the Persian language at a comparatively early stage in its development. "


1 The Arabic text of this tafsīr was published in 30 volumes at the Maimamyah Preaa, Cairo, in 1321/1903. Its formal title (not mentioned in the preface) seems to have been Jāmi' al-bayān 'an ta՝wĩl āy al-Qur'ān, see Annales guos scripsit . . . at-Tabari ed. de Goeje, Introducilo, p. xii. An account of it by O. Loth was published in the ZDMG. 1881, pp. 588-028.

2. Of approximately equal antiquity are the abridged translation of al-Tabari's history of the world (Ta՝nkh al-rusul wa-'l-muluk) undertaken by the Wazĩr Abu 'Ali Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Bal'amĩ in obedience to an order issued in 352/903-4 by Abu Salih Manşur ibn Nüh (see Browne Lit. Hist, i 11-12, 309, 477-8), the Materia Modica (kitāb al-abniyah'an haqa'iq al-adwiyah) composed by Abu Manşur Muwaffaq ibn ' Alî Harawĩ for the same ruler (see Browne, ibid.), the geographical work Hudud al-'alam composed in 372/982-3 and discovered at Bukhara by A. Tumanski in 1892 (see Zapiski x 121 sq., Barthold in BSOS. ii 836) and possibly the Cambridge Tafsīr mentioned on p. 2.

3 For further information concerning him and his works see Fihrist 234-5, Ibn Khallikān no. 581, Subkï ii 135, Kaudāt al-jannāt iv 103, Goldziher in WZK3I. ix 358-71, de Goeje's introduction to the Annales quos scripsit . . . at-Tabari, Brockelmann i 142, eto.

4. The Persian text is quoted in Cureton-Rieu, p. 370.

[p.2] 1.Including Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Fadl al-anām [or simply al-Fadl, al-Faḍlĩ al-Kamārĩ, d. 381/991 at Bukhara, see al-Jawāhir al-muḍī'ah ii 107, al-Fawā'id al-bahîyah 184], Muhammad b. Ismā'ĩl al-Faqĩh, Abu Bakr Aḥmad b. Kärnid al-Faqïh, [al-]Khalïl b. Aḥmad al-Sijistānĩ [or al-Sijzī, d. 368/979 at Samarqand, see al-Jawahir al-muḍī'ah i 234, Ihn Quṭlũbughā 73, Sam'ānī 291b. Doubtless Jhd al-'ulamā՝ should be emended to Jahbadh al-'ulamā'], Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. 'Ali and Abū'l-Jahm Khālid b. Hani' al-Mufaqqih."

Other Persian translations of the Tafsīr of al-Ṭabarī  (d. 310/923). 

    Bal'amī, Abū `Alī (d.c.387/997) and a group of `ulamā' who translated ("recreated") in Persian al-Ṭabari's Arabic Tarikh al-rusul..

    See Storey vol. 1, II  No. 101 pp. 61-65.

  al-Ṭabāṭabā'ī =  Sayyid Muhammad Ḥusayn al-Ṭabāṭabā'ī  (1321-1402 AH = 1904-1981 CE).

Iranian Shi`i philosopher and exegete.

Algar, H.

al-Ṭabrisī [Tabarsī] =  Amīn al-Dīn  [Amīn al-Islām] Abū `Alī al-Faḍl ibn al-Ḥasan al-Ṭabrisī  (d. 548 /1154).

An Imami Shi`i commentator and a Mu`tazalite in matters of theology. His Majma` al-Bayān was completed in  in June 1142 (see EI2 art Kohlberg).



  • Jawāmi` al-Jā`mi` fī Tafsīr al-Qur'ān al-Majid

 al-Ṭaftāzānī = Sa`d al-Din Maṣ`ūd ibn `Umar `Abd-Allāh al-Ṭaftāzānī  (722-793 AH = 1322-1390 CE). He was a "renowned scholar and author on grammar, rhetoric, theology, logic, law and Qur'ān exegesis" EI2 X:88b.

al-Ṭanṭāwī, Jawharī al-Misri (1278-ADD / 1862-1940).

Studied at al-Azhar and  beacme "A modernist Egyptian theologian" (so de Jong in EI2 Supp X:262-3). See Brockelmann GAL Sup. III:329ff.

طنطاوي جوهري المصري


Hartmann, M.

Jomnier, J

F de Jong.

al-Tha'labī [al-Nīsābūrī] = Abū Isḥāq Aḥmad b. Muhammad b. Ibrāhīm al-Tha'labī (d. 427/ 1035).

أبو إسحاق ... الثعلبي


Mehmet Akif Koc (Ankara University, Turkey)

Isaiah Goldfeld ed.,

Saleh, Walid A.

  • Qiṣaṣ al-`anbiyā'

al-Tha'ālibī, Abī Zayd  `Abd al-Raḥman ibn Muhammad al-Tha`ālabī  (d.875/1470)

al-Thawrī,   Abi `Abd-Allah Sufyān ibn Sa`id ibn Masruq al-Thauri al-Kufī  (161/ 777)

al-Ṭūsī =  Abi Ja'far Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Ṭūsī (d. 460/1067). Major Shi`i Qur'ān Commentator

al-Tustari, Muhammad b. `Abdullah Sahl., (d. 283/986). Early Sufī  Tafsīr.

Böwering, Gerhard.

  • The Mystical Vision of Existence in Classical Is­lam: The Qur'ānic Hermeneutics of the Sūfī Sahl At-Tustarī (d. 283/896).  Berlin:  Walter de Gruyter,  1979+1980.

 Sahl al-Tustarī, Ibn 'Abd-Allāh (d.283/896)

G. Böwering, 


Tafsīr Al-Tustari translated by Annabel and Ali Keeler

Usmani [Uthmani], Allama Shabbir Aḥmad Usmani (1885 -1949 CE).





al-Wāḥidĩ, Abū  al-Ḥasan 'Alî ibn Aḥmad (d. 468/1075).

Saleh, Walid A.


Walī-Allāh Dihlawī, Shāh  (1702-1763 CE), Islamic reformer much influenced by Sufism.

شاہ ولی اللہ دھلوی

Brockelmann,  GAL  II, 91-2. + Supp. II, 108, EI2 [Supp.] XII:842.

A prolifīc writer and Shāfī `ī jurist of Mamluk Cairo who authored perhaps 46 works several (14 or so) of which are in print. He studied Ḥadīth with Ibn Kathir  (d. 774/1373) and wrote, for example, on Tafsīr, Hadith, Fīqh, Abab and Kalām. His al-Burhān was a major influence upon al-Suyuti who to some degree modeled his al-Itqān upon it (see A. Rippin art. `Zarkashī' EI2 XII [= Supp. ]: 842).

 Nolin, K. E.

Zamakhsharī, Abū al-Qāsim Maḥmud Ibn `Umar (d. 583/1144).  

Brockelmann, C., GAL  ADD + SUPP.; Brockelmann, C.: art. "al-Zamaķhsharī," in: EI1 iv:1205; W. Madelung, EI2 XII:840-1. Persian born Arabic language expert and Mu'tazalite Qur'ān commentator. He wrote in the areas of Tafsīr, Hadith, Kalam and Abab...

Chapter 14 of the book Ideas, Images and Methods, Insights into Classical Arabic Literature and Islam  (ed. Sebastian Gunther, Leiden: Brill, 2005) by  Andrew J. Lane is entitled ` Working Within Structure, al-Zamakhshari (D. 1144): A Late Mutazalite Qur'ān Commentator at Work'. His essay  opens as follows, "Sometime after he had finished writing his Quran commentary, al-Kashshăf, the Mu'tazilite grammarian and man of letters from Khwarazm, Abu'l-Qasim Mahmud ibn 'Umar al-Zamakhsharî (d. 538 A.H./1144 C.E.), added the following postscript:

This copy is the first, original copy (nuskhat al-aṣl), which was transcribed from the rough draft (al-sawād); it is the original Meccan version of the Kashshāf (umm al-Kashshāf al-ḥaramiyya), hlessed and source of՝ blessing (al-mutamassaḥ bihā), worthy of being used to invoke heavenly blessings and to pray for rain in a year of drought. The author finished it with his own hand, facing the Ka'ba, in the shade of his house, the Sulaymaniyya, overlooking the Ajyād Gate, [which house has] Madrasat al-'Allāma written on it. [He finished it] on the morning of Monday, 23 Rabī' al-Ākhir in the year 528 (20 February, 1134 C.E.).' " (Lane, 2005: 347 translating a postscript within al-Kashshaf [Beirut.,ed., 1997] iv. 831, a postscript)

al-Kashshāf  'an haqā'iq ghawāmid al-tanzīl wa- 'uyun al-aqāwīl fī  wujūh al-ta'wīl


("The Discloser of the Realities of the Hidden Things of Revelation and the Choicest Utterances concerning the Facets of  Exegesis").

  • Kashf fī al-Qirā'āt al-`Ashar ("On the Variant Readings of the Qur'ān")

Aḥmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Munayyir (d.683/1284), a Maliki opponent of Zamakhshari's Mu`tazilite theological orientation, wrote a refutation entitled,

 'Abd al-Karîm al-Yāfï,

Muṣṭafa al-Ṣawī al-Juwaynī,

 al-Ḥūfī,  A.M.

Yüksel, A.

Schmidtke, S.

Lane, Andrew J.

al-Zuhailī  Wahb       (d. ADD/ADD).

al-Zurqānī, Muhammad 'Abd al-'Azīm (d. 1122/1710?),

Zayd ibn `Alī (c. 78-120 AH = c. XXX-XXX CE).

Zayd ibn Thabit (d. c. 34-5/655 or d. c. 45/665). See EI2 vol. 11: ADD.

According to  select traditions found, for example, in Bukhari, Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud Zayd ibn Thabit was a key figure in the collection of the Qur'ān in the period of the Caliph Uthmān ibn `Affān (d. 35/656). As secretary to the Prophet Muhammad he is believed to have copied, complied and edited the Qur'ān. See  al-Tabari, Jāmi` al-Bayān I: 50-61; the art. in EI2 vol. 11: ADD.