`Abd al-Razzāq al-Kāshānī [al-Qāshānī] (d. c. 730/1330)

 

کمال الدین عبد الرزاق الکاشانی

Kamal al-Din `Abd al-Razzāq al-Kāshānī [al-Qāshānī] (d. c. 730/1330).

`Abd al-Razzāq  al-Kāshānī [al-Qāshānī] (d. c. 730/1330) was an important Persian figure in the school of  Ibn al-`Arabi. He authored around forty five Arabic and Persian works including several Arabic writings centered on the allegorical-mystical exegesis of the Qur'ān or portions thereof.

Tafsīr al-Qur'ān al-karīm - often printed as attributed to Ibn al-`Arabi.

Also very well-known, though it has repeatedly been published under the name of his master Ibn al-`Arabi (d. 638/1240), is `Abd al-Razzaq's deeply mystical Tafsīr al-Qur'ān al-karīm, (2 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Yaqzah al-'Arabiyya, 1387/1967 + 2 Vols edited by Mustafa Ghalib. Beirut: Dār al-Andalus, 1399/1978  and Tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-karīm lil-Shaykh al-akbar... al-`Allāmah Muḥyi al-Dīn Ibn al-`Arabī, ed. Mustafa Ghālib, 2 vols., 3rd printing, Beirut, 1401/198 and Tafsīr al-Qur'ān al-karīm [Tafsīr Ibn `Arabī on cover], 2 vols. Beirut: Dār al-kutub al-'Ilmiyya, 1422/2001. On this work see Pierre Lory, Les Commentaires ésotériques du Coran d’aprés `Abd al Razzâq al Qâshânî (Paris: Les Deux Océans. 1980). 

Modern printings are often unreliable:

  • MS British Library Or. 6351 entitled `Ta'wllat al-Qur'ān' (Timurid period mss.).
  • ADD
  • Tafsīr : It is included with the al-Kāzarūnī  lithograph of his Arā'is al-Bayān fi haqā'iq al-Qur'ān. Lucknow: Maṭba` al-Munshi Nawal Kishur, 1315/1897, 619 + 488pp. See Brockelmann GAL I:527+ Supp. 1:725; Gacek, 1996 No. 10 p. 17.
  • Tafsīr Ibn al-'Arabī, + Tafsīr of Khazin. 4 vols. Cairo: Maimaniyya press 1317/1899.  (2+ 360 : 412 : 531 : 478 pp.). Check this.
  • Tafsīr al-Qur'ān al-karīm, 2 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Yaqzah al-'Arabiyya, 1387/1967.  
  • Tafsîr al-Qur’ān al-karîm. [Ed. Dâr al-Yaqza al-’Arabîya]. Beirut 1387 / 1968. 2 volumes. (4+11+779 and  2+880 pp).
    Tafsīr al-Qur'ān al-karīm. 2 Vols . Edited by Mustafa Ghalib. Beirut:  Dār al-Andalus, 1399/1978 . *
  • Tafsīr al-Qur'ān al-karīm [ Tafsīr Ibn `Arabi on cover ], 2 vols. Beirut: Dār al-kutub al-'Ilmiyya, 1422/2001.*

Studies of and Translation from the [Ibn `Arabi = ] al-Kashani Tafsīr

 Lory, Pierre.

  •  Les Commentaires ésotériques du Coran d’aprés `Abd al Razzâq al Qâshânî. Paris: Les Deux Océans. 1980  *

Other Qur'an related writings of `Abd al-Razzāq al-Kāshānī.

  • Risālah fī ta`wīl al-basmala ("Treatise on the Inner sense[s] of the Basmalah"). ms.
  • Tafsīr  Ayat al-Kursī (Commentary on the Throne Verse) (Q.2:256). mss.
  • Tafsīr  Sūrat al-Jumu`a (Commentary on the Surah of the Congregtion" ) [Q.62]. ms.

Risāla fi'l-Qaḍā' wa'l-Qadar ("Treatise on Fate and Predestination").

الرسالة في القضاء والقدر

  • الرسالة في القضاء والقدر = Traité sur la prédestination et le libre arbitre = [al-Risālah fī al-qaḍāʼ wa-al-qadar].  Paris : Éditions Orientales, 1978.

Isṭilaḥāt al-Ṣufiyya ("Lexicon of  Sufi Technical Terminology").

اصطلاحات الصوفية

  •  Ábdu-r-razzāq's Dictionary of the technical terms of the Sufies, by ʻAbd al-Razzāq al-Qāshānī; Aloys Sprenger . Calcutta, Asiatic Society of Bengal, sold in London by Allen, 1845.
  • Isṭilaḥāt al-Ṣufiyya. Lithograph. Bombay: XXXX., 1312/1894-5 (89pp.)
  • Kitāb iṣṭilāḥāt al-Ṣūfīyah : maʻ risālat nisbatihi al-sarmadiyya by ʻAbd al-Razzāq al-Qāshānī. Lahore : al-Irshād, 1974.
  • اصطلاحات الصفية =  Iṣṭilāḥāt al-Ṣufīya. ed. ʻAbd al-Khāliq Maḥmūd  Cairo: Dār al-Maʻārif, 1984. ISBN: 977020918X : 9789770209189
  • Isṭilaḥāt al-Ṣufiyya. ed. introd. Fawzī al-Jabr, Damascus/ Beirut: Add.,1415/1990. (256pp. incl. index).*
  • [al-Qāshānī, `Abd al-Razzaq]  Isṭilaḥāt al-Ṣufiyya. A Glossary of Sufi Technical Terms, completed by (tr.) Nabil Safwat Rev. & ed. David Pendlebury. The Octagon Press Ltd. London. 1991 (XXXpp.).  *
  • اصطلاحات الصفية=  Iṣṭilāḥāt al-Ṣūfīya.  ed. ʻAbd al-ʻĀl Shāhīn. Cairo:  Dār al-Manār, 1992.
  • إصطلاحات الصفية = Iṣṭilāḥāt al-Ṣufīya  ed.  Muwaffaq Fawzī Jabr . Damascus : Al-Ḥikmah, 1995.
  •  اصطلاحات الصوفيه / متن عربى از عبدالرزاق كاشانى ؛ ترجمه و شرح از محمد على مودود لارى؛ به كوشش گل بابا سعيدى =  Iṣṭilāḥāt al-Ṣūfīyah by Persian trans. Muḥammad ʻAlī Mawdūd Lārī; Gul Bābā Saʻīdī.  Tehran : Ḥawzah-i Hunarī, 1376/ 1997-8. 

لطائف الإعلام في إشارات أهل الإلهام

Laṭāʼif al-iʻlām fī ishārāt ahl al-ilhām

  • Laṭāʼif al-iʻlām fī ishārāt ahl al-ilhām : muʻjam al-muṣṭalaḥāt wa-al-ishārāt al-Ṣūfīyah by ʻAbd al-Razzāq al-Qāshāni ed. Saʻīd ʻAbd al-Fattāḥ Cairo: [National government publication] : Dār al-Kutub al-Miṣrīyah, 1996. 
  • لطائف الإعلام في إشارات أهل الإلهام
  • Laṭāʼif al-aʻlām fī ishārāt ahl al-ilhām by ʻAbd al-Razzāq al-Qāshānī; Majīd Hādīʹzādah.  Tihrān, Jumhūriyyat Īrān al-Islāmiyya : Mīrās̲-i Maktūb, 2000.
  • Laṭāʼif al-iʻlām fī ishārāt ahl al-ilhām ̄;  ed. Aḥmad ʻAbd al-Raḥīm Sāyiḥ; Tawfīq ʻAlī Wahbah; ʻĀmir Najjār  Cairo: Maktabat al-Thaqāfah al-Dīnīyah, 2005.

Majmūʻa-ʼi rasāʼil va muṣannafāt

مجموعۀ رسائل و مصنفات

  • مجموعۀ رسائل و مصنفات =  Majmūʻah-ʼi rasāʼil va muṣannafāt ed. Majīd Hādīʹzādah. Tehran : Mīrās̲-i Maktūb, 2000. Edition:  ISBN: 9646781330 9789646781337.  771pp. Contains an over 250 page introduction on `Abd al-Razzaq and his writings followed by the publication of more than 16 of his Persian and Arabic writings.
  • Majmu`a-yi Rasā'il Muṣannāfāt, Shaykh Kamal al-Din `Abd al-Razzāq al-Kāshānī (died 736 L.H.) ed Majid Hadizadeh.  Tehran: Āyene-yi Miras, 2000. (771pp.).

Sharḥ ḥadith ḥaqīqa ('Commentary upon the Hadith of Ultimate Reality')

The  Ḥadīth  al-Ḥaqīqa (= for some the `Hadith Kumayl')  is the record of an alleged (Arabic) conversation between the first Shī`ī Imam, `Alī b. Abī Ṭālib (d.40/661) and his associate, the one-time governor of Hīt (Iraq), Kumayl ibn Ziyād ibn Nahīd ibn Haytham ibn Sa'd ibn Malik ibn al-Nakhā'ī. (c.18/639 -c. 85/704?) whose shine is located at Wadī al-Salām near Najaf (Iraq; al-Mufīd, K. al-Irshād, add). The Ḥadīth al-ḥaqīqa or Ḥadīth mā al-ḥaqīqa (`What is al-ḥaqīqa?), is a tradition which includes several statements from Imam `Ali about the meaning (s) of الحقيقة   al-ḥaqīqa. This  in response to repeated questioning from his disciple Kumayl ibn Ziyād al-Nakhā'ī.

In general terms الحقيقة , al-ḥaqīqa has many meanings. It is not an easy word to define. Its well-known senses include `Trurh', `Reality', `Ultimate Reality' and the `Divine Reality' or God. A key question in understanding the  Ḥadīth al-ḥaqīqa is knowing what Kumayl was asking when he enquired about al-ḥaqīqa and what Imam `Ali intended to clarify.

The Arabic text of the Hadith al-haqiqa exists in sometimes variant forms found in sources dating from the 7th/13-14th centuries. There is no established chain of transmission going back to the 7th century when it was allegedly uttered by the first Shi`i Imam. One form of this hadith with my own rendering reads as follows:

Kumayl ibn Ziyad asked `O my Lord and my  Master [= the Commander of the Faithful, Amir al-Mumunin = Imam `Alī, d. 40/661)... What is al-Ḥaqīqa? (The Real /  Reality' / `Ultimate Reality [God]'). He [`Alī] replied, upon him be peace, `What have you to do with al-Ḥaqīqa (Reality)?'. So Kumayl replied, `Is it not that I am a [sharing] companion [custodian] of your secret (sahib sirrika)?' He [Imam `Alī] replied, `Yes! But what [gnosis merely] sprinkles down upon you, billows over through me'. He, the Imam, upon him be peace, [then] said, al-Ḥaqīqa [ Reality is] `The disclosure of the splendors of the Majestic One [God] (subuḥāt al-jalāl) devoid of intimation [of His Ultimate Reality] (min ghayr al-ishāra)'. He [Kumayl] said, `Expound it to me further'. He [`Alī] said, `It [al-Ḥaqīqa `Reality' ] is the annulment of speculation (mahw al-mawhum) [consonant] with an awareness of [what is] the established' (saḥw al-ma`lūm)'. He [Kumayl] said, `Expound it to me further.' He [`Alī] said, `It [al-Ḥaqīqa `Reality'] is the rending of the [Divine] veil (al-sitr) through the mastery of the secret (ghalabat al-sirr)'.  He [Kumayl] said, `Expound it to me further.' He [`Alī] said, `It [al-Ḥaqīqa `Reality'] is the Enticement  (jadhb) of the Divine Unicity (al-aḥadiyya) through the instrumentality of the Divine Oneness (al-tawhid)'. He [Kumayl] said, `Expound it to me further.' He [`Alī] said, `It [al-Ḥaqīqa `Reality'] is `A Light (nur) radiating from the Dawn of Eternity (subh al-azal) with its traces (athar) beaming forth [shimmering] upon the Embodiments [Temples] of the Divine Unity (hayākil al-tawhid)'.   He [Kumayl] said, `Expound it to me further.' He [`Alī] said, `Quench the lamp (al-sirāj)! for the Dawn (al-subḥ) hath indeed arisen'... (trans. Lambden, 1998 rev. 2008). 

  شرح حديث حقيقت

Sharḥ ḥadith ḥaqīqa ('Commentary upon the Hadith of Ultimate Reality') by `Abd al-Razzāq al-Kāshānī (d. c. 736/1336), an important Shi`ite Sufi of the school of Ibn al-`Arabi (See Dhari`a 13:196 + 18:140.  

A manuscript of  `Abd al-Razzāq's  `Commentary on the Hadith al-Haqiqa'  can be read online in the `Princeton Digital Libray of Islamic Manuscripts'  as `Sharḥ al-Fuṣūṣ ... [etc.]..' item 6 or ms. 3604y "fol. 126a-b: Sharḥ Suʼāl Kumayl ibn Ziyād li-Amīr al-Muʼminīn / ʻAbd al-Razzāq al-Qāshānī":

A recently printed major, 771 page compilation of `Abd al-Razzāq al-Kāshānī writings is the Majmu`a-yi Rasā'il Muṣannāfāt, Shaykh Kamal al-Din `Abd al-Razzāq al-Kāshānī (died 736 A. H.) edited by Majid Hadizadeh (Tehran: Āyene-yi Miras, 2000). It contains an over 250 page introduction on `Abd al-Razzāq and his writings followed by the publication of more than 16 of his Persian and Arabic writings including (item 15 pp. 237-245) his fairly brief Sharh Hadith al-Haqiqa.  This printing includes important mss. variations of the Hadith al-Haqiqa (see fn.1 pp.639-40) and of al-Kāshānī's early Tafsir. See also for further important details on the commentary al-Kumayliyya pp. 130, 228-9. See further URL

Kitāb sharḥ Manāzil al-sāʼirīn

  • Hādhā Kitāb sharḥ Manāzil al-sāʼirīn by ʻAbd al-Razzāq al-Qāshānī . [Tehran? : s.n.], 1897.
  • Kitāb sharḥ Manāzil al-sāʼirīn by ʻAbd al-Razzāq al-Qāshānī . Beirūt : Dār al-Mujtabá, 1995.

Taḥliyyat al-arwāḥ bi-haqā'iq al-injāḥ.

تحلیة الارواح بحقائق الانجاح

  • تحلیة الارواح بحقائق الانجاح / المنسوب الی الشیخ ,  Taḥlīyat al-arwāḥ biḥaqā'iq al-injāḥ
  • Taḥliyyat al-arwāḥ bi-haqā'iq al-injāḥ. ed. Ali Awjabī. Tehran : Mirath-i Maktub, 2005. 347 pp. = ISBN: 9648700060.  *

Commentary upon the Fusus al-Hikam of Ibn al-`Arabi.

  • شرح القاشاني ... على فصوص الحكم للامام الاكبر محيي الدين بن عربي 
  • Sharḥ al-Qāshānī ... ʻalá Fuṣūṣ al-ḥikam lil-Imām al-akbar Muḥyī al-Dīn ibn ʻArabī by ʻAbd al-Razzāq al-Qāshānī;  ed. ʻĀṣim Ibrāhīm al-Kayyālī al-Ḥusaynī al-Shādhilī Darqāwī.  Beirut : Dār al-Kutub al-ʻIlmīyah, 2007.
  • ADD
  • Sharḥ-i Fuṣūṣ al-ḥikam by ʻAbd al-Razzāq al-Qāshānī; ed. Majīd Hādīʹzādah  Tihrān : Anjuman-i Ās̲ār va Mafākhir-i Farhangī, 1383/ 2004 or 5  Chāp-i ADD. =  ISBN: 9647874391 9789647874397

Rashaḥ al-zalāl fī sharḥ al-alfāẓ al-mutadāwalah bayna arbāb al-adhwāq wa-al-aḥwāl

  • Rashaḥ al-zalāl fī sharḥ al-alfāẓ al-mutadāwalah bayna arbāb al-adhwāq wa-al-aḥwāl. ed. Saʻīd ʻAbd al-Fattāḥ [Cairo] : al-Maktaba al-Azhariyya lil-Turāth, 1995.
  •