The Claims and Titles of Baha'-Allah and the Abrahamic religions III : The Qur'an, Traditions - Ahadith / Akhbar -and Islamic Literatures.

The Claims and Titles of Baha'-Allah and the Abrahamic religions III.

The Qur'an, Traditions - Ahadith / Akhbar - and Islamic Literatures.

Stephen Lambden UCMerced.

In progress 2017.

THE MEETING WITH GOD.

The Liqa'-Allah, the eschatological or latter-day "Encounter" or "Meeting with God".

Just as the Bible and various Jewish and Christian traditions predict the theophany or appearence of God on the Day of Resurrection, so too the Qur'an and a number of Sunni and Shi`i traditions (akhbar-ahadith). For Baha'is the liqa-Allah, :Meeting with God camn about through the meeting with his manifestations, the Bab and Baha'-Allah.

Lawh-i Naqus (The Tablet of the Bell), 1863

[11] O Denizens of the Omnipotent Kingdom of  Divine Attributes (ahl jabarūt al-sifāt) in the Abhā horizon! (ufq al-abhā') Be ye prepared for the Encounter with God (liqā' Allāh)  for the sanctified breezes (nasmāt al-quds) hath wafted from the Hidden Retreat of the Divine Essence (makman al-dhāt)  which is indeed a manifest Bounty.

We decree in this Tablet that most of the [Babi-Baha'i] friends should write [istidlaliyya 'apologetic testimonia'] tracts (lit. `tablets' alwāḥ) in establishment of this Cause and send them unto the [various] countries perchance thereby none should be veiled from attaining the  Encounter-Meeting  with God (liqā’-Allāh [ through Bahā'-Allāh), the Mighty, the Beauteous"  (Arab. text AQA 4:195,  trans. Lambden).

 

THE ESCHATOLOGICAL CALL.

  • The Eschatological Call (al-nida ), Q.  

THE BLASTS ON THE TRUMPET

New Testament :

Matthew 24:30-31 And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. 31 And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.

Pauline and pseudo-Pauline Letters.

 

  • The second Trumpet Blast (      ) Q.      /

In the second and fourth lines of the c. 1863, Constantinople-Istanbul period Lawh-i naqus  (Tablet of the Bell) we read:

[2]  O Hūd of the Verdict!  (al-ḥukm)! Sound the Bugle (al-nāqūr)  in the name of God, the Mighty, the Noble, for the Embodiment of Sanctity (haykal al-quds) hath been established upon a Mighty, Transcendent Seat (kursī).

[4] O Angel of Light! (malak al-nūr)! Sound the trumpet (al-sūr) in this theophany (al-ẓuhūr) for the letter "H" (al-hā' ) rideth upon a mighty, pre-existent letter ["B"] (bi-ḥarf `izz qadīm).

From a Tablet to Nur al-Din Afnan

Tablet to Baha'-Allah / Kadim-Allah to Nur al-Din Afnan in INBMC 31:32

" This [eschatological] "Day" all have witnessed and been thunderstruck at the blast upon the Trumpet, save, that is such as God hath Willed".

The second blast upon the Trumpet is clearly abnnounced by Baha'-Allah in his Lawh-i Ishraqat (Tablet of Splendours):

Upon Our arrival in ‘Iráq We found the Cause of God sunk in deep apathy and the breeze of divine revelation stilled. Most of the believers were faint and dispirited, nay utterly lost and dead. Hence there was a second blast on the Trumpet, whereupon the Tongue of Grandeur uttered these blessed words: ‘We have sounded the Trumpet for the second time.’ Thus the whole world was quickened through the vitalizing breaths of divine revelation and inspiration" ( Lawh-i Ishraqat  9th Ishraq trans. TBAA: 131).

`Abd al-Baha' has summed up these predictions and their Babi-Baha'i fulfillment extract from a quite lengthyscriptural alwah (Tablet) :

The Bugle [al-ṣūr]  (Q. 39:68) hath sounded, the Trumpet [al-nāqūr] (Q.74:8) hath been blown, the Crier  hath raised his call, and all upon the earth have swooned away ‑ but still do the dead, in the tombs of their bodies [qubūr al-asjād], sleep on.

 And the second clarion [al-nafkhaḥ]  (Q. 39:68) hath sounded, there hath followed the second blast after the first, (Q. 79:6) and the dread woe hath come, and every nursing mother hath forgot the infant at her breast (Q.22:2 ) --  yet still the people, confused and distracted, heed it not"  (see `Abdu'l‑Baha,  Selections, 13-15).

THE BAB AND BAHA'-ALLAH AS "THE YOUTH".

Fata (pl. fityan), `Youth', `Young Man' and Ghulam in the Qur'an

Islamic Background.

Abu 'Abdu'l-Rahman Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Khalid ibn Salim ibn Rawia al-Sulami (b. Nishapur,  936/325 = d. Nishapur 512/1021)

  • Kitab al-futuwwah (The [Sufi] Way of Youthfulness [Honourable  Spiritual Conduct])
  • Kitab al-futuwwah  ed. Franz Taeschner's in Studio orientalia Joanni Pedersen ••• dicta (Copenhagen, 1953), pp. 340-351.
  • Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Sulami, The Book of Sufi Chivalry Lessons to a Son of the Moment, Futuwwah, translated by Sheikh Tosun Bayrak al-Jerrahi al-Halveti. New York : Inner Traditions International. Jerrahi Order of America, 1983. The   is by
  • ,

Ibn al-`Arabi and the supernal Fata - "Youth".

"At the beginning of al-Futuhat al-Makkiyyah [Cairo, A.H. 1329), chap. 1 (1, 47-57]... Ibn 'Arabi describes a meeting in Mecca, before the Kaaba, with an enigmatic personage whom he calls "the young man" (al-fata). This nameless "young man" is described as "he who speaks and is silent" (al-mutakallim al-samit), "who is neither dead nor alive" (laysa bi-hayyin wa la ma'it). He is at the same time "simple and composed" (al-murakkab al-basit); he is "contained by all things and contains all things" (al-muhat al-muhit). He transcends ''the where and the when'' that is, space and time. He is "the knowledge, the known, and the knowing" (al- 'ilm wa'l-ma'lum wa'l-'alim) or "the contem--plating and the contemplated" (al-shahid wa'1-mashhud). It is from the "nature" of this "young man" that Ibn 'Arabi says he has drawn "ail that is written in this book." (from Sulaymi, 1983, Introduction by Michel Chodkiewicz, pp.21-22).

In his notes to his translation cited above, Chodkiewicz further states : "See  A detailed and penetrating analysis of this inaugural account (about which, however, 1 have certain reservations) has been given by Henri Corbin in L 'lmaination créatrice dans le Soufisme d'Ibn 'Arabi (Paris, 1958), p. 207 ff. The author translates fata as jouvenceau mystique, "mystical youth." It is worth remarking that Ibn 'Arabi has devoted three chapters to Futuwwah in his Futuhat (chap. 42, 1, 241-2#, and chaps; 146-147, II, 231-234)" (cited from 1983:26 fn.10).

The Bab as the Youth

Qayyum al-asma'

QA. LXXVI [76] Sūrat al-waraqa (The Surah of the Leaf) on Qur'ān 12:75, verse 19:

[17] O Solace of the Eyes! The people shall ask thee  about Dhī'l [Dhu'l]-Qarnayn  ("The One Possessed of Two Horns [Eras]"). Say [in reply]: `Yea! By my Lord! I am the King of the two Originations  (malik al-bad'ayn)  in the two horns [eras, dominions] (al-qarnayn). [18] I am the  elevated Possessor of an Era [Horn] [dhu'l qarn]  in the two bodies (al-jismayn)... [19] We verily, established him [Dhu'l-Qarnayn = the Bāb] in the land  and We, in very truth, bestowed a letter [of the alphabet] from the name of the Dhikr upon this Arabian Youth  (al-ghulam al-`arabī = the Bāb)  such that the ways and means to all ends became his.

An early Scriptural Tablet of the Bab published in Kitab-i Zuhur al-haqq KZH 2:16

M-H*-M-D [ = MUHAMMAD]
0 Denizens of the Throne (ahl al-`arsh)!
Hearken unto the Call of thy Lord, the All Merciful, Who, no God is there save Him, from the tongue of 'Ali (`aliyy), this Youth, the son of 'Ali , the Arab who hath been witnessed in the Archetypal [Mother] Book (umm al-kitab). Then hearken unto that which He hath inspired (w-h-y) unto thee from thy Lord, 'I, verily, I am God, besides Whom there is none other save Him' . There is not a single thing like unto Him. And He is God, One Elevated, Mighty.
0 people of the earth! Hearken ye unto the Call of the birds upon the Tree, the leaves of which are of Camphor manifest in the depiction of this Praiseworthy (al-mahmudi) 'Alid, Fatimid, Meccan, Medinan, xxxx, Iraqi, Arabian Youth (al-fata al-' arabi .....) . lndeed did the All Merciful manifest His Glory (tajalli) upon their leaves. He is indeed the the Exalted (al-`aliyy). And He is assuredly God Who hath ever been One Mighty, Praiseworthy ..

And in another place:
... For God did indeed select for the preservation of the religion of His Messengers (rusul) and His Chosen Ones (awliya) a servant`abd (the Bab) from among the non-Arabs (min al-ajamiyyin). And He bestowed upon him [the Bab] what be had not bequeated upon anyone of the worlds

 

 Baha'-Allah as the Fata and Ghulam

Lawh-i Naqus - Subhana ya Hu ...

IMAMOLOGY AND THE CLAIMS.

Imami Shi`i Muslims expect, on the basis of a very large number of traditions relayed from the Imams themselves, they they or certain of them will have a `second coming' advent or raja` ("return") in eschatological times when they will conquer and rule the world for a variously  spelled out length of time. It is thought on the basis of many Shi`i traditions,  that all of the 12 Imams  or certain of them, most notably the twelfth Imam, Mahdi or Qa'im (messianic ariser, d. in occultation 260/8XX) and the third Imam Husayn (d.     ), will reappear on earth in eschatological times when the earth will be renewed, a Shi`i theocracy be established, and the millennial or longer period of beatitude commence.

The return, second coming of Imam Husayn (rija`t-i Husayn).