The Evolving Claims and Titles of Mirza Husayn `Ali Nuri, Baha'-Allah (1817-1892 CE).

The Evolving Claims and Titles of Mirza Husayn `Ali Nuri, Baha'-Allah (1817-1892 CE). 

Stephen Lambden UCMerced,

In progress 1980s+ 2017

Last uploaded : 23-04-2017.

Mirza Husayn `Ali Nuri was the fourth son of Mirza `Abbas Nuri known as Mirza Bururg (d. 1839) and his second wife Khadijah Khánum  (b.1822 near Takur in the Mazandaran province, d. September 15, 1882)  who were both of Persian Shi`i descent.  The father was a vizier ("governor") to the royal prince Imam-Virdi Mírza, the twelfth son of Fath `Ali Shah (d. Isfahan 1834 r. 1797-1834) the  second Qajar ruler, king, or Shah of Persia. Baha'-Allah's date of birth was November 12th 1817 his parentally conferred name being the twofold Husayn `Ali, both names rooted in those of two of the most important Twelver Shi`i  Imams.

Baha'-Allah's claims range from humble  expressions of servitude before God and the rest of humanity, to claims which are expressive of his manifesting or representing God in his position as a mediator between the apophatic Unknowable or Ultimate Godhead, the Wholly Beyond, and the rest of humanity or the worlds of creation. His humanity as a Persian born man is never overuled, though His claimed Divine, Pre-Existent Reality, a manifestation of the (Arabic-Persian) nafs ("Logos-Self") or Personna of the Godhead, is countless times celebrated in his extensive Arabic and Persian writings spanning the forty year period c. 1852 to the year of his passing at Acre in May 1892. His expressions of Divinity are always that of a divinity subordinate to the incomprehensible Divinity Beyond everything. Like earlier messengers of God and an array of spiritually intoxicated Sufis and sages, He may claim "I am God" but this never implies that he is He Himself, the Ultimate Reality. One can discern something of an evolution in Baha'-Allah's claims though many are implicit from the earleist days of his coming forth as one comissioned by God.

Many of the claims of Baha'-Allah expressed as titles or epithets, are rooted in Jewish, Christian and/ or Islamic or Abrahamic religious traditions. He sometimes claimed in the context of equality or eschatological "return", levels of spiritual "identity" with past founder prophets, philosophers or theologians, with great religious figures and thinkers of past ages. In attempting to attract followers from the Abrahamic religions, he found it necessary to make claims which echoed, matched or went beyond those of occupying the centre of the faith and devotion of whatever community was addressed. There are hundreds of claims to be the eschatological  "return" of past prophets of messengers of God. Baha'-Allah often claimed that aspects of his life such as rejection, exile and suffering, echoed the lives of such past luminaries as Moses, Jesus, Muhammad and others. 

The  Baha'i theology of the claims.

In his persian Kitab-i Iqan ("Book of Certitude" , c. 1861 CE), Baha'-Allah set forth an apophatic theology of the transcendent unknowability of the Absolute Deity, and articulated the dual status of His-Hers-Its Messengers (rasul) or Manifestations of God (mazhar-i ilahi). They all occupy both a human position of `ubudiyya (servitude) and a divine status of  ilahiyya (Divinity). All, furthermore, have an "essetial unity" such that they can claim "oneness" with each other or to be the "return" of each other. Each having an indivualized name, personna and cultural background they, at different times, utter claims on these seemingly incompatible, though actually unitative lines : claims, that is, within the spheres of humanity and servitude or of divinity and omnipotence. This also in the light of their diverse religious missions and the limitations of human language at the times and places of their advent. Other related factors, such as their recipients vocabulary, intellectual capacity, and geographical location come into play, "they have voiced an utterance that would conform to the requirements of the occasion" (Kitab-i iqan, 198) :

We have already in the foregoing pages assigned two stations unto each of the Luminaries arising from the Daysprings of eternal holiness. One of these stations, the station of essential unity, We have already explained. “No distinction do We make between any of them.” 14 The other is the station of distinction, and pertaineth to the world of creation and to the limitations thereof. In this respect, each Manifestation of God hath a distinct individuality, a definitely prescribed mission, a predestined Revelation, and specially designated limitations. Each one of them is known by a different name, is characterized by a special attribute, fulfils a definite Mission, and is entrusted with a particular Revelation. Even as He saith: “Some of the Apostles We have caused to excel the others. To some God hath spoken, some He hath raised and exalted. And to Jesus, Son of Mary, We gave [p. 177] manifest signs, and We strengthened Him with the Holy Spirit.” 15  (Kitab-i iqan, pp. 176-7)

In this same work, Baha'-Allah speaks of the elevated divine position of the messengers in the following way:

"It hath ever been evident that all these divergences of utterance are attributable to differences of station. Thus, viewed from the standpoint of their oneness and sublime detachment, the attributes of Godhead, Divinity, Supreme Singleness, and Inmost Essence, have been and are applicable to those Essences of being, inasmuch as they all abide on the throne of divine Revelation, and are established upon the seat of divine Concealment. Through their appearance the Revelation of God is made manifest, and by their countenance the Beauty of God is revealed. Thus it is that the accents of God Himself have been heard uttered by these Manifestations of the divine Being" (Kitab-i iqan, pp. 177-8).

And of their second human status he writes,

"Viewed in the light of their second station—the station of distinction, differentiation, temporal limitations, characteristics and standards, —they manifest absolute servitude, utter destitution and complete self-effacement. Even as He saith: “I am the servant of God. 16 I am but a man like you.” 17 (Kitab-i iqan, p.178).

As regards Baha'-Allah's own position of servitude in his Kitab-i iqan, he at one point refers to himself as "this unlearned and humble Servant". Similar lowly claims of humility and self-effacement are scattered throughout hundreds of Persian and Arabic writings as indeed are claims the divinity and Lordship. 

The Claims and Titles of the Bab and Baha'-Allah

It may also be noted at this point that certain of the titles claimed by Baha'-Allah are the same, or modified forms of those claimed by the Bab. The two contemporary messianic claimants, sometimes made identical claims such as the claim of Husayniyya, to reprersent or be the "return" of the third Imam Husayn, to Qayyumiyya, to represent the eschatological manifestation of the subordinate Deity Self-Subsisting, and the claim to the  mukallim al-tur (the "Speaker on the Mount"), the one who discoursed with Moses at the time of the divine theophany on Mount Sinai. From the Iraq-Baghdad period and beyond, Baha'-Allah thought of himself and often claimed to be the spiritual raj`at or  "return" of the Bab whom he probably never met in the flesh but with whom he had a very special spiritual inner relationship : 

He Who heralded the light of Divine Guidance [Baha'-Allah], that is to say the Primal Point [the Bab]... in the days when He was journeying to Maku, attained to outward seeming the honour of meeting Bahá'u'lláh, albeit this meeting was concealed from all" (Tablet of Baha'-Allah / Khadimu’llah,  to Mirza `Ali Muhammad Varqa in Ma’ida IV: 154)

`Abd al-Baha' and select titles he accorded his father as founder of the Baha'i religion.

Some comments on the nineteen titles of Baha'-Allah listed by Shoghi Effendi Rabbani (d.1957) in his book God Passes By.

In many of his works and letters Shoghi Effendi had occasion to set down various of the titles assumed by Baha'-Allah over the forty year period of his religious ministry (1852-1892 CE).  The weighty English language centennial summary of Babi-Baha history, from 1844-1944, written by Shoghi Effendi (the grandson of Baha'-Allah and head of the religion he founded from 1921-1957), entitled God Passes By ...  includes an important summary of nineteen or so key titles claimed by Baha'-Allah - as does the slightly later or subsequent Persian synopsis he wrote in Persian.

[0] Mirza Husayn `Ali Nuri = میرزا حسین علی نوری‎‎

In  God Passes By, the Baha'i Guardian has it that  his parentally bestwed name Husayn `Ali,  which is distinctly imamological, and thus significant on Islamic religious  lines. Yet this name is both Islamic and Christian in the light of New Testament prophecy contained in the Christian apocalypse, the book of the Revelation of John, the last book in the cannonical New Testament. He thus viewed the  name as being a combination of the names of the third Imam Husayn - viewed by Baha'is as "the most illustrious of the successors of the Apostle of God- the "brightest star" shining in the "crown" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John" [see Rev.     ] (GPB:   ) and of the first Imám `Alí, the Commander of the Faithful [Amir al-Muminin], regarded as "the second of the two "witnesses" extolled in that same Christian Apocalypse, the Book of Revelation" [see Rev.     ] (GPB:  ). 

 [01] Baha'-Allah = Baha' + Allah.

The  most important title of Husayn `Ali Nuri is  Baha'-Allah. This genitive phrase is a combination of a word indicative of  radiant, splendid or luminous Glory, Baha'  joined with the Semitic-Arabic Islamic designation of the personal Deity, Allah,  meaning "the God" ( al+ilah, the "h" being a feminine ending!). The phrase Baha'-Allah can be seen as a combination of two words which are both viewed as expressions of the  al-ism al-a`zam, the supreme or greatest Name of God. For Baha'is, as explicitly stated by Baha'-Allah in his Lawh-i hurufat al-muqatta`ah, and in numerous Islamic traditions and sources, Allah is the surpreme or mightiest Name of God. So too, for Baha'is, the Arabic word Baha'. 

Shoghi Effendi writes, "He was formally designated Bahá'u'lláh, an appellation specifically recorded in the Persian Bayán, signifying at once the glory, the light and the splendor of God" (GPB: XXX).

XX other titles listed in God Passes By. They are, with brief comments and religious roots and Arabic and/ or Persian transliteration set forth in 

  • GPB = God Passes By.   Wilmette:  BPT, 1987.
  • GPB* = Kitāb‑I qarn‑i badī`. Dundas, Ontario: rev. ed. 1992. Persian tr. of GPB by  N. Mavaddat.

[1] "The Most Great Name" and the word Baha' (Glory).

  Ar. al-ism al-a`zam Per. ism-i a`zam. This is an Islamic and Babi reference to a supreme, long-secreted Name of God.

The Lawḥ-i nāqūs  ("Tablet of the Bell")

The wholly Arabic Lawḥ-i nāqūs  ("Tablet of the Bell") or (after the constant refrain) Lawḥ-i subhanika yā-hū ("Tablet of Praised be Thou, O He!) is probably to be dated to arounbd 1280/1863 CE., or to the period of Bahā'-Allāh's residence in Istanbul (Constantinople). Towards the beginning of this scriptutal Tablet we find reference to elevated claims occasionally reflecting those presupposed in the decade or so earlier early Rashh-i `ama'. Claims to be the "Beauty of the Divine Ipseity (jamāl al-huwiyya)", the eschatological trumpet (al-sūr) heralding the new theophany (al-ẓuhūr) associated with the linking of the letters "H" (al-hā' ) and "B" fundamental to the, for Baha'is, personification of the al-ism al-a`zam (Greatest Name) being Baha' : 

O Angel of Light! (malak al-nūr)! Sound the trumpet (al-sūr) in this theophany (al-ẓuhūr) for the letter "H" (al-hā' ) rideth upon a mighty, pre-existent letter ["B"] (bi-ḥarf `izz qadīm).

Here and elsewhere in the Lawḥ-i nāqūs, Bahā'-Allāh alludes to that portion of the Sūrat al-huriyya  (`Sura of the Maiden' , the 29th sura of the Qayyūm al-asmā' mid. 1844 CE) in which the Bāb makes reference to the partial yet stunning theophanic disclosure of a veiled, silken clad houri characterised by respelndent beauty (al-bahā). Both lines 4 and 5, furthermore seem to allude to the person of Bahā'-Allāh as a conjunction or incarnation of the letters "B and "H" which constitute that Beauty-Splendour (Bahā) which, according to a well-known prophetic hadīth (greatly beloved of Rūzbihān Baqlī Shīrāzī d.1209 CE) which is his pre-existent Reality. The prophet Muhammad is reckoned to have said:  al-ward al-aḥmar min bahā' Allāh, "The Red Rose is expressive of the Beauty-Splendor of God" 

Thus in the following lines we read :

O Nightingale of Resplendence! (`andālib al-sanā')! Warble upon the twigs in this Riḍwān according to the Name of the One Beloved (al-ḥabīb) for the Roseate Beauty (jamāl al-ward) hath been manifested from behind a thick curtain (hijāb ghalīz).

O Nightingale of Paradise! (bulbul al-firdaws)! Sing out upon the branches in this wondrous era (zamān badī`) for God hath divulged himself (tajalla Allāh) unto all that inhabit the created dominion (al-mulk).

O Denizens of the Kingdom of  Divine Names! (malakūt al-asmā'). Ornament ye the very uttermost Heights (rafārif al-aqsā')  [of Paradise] for the Greatest Name hath ridden upon a sanctified, mighty Cloud.

The Lawḥ-i Hawdaj  [Sāmsūn]

In the Lawh-i Samsun or Lawh-i Howdah, we have the following pertinent lines expresssing Baha'-Allah's ckaim to be the eschatoplogical personification of the al-ism al-a`zam, the Greatest Name  for this scriptural Tablet opens as follows :

[1] These are verses which were disclosed in the Pavilion of Eternity and the Howdah of Holiness  at the moment when the Greatest Name (ism-i a`zam) arrived at the precinct of majesty (shatr al-subhan) in the land of Sāmsūn, at the shore of a mighty ocean (bahr azim).

[2] "The Ancient Beauty".

The title "The Ancient Beauty"  in  Persian is  Jamal-i qidam. There are thouands of references in  both Arabic and Persian scriptural Tablets to the Beauty of Baha'-Allah, his jamal or his husn, etc.. He is pictured as  the stunningly spiritually beautiful new Joseph, the paragon of beauty (jamal) in the Qur'an and numerous other Islamic literatures such as the Qisas al-anbiya' (Stories of the Prophets).

Lawh-i Naqus (1863)

[9] O Denizens of the Kingdom! (ahl al-malakut) Chant ye in the Name of the Beloved One (al-mahbūb)  for the Beauty of the Cause (jamāl al-amr) hath sparkled forth from behind ornamented, luminous veils.

[20] O Concourse of enraptured lovers! (malā' al-ushshāq)! Good news for thy selves in that the separation (al-firāq)  is completed and the promised Testament (al-mithāq)  hath come to pass; the Loved One (al- ma`shūq) hath been manifested with a mighty, transcendent Beauty (jamāl `izz manī`).

Lawḥ-i Hawdaj  [Sāmsūn]

I: [1] The times of reclining in the Howdah of Holiness hath been completed and the Beauty of the Divine Ipseity [Essence] (jamal al-huwiyya_ hath emerged unto a mighty, noble panorama...

VI: [3] O Ship of Holiness! Rejoice within thyself for a Beauty, mighty and transcendent (jamal `izz muni` in) hath come upon thee.

[XIII] : [1] Say: `This is assuredly the Divine Bounty (al-fadl) which hath inclined all the atoms (al-dharat) towards the Beauty of the Divine Essence (jamal al-huwiyya)..

 

[3] "The Pen of the Most High."

In Arabic this title is often expressed as al-qalam al-a`la which has also been translated  "the Supreme Pen".

[4] "The Hidden Name".

This title of Baha'-Allah, "The Hidden Name" in  Arabic is written as al-ism al-makun or in Persian  ism-i maknun.

We have  here a second title of Baha'-Allah relating to the Name of God concept. It is assumed or Baha'-Allah himself announced that he was  a personification of a divine Name which  is maknun or hidden away by which the word Baha' is frequently intended. This since this `Greatest or Supreme Name of God was not acknowledged as being of central theological importance. This perhaps because it is not among the well-known 99 Islamic Names of God spelled out in the tradition relayed through Abu Hurayra or in Shi`i circles through Imam `Ali or others among the twelver Imams. These 99 Names usually begin with Allah (= no.1) and end with another divine Name or Attribute thiough the word Baha' is neither among them now is it used in the Qur'an. Hence it is theologically  "hidden" though on an historical level and pertanining to the millennium and more of Islamic historical and literary developments it was not especially rare or hidden. cf. the Islamic titles Baha'- al-Din meaning the Glory-Splendor of Religion'. The father of Muhammad al-Balkhi or  Jalal al-Din Rumi (d. 1273 CE) was  referred to as        

[5] "The Preserved Treasure".            

In Arabic  "The Preserved Treasure" cab be written after the openings words of a famous hadith qudsi (Divine, Sacred Utterabce) [kuntu] Kanz an makhfiyy an  or `[I was a ] Hidden Treasure'  ...

[6] "He Whom God will make manifest".

In Arabic  "He Whom God will make manifest" is man yuzhiru-hu Allah which is many times used by the Bab for his immediate successor or later manifestations nof God who found future religiious cycles. The Bab anticipated many future theophanies of `Him whom God  will make manifest'.

[7] The "Most Great Light".

As the Arabic  al-nur al-a`zam  this title is used by Baha'-Allah himself in various Tablets including the sixth Taraz (Ornament) of his Acre period Lawh-i Tarazat (Ornaments) : 

O people of the Bayán! Fear ye the merciful Lord...  I swear by the life of Him Who is the Desire of the world! Were a man to ponder in his heart he would, free of all attachment to the world, hasten unto the Most Great Light (         ) and would purge and purify himself from the dust of vain imaginings and the smoke of idle fancy" (Lawh-i Tarazat (Ornaments), 6th Taraz, TBAA: 41).

[8] The "All-Highest Horizon".

In Arabic  "The All-Highest Horizon" is  al-ufq al-a`la.

Great is the Day, and mighty the Call! In one of Our Tablets We have revealed these exalted words: ‘Were the world of the spirit to be wholly converted into the sense of hearing, it could then claim to be worthy to hearken unto the Voice that calleth from the Supreme Horizon (Per. ufq-i a`la)..." ESW: 361citing the third leaf of the Kalimat-i firdawsiyya (Leaves of Paradise', trans. Shoghi Effendi,  XXX).

Cf. The Abha Horizon (ufq al-abhā') - see below the Bab section.

[9] "The Most Great Ocean".

The ninth of Shoghi Effendi's list of nineteen major titles of Baha]-Allah is al-bahr al-a`zam "The  Most Great Ocean" =

Lawh-i Naqus [17] :  O oceans of the earth! (buhūr al-ard)! Be stilled of thy tempestuous waves for the Crimson Sea (al-bahr al-ahmar) surgeth through an innovative directive (bi-amr badī`).

Lawh-i Mallah al-quds (Tabet of thr Holy Mariner) : "O Holy Mariner! Bid thine ark of eternity appear before the Celestial Concourse, Glorified be my Lord, the All-Glorious!"

The Lawḥ-i Hawdaj  [Sāmsūn]

In the third paragraph of the Lawh-i Howdah which is related to the slightly earlier Lawh-i mallah al-quds, the 'Tablet of the Holy Mariner' we read: [1] O Holy Mariner! (mallāḥ al-quds)! The promise hath come to pass  just as We promised thee through a sure and knowing Tongue. [2] So be of good cheer within thyself that the Logos-Self of God which is naught save Him might embark upon the Ark through this novel yet ancient Command.

[10] "The Supreme Heaven".

The title  "The Supreme Heaven" = 

[11] "The Pre-Existent Root".

[11] "The Pre-Existent Root" =

In his al-Kitab al-ahdi or Kitab-i `ahd (Book of the Covenant), Baha'-Allah cites the passage from his al-Kitab al-aqdas (Most Holy Book) in which he refers to himself as the "Ancient Root" (           ) (TBAA: 221). He comments "Consider that which We have revealed in Our Most Holy Book: ‘When the ocean of My presence hath ebbed and the Book of My Revelation is ended, turn your faces toward Him Whom God hath purposed, Who hath branched from this Ancient Root.’ The object of this sacred verse is none other except the Most Mighty Branch [‘Abdu’l-Bahá]." (Kitab-i `ahd, TBAA:221-2). 

[12] "The Self-Subsistent".

The Qur;anic Arabic Divine Attribute  "Self-Subsistent"  is al-qayyum which certain western Christian missionaries and others followed by Shoghi Effendi translated "Self Subsisting". al-Qayyum, indicates the Deity who is Self-Subsisting as One who maintains and supports the cosmic realms and all creation.  In its original Arabic/Persian this title is the Arabic al-Qayyum which, in Qur'anic Arabic, has been translated since the 18th century as "Self-Subsistent" or "Self-Subsisting".

Rise up (qūmū) O people (qawm)! for the victory of God (naṣrat Allāh). The Qayyūm, Theophany Self-Subsisting [Bahā'u'llāh] hath assuredly come unto you, about whom the Qā'im [the messianic Ariser, the Bāb] gave glad-tidings... (Bahā’u’llāh, Iqtidarat, 99).

Al-Qayyūm in the eschatology of the Bāb.

The earliest major work of the Bāb, his Tafsīr sūra yūsuf  ("Commentary on the Surah of Joseph"; mid. 1844) is also known as both the Aḥsan al-qia (`Best of Stories') after Qur’ān 12:3 and the Qayyūm al-asmā'. Exactly why it has this latter designation is related to Shi`i messianism for the Bab further related to the fact that Qayyūm  and Joseph (Ar. Yūsuf)  have the same abjad (numerical) value; namely 156:

  • Qayyūm =  Q + Y + U + M = 100 + 10 + 6 + 40 = 156
  • Yusuf = Joseph = Y + U + S + F = 10 + 6 + 60 + 80 = 156

There exists an important Tablet of the Bāb in reply a question posed by his disciple Mullā Muhammad Bāqir (the thirteenth `Letter of the Living') about the expected Bābī messiah figure man yuẓhiru-hu Allāh. It commences

The Splendour which cometh from God (al-bahā' min Allāh) -- exalted be His Remembrance -- be upon `Him Whom God shall make  manifest (man yuẓhiru-hu Allāh)' -- exalted be His command -- and upon whomsoever is created through His command, for naught can be seen in Him except what God hath caused to be manifested unto Him, through Him, by virtue of His Utterance, `Verily, no God is there save Him, the Help in Peril, the Self-Subsisting (al-qayyūm)...  And I say that He, verily, is the Qayyūm:  for that one is a Manifestation of one of those staunch through the unfolding of His Oneness (qawwām bisā aḥadiyyatihi)" (cited Gulpayigani et al., Kashf al-ghitā,  439f).

For further details see this website at :

[13] "The Day-Star of the Universe".

[13] "The Day-Star of the Universe"

(cf. Revelation 22:16 "Morning Star")

[14] "The Great Announcement".

[14] The "Great Announcement" =  Qur'an 

"And listen for the Day when the Crier (munad) will call out (yunadi) from a place quiet near (makan qarib), The Day when they will, in very truth, hear a  Cry [Trumpet Blast] (al-sayhat) for then will be the Day of the emergence [from the graves = Resurrection]  (yawm al-khuruj) (Qur'an 50:41-2).

In his Lawh-i Ishraqat  (Tablet of Splendours) Baha'u'llah several times refers to the fulfillment of these Qur'anic verses when he proclaims the advent of the eschatological Day: 

"the Day when the immortal Being mounted His throne and the Crier raised His Voice from the haven of security and peace in the holy Vale... Verily, the Crier hath cried out, when the promised time came, and they that have recognized the splendours of Sinai have swooned away in the wilderness of hesitation, before the awful majesty of thy Lord, the Lord of creation" (Ishraqat trans TBAA: 103, 118).

At one point in his The Dispensation of Baha'u'lah,Shoghi Effendi at one point writes,

“He[ Baha'u'llah]  it is,” referring to Himself He further proclaims, “Who in the Old Testament hath been named Jehovah, Who in the Gospel hath been designated as the Spirit of Truth, and in the Qur’án acclaimed as the Great Announcement.” (Dispensation, 104).

[15] "The Speaker on Sinai".

The Qur'an related title the "Speaker on Sinai" is usually spelled in Persian as mukallim-i tur/sina'  and is very common in the writings of Baha'-Allah.

[16] "The Sifter of Men".

The "Sifter of Men"   ... cf. Persian Bayan

[17] "The Desire of the Nations".

[17] "The Desire of the Nations"

(cf. The Desire of all nations, Haggai 2:7).

Lawh-i Tarazat (Ornaments) "Glory be unto Thee, O Lord of the world and Desire of the nations, O Thou Who hast become manifest in the Greatest Name whereby the pearls of wisdom and utterance 34 have appeared from the shells of the great sea of Thy knowledge, and the heavens of divine revelation have been adorned with the light of the appearance of the Sun of Thy countenance... I swear by the life of Him Who is the Desire of the world!" (opening section + address in the 6th Taraz, trans. TBAA:33-4, 41).

[18] "The Lord of the Covenant".

[18] "The Lord of the Covenant"

[17] "The Tree beyond which there is no passing".

This title, "The Tree beyond which there is no passing" is the Qur'anic Arabic sidrat al-muntaha which has been variously translated as above or, for example, "The Tree of the Extremity". In Baha'i circles the first to translate "The Tree beyond which there is no passing" seems to have been   . He was followed by Shoghi Effendi who often transliterated this into English as Sadrat al-Muntaha, for Sidrat al-Muntaha. ...  

All of these nineteen titles selected by Shoghi Effendi, are rooted in Islamic and or Babi literatures though a few are rooted in the Bible, the Qur'an, the Bayan and various hadith texts known within twelver Shi`ism and other Sunni-Shi`i Islamic and related communities. Having listed these nineteen titles of Baha'-Allah, Shoghi Effendi continues his God Passes By  as follows:

He derived His descent, on the one hand, from Abraham…and on the other from Zoroaster, as well as from Yazdigird, the last king of the Sásáníyán dynasty. He was moreover a descendant of Jesse, and belonged, through His father, Mírzá Abbás, better known as Mírzá Buzurg--a nobleman closely associated with the ministerial circles of the Court of Fath-`Alí Sháh-- to one of the most ancient and renowned families of Mazindarán. (GPB: XXX)".

These lines presuppose various further titles relating to Zoroastrianism and Judaism and their relationship to Baha'-Allah and the religion he founded. It will be convenient to further list and comment upon titles used or applied to Baha'-Allah under the headings indicative of  which religion they most likely derive and from which sacred book or books they might be found.

Baha'-Allah, the mazhar-i ilahi (Manifestation of God), Divine Theophany.

 A paragraph from the The Lawh-i Zuhur, the Tablet of Manifestation is worth citing at this point relative to the developed claims of Baha'-Allah.  It is clear from the Lawh-i Zuhur of Baha'-Allah that huwiyya can indicate the mazhar-i ilahi (Manifestation of God) including himself. This important Tablet probably dating to the mid. West Galilean or `Akka (Acre) period commences by addressing one "who gazeth in the direction of the Godhead (ila shatr Allah)" and continues :

[2] So know thou! that the Manifestation of God (al-ẓūhur) is not compounded of the four [Empedoclean] elements (`anāṣir al-arba`a). [3] Nay, rather, He is the Mystery of the Divine Oneness (sirr al-aḥadiyya), the Pre-existent Being (kaynunat al-qidamiyya), the All-Enduring Essence (al-jawhar al-samadiyya) and the Hidden Ipseity [Self-Identity of the Godhead] (al-huwiyya al-ghaybiyya). [4] He can in no wise be known apart from His Own Self. [5] It is not possible for anyone to establish that He was made manifest from the four elements (`anāṣir) or indeed from such elements (ustuqus[s]āt = στοιχεῖον Gk. stoicheion = Latin elementum) as are mentioned by the tongue of the practitioners of [Graeco-Islamic] philosophy (ahl al-ḥikmat) or, additionally, from any of the four constituent natures (al-taba'i`). [6] Indeed! All such as this was created as a result of His Logos-Command (amr) and through His Divine Will (mashiyya). [7] For all eternity hath He been alone without a single thing proximate to Him. Like unto the time, that is, when the [Be! and] "It is" was, in very truth, realized (yakūn bi'l-ḥaqq) [cf. Q. 2:117]. [8] And when He established Himself upon the Heavenly Throne (al-`arsh) the revealed verses (al-ayat) were sent down unto thee in view of the fact that there was found in thy heart the fire of His love (trans. Lambden).

Not only can the genitive phrase al-huwiyya al-ghaybiyya be indicative (as in numerous Islamic sources) of the transcendent abstrated Deity, the Unknowable Godhead, but also the (Per.)  mazhar-i ilahi (Manifestation of God) as the "Hidden Ipseity" or Self-Identity of the Godhead" (al-huwiyya al-ghaybiyya). Th