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Merced, CA  95340


Ph.D  Religious Studies, University of Newcastle upon Tyne (UK), 2002.

Dissertation: Some Aspects of Isrā'īliyyāt and the Emergence of the Bābī-Bahā'ī Interpretation of the Bible.

BA, Honors First Class, Religious Studies, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne (UK), 1982 


Stephenson Prize (for Highest First-Class Degree), University of Newcastle Upon Tyne (UK), 1982


Affiliate, Faculty , School of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of California, Merced, 2008-present

Research Scholar, Department of History, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, 2000-2008

Religious Studies Honors Degree Module Instructor, 2000, Newcastle University

Course:  The Babi and Baha’i Religions:  Their History and Scriptural Legacy

Teaching Assistant, 1981-1987,  University of Newcastle Upon Tyne.

Courses: Judaism at the Beginning of the Christian Era (Simeon Lash), Old Testament Prophets (John Sawyer), Pauline Literature and the Epistle to the Hebrews (William Telford), Johannine Literature (William Telford), Wisdom Literatures of the Old Testament (John Sawyer), New Religious Movements (Denis MacEoin) 


  • Arabic                       Good reading knowledge
  • Persian                     Good reading knowledge
  • Biblical Hebrew         Good reading knowledge
  • Greek                       Basic reading knowledge
  • Syriac                       Basic reading knowledge
  • French                      Basic reading knowledge


Founder and Editor:  Baha’i Studies Bulletin, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1982-1994.

Co-convener, [Bi-] annual Religious and Babi-Bahai Studies Academic Seminars, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1982-present.

WEBSITE  This old, temporary website was a while back, illicitly taken down. It will remain a `dead site' unrepresentative of my latest research. The old temporary site has now been largely transferred here, having been revised, superseded, and supplemented.  It is this new UC Merced site which should be cited, not the old one!


Book Chapters

“The Khaṣā'il-i sab`a (The Treatise of the Seven Directives) of Sayyid `Alī Muhammad Shīrāzī, the Bāb  (d. 1850)” Forthcoming. 

“The Khuṭba al-Jidda (The Literary Sermon at Jeddah) of the Bāb,” in A Most Noble Pattern, Collected Essays on the Writings of the Bāb, `Alī Muhammad Shirazi (1819-1850), ed. Todd Lawson and Omid Ghaemmaghami, Oxford: George Ronald, 2012, pp.146-159. 

“Islam,” in The Blackwell Companion to the Bible and Culture, ed. John F. A Sawyer, 135-57.  Oxford:  Blackwell, 2006.

“The Messianic Roots of Babi-Baha’i Globalism,” in Baha'i and Globalisation, eds. Margit Warburg, Annika Hvithamar, and Morten Warmind, 17-34. Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2005.

“The Background and Centrality of Apophatic Theology in Babi and Baha’i Sacred Scripture,” in Revisioning the Sacred, New Perspectives on a Baha'i Theology, ed. Jack MacLean. Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 8, 37-78.  Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 1997

“Prophecy in the Johannine Farewell Discourse: The Advents of the Paraclete, Ahmad and the Comforter (mu‘azzi),” in Scripture and Revelation, ed. Moojan Momen, 69-124. Oxford: George Ronald, 1997.

“From Fig-Leaves to Fingernails: Some Notes on the Garments of Adam and Eve in the Hebrew Bible and Select Early Post-Biblical Jewish Writings,” in A Walk in the Garden: Exegesis, Iconography and Literature, ed. P. Morris and D. Sawyer, 74-90. Sheffield:  Sheffield Academic Press, 1992.

“The Sinaitic Mysteries: Notes on Moses/Sinai Motifs in Baha’i Scripture,” in Studies in Honour of the Late Hasan M. Balyuzi, ed. Moojan Momen, 64-183. Studies in the Babi and Baha’i Religions Vol.5.  Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 1988.

“An Episode in the Childhood of the Bab,” in In Iran:  Studies in Babi and Baha’i History, ed. Peter Smith, 1-31.  Los Angeles: Kalimat Press 1986.

Journal Articles

“Catastrophe, Armageddon and Millennium: Some Aspects of the Babi-Baha’i Exegesis of Apocalyptic Symbolism.” Baha’i Studies Review 9 (1999-2000):  81-99.

 “The Word Bahā’: Quintessence of the Greatest Name [of God].” Baha’i Studies Review 3/1 (1993):  19-42.   Revised, expanded, and published in Journal of Baha'i Studies 8/2 (1997-1998):  13-45.

 “The Mysteries of the Call of Moses: Translation and Notes on Part of a Tablet of Baha'u'llah addressed to Jinab-i Khalil.”  Baha’i Studies Bulletin 4/1 (March 1986):  33-79.

“At the Shore of the Black Sea: The Lawh-i Hawdaj/Samsun of Mirza Husayn ‘Ali Baha-Allah.”   Baha’i Studies Bulletin 3/4 (Dec. 1985):  84-97.

 “An Early Poem of Mirza Ḥusayn ‘Alī Bahā'u'llāh: The Sprinkling of the Cloud of Unknowing (Rashh-i ‘ama’).”  Baha’i Studies Bulletin 3/2 (Sept. 1984):  4-114.

“A Tablet of Mirza Ḥusayn ‘Alī Bahā'u'llāh of the Early Iraq Period: The Lawh-i kull al-ta‘am (‘Tablet of All Food’).” Baha’i Studies Bulletin 3/1 (June 1984):  4-67.

“A Tablet of Baha’-Allah of the Late Baghdad Period: Lawh-i halih, halih, halih.. ya bisharat.”  Baha’i Studies Bulletin 2/3 (Dec.1983):  105-113. 

“The Islamo-Baha’i Interpretation of Deuteronomy 33:2.”  Baha’i Studies Bulletin 2/2 (Sept. 1983):  22-46.

“A Tablet of Baha’-Allah to Georg David Hardegg: The Lawh-i-Hirtik.”  Baha’i Studies Bulletin 2/1 (June 1983):  32-63.

“Antichrist-Dajjal: Some Notes on the Christian and Islamic Antichrist Traditions and their Baha’i Interpretation.”  Baha’i Studies Bulletin 1/2 (Sept. 1982):  14-49 and Baha’i Studies Bulletin 1/3 (Dec. 1982):  3-44.

“‘My God, My God, Why Hast Thou Forsaken Me?’ or ‘My God, My God, How Thou Hast glorified Me!’”  Baha’i Studies Bulletin 1/1 (June 1982):  27-43.

 Encyclopedia Articles

“Kitab-e iqan.”  (with Sholeh Quinn), in   Encyclopaedia Iranica X, XXX-XXX. 2010,  

“The Babi and Baha’i Religions,” in The Encyclopedia of Religion and War, ed. Gabriel Palmer-Fernandez, 33-36. Routledge: New York and London, 2004. 

“The Babi and Baha'i Religions,” in The Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History, ed. William H. McNeill.  Berkshire Publishing Group: Great Barrington, Mass., 2004. 

“Eschatology. IV Babi-Baha’i ,” in Encyclopaedia Iranica VIII, 581. 1998.

“Ebn Asdaq,” in  Encyclopaedia Iranica VII, 670-1.  1996.

“Ebn Abhar,” in  Encyclopaedia Iranica VII, 661-2.  1996.

“Baha’ism,” in The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, ed. R. E. Asher, vol.1, 299-300.  Oxford and New York:  Pergamon Press, 1993[4].

“Baha’i,” in A Dictionary of Religious Education, ed. John M. Sutcliffe, 34-36.  London: SCM Press, 1984.

Book Reviews

Denis MacEoin, The Messiah of Shiraz: Studies in Early and Middle Babism (Iran Studies), Leiden : Brill Academic Pub, 2009. Published in Religion  41/3 (2011): 514-518.

Nader Saiedi, Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb (Waterloo, Ont.:  Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2008).  Published in Journal of the American Oriental Society 130.2 (2010): 301-304.

The Baha’is of Iran: Socio-Historical Studies. Edited by Seena Fazel and Dominic Brookshaw (London: Routledge, 2008).  Published in Journal of the American Oriental Society 130.2 (2010): 304-306.

Keven Brown and Eberhard Von Kitzing, Evolution and Baha’i Belief: Abdu’l-Baha’s Response to Nineteenth-Century Darwinism (Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 2001).  Published in Iranian Studies  40 (2007): 552-553. 

The Baha’i Faith and the World’s Religions, ed. Moojan Momen (Oxford: George Ronald, 2003).  Published in Iranian Studies 40 (2007): 550-552.

Nader Saiedi, Logos and Civilization, Spirit, History and Order in the Writings of Baha’u’llah (Bethesda:  University Press of Maryland, 2000).  Published in Iranian Studies 36 (2003):  118-121.

(with Moojan Momen), Denis MacEoin, The Sources for Early Babi Doctrine and History:  A Survey (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992).  Published in Iranian Studies 28 (1995):  263-265.

Book-Length Works in Progress  

A Short History of the Writings of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab

Islamo-biblica and Beyond: Some Aspects of Israelitica (Isra'iliyyat)) or the Islamo-biblical tradition.

Select Papers in Progress

“The Heavens Prostrate before Joseph: Some Notes on the Exegesis-Eisegesis of a Biblical and Qur'anic Dream Vision of Joseph.” 

“The Treatise of Sayyid Kazim Rashti (d. 1259/1843) upon the Graphical Form of the ism Allah al-a‘zam (The Mightiest Name of God).”

 “Some Neglected Aspects of Qajar Shi`ism and Missionary Dialogue: al-Shaykhiyya (Shaykhism) and Biblical Exegesis.”

Encyclopedia Articles In Progress or Submitted

Submitted (1995) to The Baha’i Encyclopedia, ed. Walbridge, Momen et. al.:

“Ahmad, Arabic and Persian Tablets of;” “Alchemy;” “Angelology;” “Cheyne, Thomas Kelly (1841-1915);” “Christianity;” “The Fear of God;” “Jawahir al-asrar (The Essence of Mysteries);” “Judaism;” “Sidrah, Sidrat al-Muntaha [The Lote-Tree/ The Lote Tree of the Extremity];” “Wisdom, Hikmat / Danesh.


Invited Conference Presentations

“The Khaṣā'il-i sab`a (The Treatise of the Seven Directives) of Sayyid `Alī Muhammad Shīrāzī, the Bāb  (d. 1850)” The Third International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements and the Bábí-Bahá’í Faiths, March 21-23, 2011. Hebrew University, Jerusalem.

“The Messianic Roots of Babi-Baha’i Globalism.”  Baha'i and Globalisation.  RENNER (Research Network on New Religions) and the University of Copenhagen, Departments of Sociology and the History of Religions.  August 21-24, 2001.

“Some Aspects of the Word baha’ and the al-ism al-a‘zam (the Mightiest Name of God) in Babi-Baha’i Scripture.”  The First International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and the Babi and Baha’i Faiths.  Hebrew University, Jerusalem. December 17-21, 2000.

“The Baha’i Religion and Modern Academic Scholarship.”  Conference on Foundational Issues in Bahá’í Studies.  MertonCollege, OxfordUniversity.  March 31-April 2, 2000.

 Select Conference Presentations

“Some Thoughts on the Khuṭbat al-Ṭutunjiyya (Sermon of the Gulf) and its Shaykhī, Babi and Baha’i Interpretations.”  Middle East Studies Association Thirty Ninth Annual Meeting, November 19-22, 2005.  Washington, D.C.

“Sayyid Kāẓim Rashtī’s (d.1259/1843) Commentary upon the Graphic form of the Mightiest Name of God (al-ism al-a‘zam).”  Middle East Studies Association Thirty Eighth Annual Meeting, November 20-23 2004.  San Francisco, California

 “The Roots and Significance of the Babi-Bahai Concept of the Mightiest Name of God.”  Middle East Studies Association Thirty Sixth Annual Meeting, November 23-26, 2002. Washington, D.C.

“The Alleged Citations from the Bible in the Writings of the Bab and According to the Cambridge Orientalist E. G. Browne (d.1926).” Middle East Studies Association Thirty Fifth Annual Meeting, November 17-20, 2001.  San Francisco, California.

 “The Hurufat al-Muqatta‘at (Isolated Letters) in the Writings of the Bab with Special Reference to the Qayyum al-Asma’.”  Middle East Studies Association Thirty Fourth Annual Meeting, November 16-19, 2000.  Lake Buena Vista, Florida.

Select Seminars and Colloquia

MESA San Francisco 2001.

“The Commentary of Sayyid Kazim Rashti upon the Graphical Form of the Mightiest Name of God;”   “Baha’-Allah the Tetragrammaton, יהוה Y-H-W-H: Some Aspects of Judaism and the Baha’i Faith.”  Association for Baha’i Studies Religious Studies Special Interest Group Bi-Annual Seminar, December 10-12, 2004.

The Arabic Dala’il al-Sab‘ah (Seven Proofs) of the Bab:  Some Introductory Notes.  Irfan Colloquium, July 2-4, 2004. Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London.  London, England.

“Tablets of Baha’-Allah to Jews in Iran, Iraq, Ottoman Palestine and Elsewhere.”  Association for Baha’i Studies Religious Studies Special Interest Group Bi-Annual Seminar, December 5-7, 2003.  Newcastle upon Tyne, England

“Scriptural Fundamentalism, Hermeneutics, and Religions of the Book.”  Association for Baha’i Studies English Speaking Europe Annual Conference, 2002.  Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London, England.   

“Some Aspects of the nubuwwa (Prophetology) and mazhariyya (Theophanology) of the Bab.”  Irfan Colloquium, July 19-21, 2002.  Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London, England.

 “Cherubim, Seraphim and Demythologization: Some Aspects of Babi-Baha’i Angelology and the mala’ al-a‘la (Supreme Concourse).” Irfan Colloqium, July, 2001.  London School of Economics, London, England.

 “The Choicest of Narratives (ahsan al-qassas): Joseph Motifs and the Bābī-Bahā'ī Interpretation of the Joseph Story.” Association for Baha’i Studies Religious Studies Special Interest Group, August 21-24, 1998.

“Some Aspects of Spiritual Resurrection in the Babi-Baha’i Scripture and Modern Biblical Scholarship.” Association for Baha’i Studies Religious Studies Special Interest Group, December 12-14, 1997.  Newcastle upon Tyne, England.

“Qa’im (Ariser) and Qayyum (Deity Self-Subsistent): The Background and Significance of Twin Messianic Advents in Babi-Baha’i Scripture.” The Irfan Colloquia and the Association for Baha’i Studies Religious Studies Special Interest Group, July 4-6, 1997.  Manchester, England.

“The Position of Mirza Yahya Nuri, Subh-i Azal (1834-1912): Some Aspects of Azali  Anti-Baha’i Polemic and Baha’i Apologetics;” Association for Baha’i Studies (English-Speaking Europe), Religious Studies Special Interest Group and the Haj Mehdi Arjmand Memorial Fund in cooperation with the Institute for Baha’i Studies, Conference on Anti-Baha’i Polemic, December 8-10, 1995. Newcastle University, England.

“The Risala fi'l-nubuwwah al-khassa (Treatise on the Specific Prophethood [of Muhammad]) of Siyyid ‘Ali Muhammad the Bab,” Association for Baha’i Studies Religious Studies Special Interest Group, June.23-25, 1995.  Newcastle upon Tyne, England.

“Thomas Kelly Cheyne, Biblical scholar and Baha’i”

“Prophecy in the Johannine Farewell Discourse: Paraclete, Ahmad, Comforter (mu’azzi).”  The First Haj Mehdi Arjmand Conference, December 3-5, 1993.   Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England.

 “From Fig-Leaves to Fingernails: Some Notes on the Garments of Adam and Eve in the Hebrew Bible and Select Early Post-Biblical Jewish Writings.” Colloquium, “The Garden of Eden:  Exegesis, Iconography, and Literature,” Department of Religious Studies, University of Lancaster, 1986.

“Alchemical Gnosis in Babi-Baha’i Scripture.”  Post-Graduate Staff-Student Seminar, Department of Religious Studies, NewcastleUniversity, 1984.

Select Unpublished Papers

“On the Possible Hebrew, Judaic Roots of the Ishraqi-Shaykhi Term (Ar.) هورقليا   hurqalya (Per. havaqalya) and a Survey of its Islamic and Shi‘i-Shaykhi Senses.”

“The Background and Significance of the Bābī-Bahā'ī Doctrines Respecting the Human ‘Soul,’ ‘Spirit,’ ‘Mind,’ and ‘Intellect.’

“Preface to the working out of an Hermeneutical Paradigm for Baha’i Studies.”

“A Note on the Background and Babi-Baha’i Exegesis of the Name (Ar.) Musa (= Moses) with reference to the Sharh al-qasida al-lamiyya of Sayyid Kazim Rashti (d. 1260/1844).”

“The Background and Significance of the Interpretation of the Symbol of the Cross (shakl al-salib) in the Writings of Sayyid ‘Ali Muhammad the Bab.”

“The Question of Tahrif (Scriptural Falsification) in Islamic and Babi-Baha’i  Scripture.”

“Thomas Kelley Cheyne (1841-1915): Biblical Scholar and Baha’i.” 

“Two Major Demonstrative Treatises of the Iraq Period: The Jawahir al-asrar and the Kitab-i  iqan.”

“Kaleidoscope: The Background and Significance of some Aspects of Angelology and Color Mysticism in Babi-Baha’i Scripture.”  Oxford, 1998.

“The Primal Will (al-mashiyyah) and the First Intellect (al-‘aql al-awwal) in Islamic and Babi-Baha’i  Texts.”

“Even unto China: The Intellect, Anti-intellectualism and the Search for Truth.”

“The Background, Significance and Interrelationships of Babi-Baha’i Concepts of Immortal Soul, Rational Mind and Human Spirit.” 

“Some Babi-Baha’i Interpretations of the Surat al-kahf (The Surah of the Cave).”


Middle East Studies Association

Association for Baha’i Studies

International Society for Iranian Studes