Skip to content Skip to navigation

Commentaries on the ninety-nine Names of God and the al-ism al-a`zam, the Mightiest Name of God..

Stephen Lambden UCMerced.

In progress 2000s+ 2017.

His Names and Attributes, His Most Beautiful Names and

أسماء الله الحسنى


الاسم الأعظم

His Supreme, Mightiest or Greatest Name

ٱلۡأَسۡمَآء ٱلۡحُسۡنَىُ

The Names and Attributes of God,

  His Ninety-Nine Most Beautiful Names and His Mightiest Name.


 ‏وَلِلَّهِ ٱلْأَسْمَآءُ ٱلْحُسْنَىٰ فَٱدْعُوهُ بِهَا َ ‎ 

Unto God (Allah) belong the Most Beautiful Names (al-asmā' al-ḥusnā); so supplicate Him by means of them... (Q. 7:180a).

 ‏قُلِ ٱدْعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ أَوِ ٱدْعُوا۟ ٱلرَّحْمَٟنَ ۖ أَيًّۭا مَّا تَدْعُوا۟ فَلَهُ ٱلْأَسْمَآءُ ٱلْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ وَلَا تَجْهَرْ بِصَلَاتِكَ وَلَا تُخَافِتْ بِهَا وَٱبْتَغِ بَيْنَ ذَٟلِكَ سَبِيلًۭا ‎

Say : Supplicate God God (Allāh) or supplicate the All-Merciful (al-rahmān): by whichever Name ye call upon Him [it suffices] for to Him belong  the Most Beautiful Names (al-asmā' al-ḥusnā) (Q. 17:110)

‏ٱللَّهُ لَآ إلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ لَهُ ٱلْأَسْمَآءُ ٱلْحُسْنَىٰ  

God (Allah), No God is there except Him. To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names (al-asmā' al-ḥusnā) (Q. 20:8)

هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡخَـٰلِقُ ٱلۡبَارئُ ٱلۡمُصَوِّر لَهُ ٱلۡأَسۡمَآءُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَى يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡض وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ

 "He is God (Allah), the Creator (al-khāliq), the Originator (al-bāri'), the Fashioner (al-musawwir). His are the Most Beautiful Names (al-asmā' al-ḥusnā). All that is in the heavens and the earth glorifieth Him, and He is the Mighty (al-`Azīz), the Wise (al-Ḥakīm)" (Q. 59:24).

The Ninety-Nine Names of God

From James Robson's translation of the Mishkat al Masabih Vol. 1 (= English translation with explanatory notes) Rep. Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1990,   Chap. 1 Book X, `God's Names', p. 483. I have modified the transliteration and added the 1-99 numbering of the Names  as well  as included a red asterisk indicating those Names not found in the Qur'ān. Alternative translations are sometimes placed in square brackets as spelled out on pp. 49-50 of the  Burrell & Daher rendering of the Hadith from Abu Huraira in their excellent 1992 translation of al-Ghazzali's al-Maqsad al-asnā (see bib. below). Occasionally I have added my own rendering...

"Abu Hurayra reported God's messenger as saying,

"God, the Most High, has ninety-nine names. He who retains them in his memory will enter paradise. He is [1] God [Allāh] than whom there is no God, [2] the Compassionate (al-Rahman), [3] the Merciful (al-Raḥīm), [4] the King (al-Mālik), [5] the Holy (al-Quddūs), [6] the source of Peace [the Flawless] (al-Salām), [7] the Preserver of security [the Faithful] (al-Mu'min), [8] the Protector [Guardian] (al-Muhaymin), [9] the Mighty (al-'Azīz), [10] the Overpowering [Compeller] (al-Jabbār), [11] the Great in Majesty (al-Mutakabbir), [12] the Creator (al-Khāliq), [13] the Maker (al-Bāri'), [14] the Fashioner (al-Muṣawwir), [15] the Forgiver (al-Ghaffar), [16] the Dominant (al-Qahhār), [17] the Bestower (al-Wahhāb), [18] the Provider (al-Razzāq), [19] the Decider [Opener] (al-Fattāḥ), [20] the Knower [Omniscient] (al-'Alīm), [21] the Withholder [He Who contracts] (al-Qābiḍ), [22] the Plentiful Giver (al-Bāsit), [23] the Abaser (al-Khāfid), [24] the Exalter (al-Rāfi'), [25] the Honourer (al-Mu'izz), [26] the Humiliator (al-Muzill), [27] the Hearer (al-Samī`), [28] the Seer (al-Baṣīr), [29] the Judge (al-Ḥakam), [30] the Just (al-'Adl), [31] the Gracious [the Benevolent] (al-Laṭīf), [32] the Informed (al-Khabīr), [33] the Clement [the Mild] (al-Ḥalīm), [34] the Incomparably Great (al-'Azīm), [35] the Forgiving (al-Ghafūr), [36] the Rewarder [Grateful] (al-Shakūr), [37] the Most High (al-'Alī), [38] the Most Great (al-Kabīr), [39] the Preserver (al-Ḥafīẓ), [40] the Sustainer [Nourisher] (al-Muqīt), [41] the Reckoner (al-Ḥasīb), [42] the Majestic (al-Jalīl), [43] the Generous (al-Karīm), [44] the Watcher [All-Observant] (al-Raqīb), [45] the Answerer (al-Mujīb), [46] the Liberal [the Vast] (al-Wāsi'), [47] the Wise (al-Ḥakim), [48] the Loving (al-Wadūd), [49] the All-Glorious (al-Majīd), [50] the Raiser [the Resurrector] (al-Bā'ith), [51] the Witness (al-Shahīd), [52] the Real [the Truth] (al-Ḥaqq), [53] the Trustee (al-Wakīl), [54] the Strong (al-Qawī), [55] the Firm (al-Matīn), [56] the Patron (al-Walī), [57] the Praiseworthy (al-Ḥamīd), [58] the All-knowing (al-Muḥṣī), [59] the Originator (al-Mubdi'), [60] the Restorer to life (al-Mu'īd), [61] the Giver of life (al-Muḥyī), [62] the Giver of death (al-Mumīt), [63] the Living (al-Ḥayy), [64] the Eternal [Self-Subsusting] (al-Qayyūm), [65] the Self-Sufficient (al-Wājid), [66] the Grand [Magnificent] (al-Mājid), [67] the One (al-Wāḥid), [68] He to whom men repair [the Eternal] (al-Ṣamad), [69] the Powerful (al-Qādir), [70] the Prevailing (al-Muqtadir), [71] the Advancer [the Promoter] (al-Muqaddim), [72] the Delayer (al-Mu'akhkhir), [73] the First (al-Awwal), [74] the Last (al-Ākhir), [75] the Outward [Manifest] (al-Ẓāhir), [76] the Inward (al-Bāṭin), [77] the Governor [Ruler] (al-Wālī), [78] the Sublime (al-Muta'ālī), [79] the Ample Beneficent [Righteous] (al-Barr), [80] the Acceptor of Repentance (al-Tawwāb), [81] the Avenger (al-Muntaqim), [82] the Pardoner (al-'Afuw), [83] the Kindly (al-Ra'ūf), [84] the Ruler of Kingdom (Mālik al-Mulk), [85] the Lord of Majesty and Splendor (Dhu'l-Jalāl wa'l-Ikrām), [86] the Equitable (al-Muqsiṭ), [87] the Gatherer (al-Jāmi'), [88] the Independent [Rich] (al-Ghanī), [89] the Enricher (al-Mughnī), [90] The Depriver [Protector] (al-Māni'), [91] the Harmer [Punisher]  (al-Ḍārr), [92] the Benefiter (al-Nāfi'), [93] the Light (al-Nur), [94] the Guide (al-Hādī), [95] the First Cause (al-Badī'), [96] the Enduring (al-Bāqī), [97] the Inheritor (al-Wārith), [98] the Director (al-Rashīd), [99] the Patient (al-Ṣabūr)." (trans. Robson, revised and adapted Lambden),

Some Shi`i versions of the Ninety-Name names of God

A tradition traced back to the first Shi`i Imam `Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib (d. 40/661) lists of  ninety-nine Names of God in a version similar to the Sunni Hadith of Abu Huraira cited above. It can be found, for example, in the al-Miṣbāḥ fi al-Adu`iyya wa'l-ṣalawāt wa'l-ziyārāt wa'l-ajwāz wa'l-`awdhāt of the important Imami Shi`i expert on devotional literatures Shaykh Taqī al-Dīn al-Kaf`amī [al-`Āmilī] ( d. 900/1494-5) (see below). Within this bulky and important work several versions of the ninety-nine Names of God are spelled out as recorded in various Islamic literatures. Within the 32nd section of the al-Miṣbāḥ of al-Kaf`amī  three versions are recorded. The first version is that recorded by Shaykh `Abu al-`Abbās Aḥmad ibn Muhammad ibn Fahd al-Hillī (fl. 9th cent AH = 15th-16th cent. CE) in his `Uddat al-Da`ī (“The Preparedness of the Supplicator”) where the tradition cited has a chain of transmission going back from the eighth Imam `Alī al-Riḍā' (d. 203/818) to the first Imam `Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib and begins [a green asterisk marks Names not found in the Sunni transmitted Abu Hurayra list given above]:

"God (Allāh) has ninety-nine Names (al-asmā'). Whosoever supplicates thereby will assuredly be answered and whoso is enumerates them will assuredly enter the Garden of Paradise (al-jannat). They are [1] God (Allāh); [2] the Unique (al-Wāḥid) [= 67]; [3] the One (al-Aḥad); [4] the Eternal (al-Ṣamad); [5]  the First (al-Awwal) [=73];  [6]  the Last (al-Ākhir) [=74]; [7] the Hearer (al-Samī`) [= 27]; [8] the Seer (al-Baṣīr) [=28]; [9] the Powerful (al-Qadīr) [cf. 69]; [10] the Wrathful [Victorious] (al-Qāhir), [=XX]; [11]The Elevated (al-`Aliyy]; [12] The Most Elevated (al- A`lā); [13] The Eternal (al-Bāqi); [14] The Wonderful [Revolutionary] (al-Badī`); [15] The Creator (al-Bāri'); [16] The Most Generous (al-Akram); [17] The Manifest (al-Ẓāhir); [18] The Hidden (al-Bāṭin); [19] The Living One (al-Ḥayy); [20] The Wise (al-Ḥakīm); [21] The All-Knowing (al-`Alīm); [22] The Clement [the Mild] (al-Ḥalīm); [23] The Preserver (al-Ḥafīẓ); [24] The True One (al-Ḥaqq); [25] The Reckoner (al-Ḥasīb) [= 41]; [26] The Praiseworthy (al-Ḥamīd) [= 41];  [27] The  Welcoming [Hospitable] (al-Ḥafiyy); [28] The Lord (al-Rabb);  [29] the Compassionate (al-Rahman) [=2]; [30] the Merciful (al-Raḥīm) [=3]; [31] The Disperser (al-Dhari`)*; [32] The Provider (al-Razzāq); [33] The Watcher [All-Observant] (al-Raqīb) [= 44]; [34]  The Kindly (al-Ra'ūf) [=83]; [35] The Seer (al-Rā'ī)*;  [36] The Source of Peace [the Flawless] (al-Salām) [=6];  [37] The Preserver of Security [the Faithful] (al-Mu'min) [=7]; [38] The Protector [Guardian] (al-Muhaymin) [=8]; [39] the Mighty (al-'Azīz) [=9]; [40] The Overpowering [Compeller] (al-Jabbār) [=10]; [41] The Great in Majesty (al-Mutakabbar) [=11];  [42] The Master [Overlord] (al-Sayyid)*; [43] The Glorified (al-Subbūḥ)*; [44] The Witness (al-Shahīd); [45] The Truthful (al-Ṣādiq);  [46] The (al-Ṣāni`) [47] The Purifier (al-Tāhir);  [48] The Just (al-`Adl); [49] The  Obliterator [Effacer of Sin] (al-`Afuww) [=82]; [50]  The Forgiver (al-Ghafūr) [=35];  [51] The Wealthy [Rich] (al-Ghanī) [=88]; [52] The  Helper [Succorer] (al-Ghiyāth)*; [53] The  Cleaver  (al-Fāṭir); [54] The Single (al-Fard)*; [55] The Opener (al-Fattāḥ) [=19]; [56] The Splitter [Dispeller](al-Fāliq)*; [57]  The Pre-Existent [Ancient] (al-qadīm)*; [58]  The Sovereign [King] (al-Malik) [cf. 4]; [59] The Holy (al-Quddūs) [=5]; [60]  The Strong [Powerful] (al-Qawiyy) [= 54];  [61] The Near One (al-Qarīb)*; [62] The Self-Subsisting (al-Qayyūm) [=64]; [63]  The Withholder [He Who contracts] (al-Qābiḍ) [=21];  [64]The One Who expands (al-bāsiṭ) [=22]; [65] The Judge (al-Qāḍī)*; [66] The Grand [Magnificent] (al-Majīd) [=66]; [67] The Patron [Guardian] (al-Walī) [cf. 77]; [68]  The  Munificent (al-Mannān)*; [69] The All-Encompassing (al-Muḥīṭ)*; [70] The Perspicuous [Evident] (al-Mubīn)*; [710] The Nourisher (al-Muqīt) [=40]; [72] The Fashioner (al-muṣawwar) [=14]; [73] The Generous (al-Karīm) [=43]; [74] The Great (al-Kabīr) [=38]; [75] the All-Sufficing (al-Kāfi)*; [76] the Discloser (al-Kashif)*, [77] The Injurer [Punisher] (al-Ḍurir)* [cf. 91], [78] The Uneven [Odd Number] (al-Witr)*; [79] The Light (al-Nūr)[=93]; [80] The Bestower (al-Wahhāb) [=17]; [81] The Victorious (al-Nāṣir)*; [82] The All-Encompassing [Vast] (al-Wāsi`)[46]; [83] The Loving One (al-Wadūd) [=48]; [84] The Guide (al-Hādī) [=94]; [85] The Trustworthy [Faithful] (al-Wafī)*; [86] The Trustee (al-Wakīl) [=53] [87] The Inheritor (al-Wārith) [=97]; [88] The Doer of Good (al-Barr) [=79]; [89] The Raiser of the Dead [Ressurrector] (al-Bā`ith) [=50]; [90] The Ever-Relenting (al-Tawwāb) [=80]; [91] The Majestic [Glorious]  (al-Jalīl) [=42]; [92] The Magnanimous [Generous] (al-Jawād)*; [93]  The Wholly Aware (al-Khabīr) [=32]; [94] the Creator (al-Khāliq) [=12]; [95] The Best of the Victorious Ones (Khayr al-Nāṣirīn)*, [96] The Devout [Pious] (al-Dayyān)*, [97] The   Grateful (al-Shakūr) [=36], [98] the Benevolent [Subtle] (al-Laṭīf) [=31], [99] The Healer (al-Shāfi).* " (Arabic text as cited in al-Kaf`amī, al-Miṣbāḥ [Beirut: Mu`assat al-Tarikh al-`Arabiyya, 1425/2004], 399-400; trans. Stephen Lambden).

al-Fayḍ al-Kashānī, Mullā Muḥsin (d.1091/1680-81)

  •  `Ilm al-yaqīn fī Uṣūl al-dīn. (The Knowledge of Certainty regarding the Bases of Religion) 2 vols. ed, Muḥsin Bīdārfar, Beirut: Dār al-balāgha. 1410/1990.


Among many other traditions both Sunni and Shi`i sources record that the al-ism al-a`ẓam (Mightiest Name of God) was specified by the Prophet Muhammad as being, “within three verses that occur at the end of the Sūrat al-ḥashr (“The Surah of the Assembling”, Q. 59) [the last three verses being verses 22 to 24)


Commentaries on the ninety-nine Names of God and the al-ism al-a`zam, ism Allāh al-a'ẓam, the Mightiest Name of God.


al-Qāsim ibn Ibrāhīm (785-860 CE). Zaydite Imam...

Kitāb al-Mustarshid fī al-tawḥīd.

  • Abrahamov, Binyamin. Anthropomorphism and interpretation of the Qurʼān in the theology of al-Qāsim ibn Ibrāhīm : Kitāb al-Mustarshid. New York : E. J. Brill, 1996.

"The present work deals with anthropomorphism and interpretation of the Qur'an in the theology of the Zaidite imam al-Qasim ibn Ibrahim (785-860 AD). The edition and annotated translation of al-Qasim's epistle Kitab al-Mustarshid is preceded by a detailed introduction, which treats early Islamic theology. For the abrogation of the literal meanings of Qur'anic anthropomorphic expressions, the author uses similes, idioms and phrases in Arabic, pieces of evidence from ancient Arabic poetry and rational arguments which often reflect the Mu'tazilite ways of dealing with anthropomorphism. The second subject, the place of the Qur'an in al-Qasim's writings and his methods of interpretation of the Qur'an, bears directly upon his doctrines in general and upon his doctrine of anti-anthropomorphism in particular, and also contributes to the understanding of the development of Qur'anic exegesis in the first half of the ninth century"..

Abu `Ali al-Jubba'ī (d.303/915), Mu`tazilite theologian.

  • Kitab al-asmā' wa'l-ṣifāt (The Book of the Names and the Attributes). 

al-Zajjāj, add (d.311/923). Phililogian and Commentator.

  • Tafsir asmā' Allah ta`ala  al-tis`a  wa't-tiṣin (Commentary upon the 99 Names) See Gimaret, Les Noms, p. 17 [No.3].

al-Asharī, Abu al-Hasan (d.324/935-6).

  • ADD

Allard, Michel

  • Le problème des attributs divins dans la doctrine d'Al-As'ari et de ses premiers grands disciples. Beyrouth Impr. Catholique 1965. Grd. in-8 br. XXII-450 pp; index.Très bonne condition ex. non coupé. (Thèse pour le Doctorat ès Lettres présentée à la Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines de l'Université de Paris).

al-Ṭabarī , Abū Ja`far Muhammad ibn Jarīr (d. 923)

  • Jāmi' al-bayān fī  ta'wīl al-Qur'ān. 15 vols. Beirut:  Dār al-Fikr, 1408/1988. *
  • Jāmi‘ al-bayān ‘an ta'wīl āy al-Qur'ān. Dār al-Iḥyā al-Turāth al-`Arabī, Beirut:Lebanon, 14XX/2001.
    The commentary on the Qurān by Abū Ja‘far Muhammad b. Jarīr al-Tabarī; being an abridged translation of Jāmi‘ al-bayān ‘an tawīl āy al-Qurān, with an introduction and notes by J. Cooper ; general editors, W. F. Madelung, A. Jones. London ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1987.

Nasā'ī, Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb, (c. 830-915 CE).

  • كتاب النعوت ، الأسماء والصفات
  • Kitāb al-Nuʻūt : al-asmā' wa-al-ṣifāt  ed.`Abd al-`Azīz ibn Ibrāhīm al-Shahwān. al-Riyāḍ : Maktabat al-`Ubaykān, 1419 ‪/1998.

al-Ṭabaranī = Abū'l-Qasim Sulayman ibn `Ayyub ibn Muṭayyir Lakhmī (260-360 AH = 873-971 CE).

Syrian born Sunni Hadith collector and commentator. See EI2 X: ADD.

  • Kitāb al-Du`ā. ed. & introd. Mustafa `Abd al-Qadir `Ata. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyya, 1421/2000. (624pp.).

Abu al-Qāsim al-Qushayrī (d. 465/1072)

  • Sharḥ al-asmā' Allah al-husnā (Commentary upon the Most Beautiful Names and the Attributes). 
  • ADD

Abu Manṣūr `Abd al-Qahir al-Baghdadi (d. 429/1037).

  • Tafsir asmā' Allah al-husna. London Brit. Lib. Or. 7547.  or
  • Tafsir al-asmā' wa'l-sifat. Istanbul ms. Reshid Efendi,  No. 497. 
  • al-Farq bayn al-firaq. ed. Muhammad Muhyi al-Din `Abd al-Hamid Cairo : XXXX, n.d.
  • al-Farq bayn al-firaq. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyya, n.d.
  • Moslem schisms and sects (Al-farq bain al-firaq) being the history of the various philosophic systems developed in Islam. Vol. 2. Translated from the Arabic with introduction and notes by Abraham S. Halkin. Tel Aviv, 1935, Modern cloth., XVIII, 259, (2) pp. incl. index and bibliography. 
  • Muslim Schisms and Sects by Abd-al-Kahir Ibn Tahir Abu Mansur Al Baghdadi. Philadelphia: Porcupine Press; facsim. of 1935 edition (Sep 1977). ISBN-10: 0879914505 ISBN-13: 978-0879914509
  • Usul al-din includies material on God and His Attributes.

al-Bayhaqī = Bayhaqī, Aḥmad ibn al-Ḥusayn (994-1066).

  • Kitāb al-asmā' wa-al-ṣifāt / lil-Bayhaqī. Published Bayrūt : Dār al-Kutub al-`Ilmīyah, ‪1984. 664 pp. 

  • [Kitāb] al-asmā' wa'l-ṣifāt...ed. Muhammad Zāhid al-Kawṭarī. Cairo : ADD 1358/1939.
  • Kitāb al-asmā' wa'al-ṣifāt lil-Bayhaqī. Beirut : Dār al-Kutub al-`Ilmīyah, ‪1984. 664 pp.
  • Kitāb al-asmā' wa'l-ṣifāt lil-Bayhaqī. Beirut : Dār al-Kutub al-`Ilmīyah, ‪1422/2001. 664 pp.  *
  • Kitāb al-asmā' wa'l-ṣifāt. Cairo: Dar al-Hadith, 1423/2002.

al-Tūsi = Abu Ja`far Muhammad ibn Ḥasan al Tūsī (d. 460/1067),  Shaykh al-Ţa'ifa ("The teacher of the community").

  • Miṣbāḥ muitaḥajjid al-kabīr. ADD
  • Miṣbāḥ muitaḥajjid al-kabīr

"The most important work on du‘ā’ by Shaykh Ṭūsī, which must be considered a landmark in the history of du‘ā’ literature, is his precious book Miṣbāḥ al-mutahajjid. This elaborate work on du‘ā’ has in recent years been edited by Abū Dharr Bīdār on the basis of several manuscripts and published in an elegant form by the Mu’assah al-Fiqh al-Shī‘ah. After compiling this work, Shaykh Ṭūsī compiled a condensed version of it with the title Miṣbāḥ al-Ṣaghīr (CML, MS. 7, 505, 2082, 2341, 7359)." (Ja`farian, MTh. 1999: ADD).

  • Miṣbāḥ al-Ṣaghīr. ADD.

al-Qushayrī, `Abu al-Qasim ibn Hawazin al-Nisaburi  al-Qushayrī (d. 475/10720)..

  • Sharh al-Qushayri li'l-asma' Allāh al-ḥusna. ed. `Āṣim Ibrāhīm al-Kayālī, Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyya, 2006. 280pp.

Ibn al-'Arabī = Abū  Bakr Muhammad ibn 'Abd-Allāh ibn al-'Arabī al-Ma`āfirī (d. 543/1092). 

Andalusian Mailikī jurist and commentator who was qaḍī (judge) in his native Seville. He journeyed to Syria, Iraq and Egypt and was a one-time pupil of `Abd al-Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī (d.505/1111). See J. Robson EI2 III:707; McAuliffe, 2006 [CCQ] pp.194-196.

  • al-Amad al-aqṣā ("The Furthermost Pillar"). On the Divine Names and Attributes. In mss. Rabat and Istanbul...


al-Ghazālī = Abū Ḥāmid Muhammad b. Muhammad al-Ţusî, al-Ghazālī ( d. 555 /1111).

al-Maqṣad al-Asnā, fi Sharḥ ma`ānī asmā' Allāh al-ḥusnā

("The Commentary upon the Ninety-Nine Most Beautiful Names of God").

  • al-Maqṣad al-Asnā, fi Sharḥ ma`ānī asmā' Allāh al-ḥusnā. Cairo: Taqaddum Press, 1322/1904.
  • al-Maqṣad al-Asnā, fi Sharḥ asmā' Allāh al-ḥusnā. ed + introd. Fadlou Shehadi, Beirut: Dar el-Machreq, 1983 (liv+208 pp.)
  • al-Ghazalī on the Ninety-Nine Beautiful Names of God, trans. David B. Burrell and Nazih Daher, Islamic Text Society , 1993 / 0946621314
  • al-Ghazali on the Ninety-Nine Beautiful Names of God: al-Maqsad, al-Asna, Fi Sharh Asma', Allah al-Husna. Nakamura Hardcover / Islamic Text Society / March 1993 Iḥyā' 'ulūm al-dīn , Cairo, 1312/1894.
  • The Ninety-Nine Beautiful Names of God Al-Ghazali on the Ninety-nine Beautiful Names of God Al-Maqsad al-Asna fi Sharh Asma’ Allah al-Husna Al-Ghazali; Translated by David Burrell and Nazih Daher The Islamic Texts Society (1995) ISBN 0946621314 205 pp.
  • Iḥyā' 'ulūm al-dīn . Cairo: Lajnat Nashr al-Thaqāfiyya al-Islamiyya, Cairo, 1356/1937.
  • iḥya' 'ulūm al-dīn. 5 vols (1+4). Beirut: Dār al-Ma`rifa, 1402/1982. * Iḥya' 'ulūm al-dīn. 5 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyya, ADD/ADD. Vol. 5 includes Commentory in the form of al-Mughni 'an Haml al-asfar fi takhrikh al-Ihya)..
  • Iḥya' 'ulūm al-dīn. 5 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Arqam, 200?/ADD. Iḥya' 'ulūm al-dīn. 2 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Ma`rifa, 200?/ADD. Includes the Kitab Awarif al-Marif by al-Suhrawardi. Iḥya' 'ulūm al-dīn. 5 vols. ed. Muhammad Sulayman, Osamah Amurah. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr al-Mu'asir: 5 vols. 
  • Kitāb al-Arba'în fî usûl al-Dîn. Qāla fî Kashf al-Zunûn wa-huwa qism min kitābuhu al-musammā bi-Jawāhir al-Qur'ān ... Cairo 1328/1910. (368pp.).
  • Kitab al-Arba`in fi usul al-din. Beirut: Dar al-Jil, 1408/1988


Select secondary sources

Farouk Mitha,

  • AL-GHAZALI AND THE ISMAILIS,  A Debate on Reason and Authority in Medieval Islam  I. B. Tauris,  2002 160 pp.

Campanini, M.

  • ‘Al-Ghazzali’, in S.H. Nasr and O. Leaman (eds) History of Islamic Philosophy, London: Routledge, 1996. ch. 19, 258-74.*
  • Asmā' Allāh al-ḥusná / ta'līf `Abd Allāh ibn Ṣāliḥ ibn `Abd al-`Azīz al-Ghuṣn. al-Riyāḍ : Dār al-Waṭan, 1417/ ‬1997.‬Kojiro  Nakamura
  • Imam Ghazali's Cosmology Reconsidered with Special Reference to the Concept of "Jabarut" Studia Islamica, No. 80 (1994), pp. 29-46

Lazarus-Yafeh, H. 

  • Studies in al-Ghazali, Jerusalem: The Magnes Press. 1975.*

Leaman, O.

  • An Introduction to Medieval Islamic Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (1985)
  • ‘Ghazali and the Ash‘arites’, Asian Philosophy 6 (1) (1996) : 17-27.

Macdonald, D.B.

  •  ‘The Life of al-Ghazzali, with Especial Reference to His Religious Experiences and Opinions’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 20(1899) : 71-132.

Nuʼman, Abdullah.

  • An analytical study of the theological debate on the Muslim concept of God and his attributes from Ḥasan al-Baṣrī to Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazzālī, d.110 AH d.505 AH 1993. 160 pp. Thesis (M.A.) -- University of Melbourne, 1994.

Shehadi, F

  • Ghazali's Unique Unknowable God: A Philosophical Critical Analysis of Some of the Problems Raised by Ghazali's View of God as Utterly Unique and Unknowable, Leiden: Brill. (1964)*

Watt, W.  Montgomery 

  • The Faith and Practice of al-Ghazālī [al-Munqidh min al-Dalāl]. Ed. W. Montgomery Watt. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1953.
  • Muslim Intellectual: A Study of al-Ghazali, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 1963. *


Ibn Barrajan,   (d. 536/1121) and his Sharḥ al-asmā' al-ḥusnā.

  • Sharḥ al-asmā' al-ḥusnā.  Ms. Paris. Bib. Nat. Arabe 2642.
  • Sarh Asma' Allah Al-Husna: Comentario Sobre Los Nombres Mas Bellos De Dios Ibn Barrajan, Abd al-Salam ibn Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad;  Madrid, 2000.  571pp. ISBN 10: 8400079760 ISBN 13: 9788400079765. 

al-Ṭurṭūshī = Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Walid al-Ṭurṭūshī al-Andalusī (451-520 = 1059-1126).

Orthodox Maliki Sunni writer. See EI2 X:738.

  • al-Du`ā al-māthūr wa ādābah... 2nd ed. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1423.2003 ISBN 1-57547-742-4. (344pp.).*

This orthodox Malikī Sunnī scholar  wrote an over 300 page devotional compilation entitled al-Du`ā al-māthūr wa ādābah... (2nd ed. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1423/2003). Within it he included a fifteen page sixth chapter entitled  Fī ma`rifat ism Allāh al-a`ẓam... ("On the Gnosis of the Mightiest Name of God") adding that "when the supplicant has supplicated thereby he will assuredly be answered and when he requests something it will indeed be granted". (p.85). No supplication is more powerful in Islam than that in which the Mightiest Name of God  is contained.

Abū `Alī al‑Ṭabarsī (d. c. 548/1153)

An Imami Shi`i commentator and a Mu`tazalite in matters of theology. His Majma` al-Bayan was completed in  in June 1142 (see EI2 art Kohlberg). His weighty Shī`ī tafsīr work, entitled Majma` al‑bayān li‑`ulūm al‑Qur’ān (The Compilation of the Explanation of the Sciences of the Qur’ān) contains some important interpretations of the al-ism al-a`zam concept.

  •  Majma' al-bayān fī tafīr al-Qur'ān.  6 vols. Mat`ba`at  Saydā' [Sidon, Lebanon]: Maṭba`at al-`Irfān,  1333-56/1914-37.

  • Majma' al-bayān fī tafīr al-Qur'ān, intr. Muḥsin al-Amīn al-Ḥusaynī al-'Āmilī, 30 vols, in 6, Beirut 1380/1961

  • Majma' al-bayān fī  tafsīr al-qur'ān, 6 vols. Beirut:  Dār Maktabat al-Ḥayat, 1380. *

  • Majma` al-Bayān fī tafsīr al-Qur’ān . 5 vols. Qumm: Maktabah `Ayat-Allāh Uzmā al-Mar`ashī al-Najafī. 1403/ 1982. Majma' al-bayān fī  tafsīr al-qur'ān, 6 vols. Beirut: 1415/1995.


Ibn al-Jawzī, `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Ali ibn Muhammad Abu'l-Faraj (510-597 AH = 1126-1200 CE).

    "jurisconsult, traditionist, historian and preacher, was one of the most famous Hanbalis of Baghdad" EI2.

Daf` Shubah al-Tashbih bi-Akaff al-Tanzih

  • The Attributes of God (Daf` Shubah al-Tashbih bi-Akaff al-Tanzih) introduction Khalid Yahya Blankinship, trans. notes and Appendices by `Abdullah bin Hamid `Ali. Original Notes by Imam Zahid al-Kawthari. Bristol, England: Amal Press, 2006.  169pp. *


  • المنتظم في تاريخ الأمم والملوك
  • al-Muntazam fī ta'rïkh al-umam wa'l-muluk, ed. Muhammad and Mustafā 'Abd al-Qadir `Aṭā , 17+1 [Index] vols., Beirut : Dar al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyya. 1315/1995.  6934pp.

رازي، فخر الدين محمد بن عمر.

al-Rāzī, Muhammad ibn `Umar, Abū  al-Su`ud Muhammad ibn, Muhammad Fakhr al-Dīn (d. 606/1209 )

G. C. Anawati, 'Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī' EI2 vol. 2:751-5

  تفسير مفاتيح الغيب ، التفسير الكبير  

  • Mafātīḥ al-Ghayb al-mushtahir bi'l-Tafsīr al-kabīr,  ?  vols. Cairo, 1286/1869.
  • al-Tafsīr al-kabīr... 8 vols. Bulaq: xxxxx., 1279-1289/ 1862-1872.
  • al-Tafsīr al-kabir (The Extensive Commentary), (3rd printing) Beirut:  Dār al-Ihya al-Turath al-`Arabi, 32 vols in 16. n.d. *
  • Tafsīr-i kabir-i Mafātīḥ al-Ghayb, Persian trans.  `Ali  Asghar Ḥalabi,  Tehran : Intishārāt-i Aṣāṭīr , 1371/XXX. / vol. 4 1378/ 1999. only*
  • أحكام البسملة وما يتعلق بها من الأحكام والمعاني وإختلاف العلماء
  • Aḥkām al-basmalah wa-mā yataʻallaqu bi-hā min al-aḥkām wa-al-maʻānī wa-ikhtilāf al-ʻulamāʼ . Būlāq, Cairo : Maktabat al-Qurʼān, 1988.
  • Sharh asma' Allah al-husná lil-Razi : wa-huwa al-kitab al-musammá lawami al-bayyinat sharh asma' Allah Ta`alá wa'al-sifat. ed. Sa`d, Taha `Abd al-Ra`uf, Cairo: Maktabat al-Kulliyyat al-Azhariyya, 1396/ ADD. 396pp. 
  • Lawāmi` al-bayinnāt fī asmā' Allāh wa'l-ṣifāt
  • Lawāmi` al-bayinnāt fī asmā' Allāh wa'l-ṣifāt (The Perspicuous Brilliances regarding the Names of God and the Attributes"). This work contains a section on the ism Allāh al-a`ẓam.
  • Lawāmi` al-bayinnāt fī asmā' Allāh ta`ala wa'l-ṣifāt.  Cairo : Maktabat al-Kulliyat al-Azhariyah, 1976.
  • شرح أسماء الله الحسنى للرازي : وهو الكتاب المسمى لوامع البينات شرح أسماء الله تعالى والصفات = Sharḥ asmāʼ Allāh al-ḥusná lil-Rāzī : wa-huwa al-kitāb al-musammá, Lawāmiʻ al-bayyināt sharḥ asmāʼ Allāh taʻālá wa-al-ṣifāt ed. Ṭāhā ʻAbd al-Raʼūf Saʻd.  Cairo: al-Maktabah al-Azharīyah lil-Turāth, 1999. 
  • Traité sur les Noms Divins, trans and commentary M. Gloton, 2 vols. Paris: Devy,  1986. *
  • Traité sur les noms divins = Lawâmiʻ al-bayyinât fī al-asmâʼ wa-al-çifât : (Le livre des preuves éclatantes sur les noms et les qualités) by Fakhr al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn ʻUmar Rāzī; Maurice Gloton Beyrouth, Liban : Editions Al-Bouraq, 2000.
  • Sirr al-maktum fī mukhaṭabāt al-nujum
  • Sirr al-maktum fī mukhaṭabāt al-nujum ("The Sealed Mystery about the addressers of the Stars"), a work about Talismans and astral magic including reference to the 7 sigla constituting the al-ism al-a`zam or Mightiest Name of God.

Ibn Tāwūs = Raḍī al-Dīn 'Alī ibn. Mūsā ibn Ṭāwūs al-Hasanī al-Ḥillī (d. 664/1226):

  • Muhaj al-du'awāt wa Manhaj al-`Abadāt, Tehran, 1416  
  • Muhaj al-da'awāt wa Manhaj al-`Abadāt, ed. Shaykh Ḥusayn al-A`lami, Beirut: Mu`assasat al-A`lamī, 1414/1993 (480pp.)

From Kohlberg XXXX: ff. + Modaressi 2001:421 (adapted).

  •  Miṣbāḥ al-za ir. Qumm: Al Bayt 1997
  • Muhaj al-du'awāt wa Manhaj al-`Abadāt, Tehran, 1416
  • Muhaj al-da'awāt wa Manhaj al-`Abadāt, ed. Shaykh Ḥusayn al-A`lami, Beirut: Mu`assasat al-A`lamī, 1414/1993 (480pp.)
  • Falāḥ al-sā'il, ed. Gh. al-Maļīdī, Qum: ADD, 1419/
  • Fáraj al-maḥmūm, Najaf, 1368
  • Fatḥ al-abwāb, ed. H. al-Khaffāf, Qum: ADD, 1409/
  • Ghiyath sultan al-wara, Qum, 1408 (excerpts, together with Husayn b. Muhammad b. Nasr al-Hulwānī, Nuzhat al-nāzir)
  • Al-Ijāzāt li-kashf ţuruq al-mafāzāt, its introduction quoted in Bihar 107: 37^4
  • Al-Iqbal, ed. J. Q, al-Işfahanî, Qum, 1993
  • Jamāl al-usbū', ed. J. al-Qayyumĩ, Tehran, 13715h/ 1992—3 ֊ Kashf al-mahajja, Najaf, 1370
  • Al-Luhūf, Tehran, 1321
  • Mudayaqa = Risālat 'adam mudayaqat al-faixa'it, ed. M. 'A. Ţ. al- Marāghī, Qum, 1407 (in Turāthunā, 7֊8 [1407]: 331-59)
  • Muhāsabat al-nafs, ed. J. Q^ al-Isfahānī, Qum, 1419
  • Sad al-su'ūd, ed. F. T. al-Ḥassūn, Qum,: ADD, 1421/
  • Al-Tahsīn, Beirut, 1989 (together with the author's al-Yaqîn) ֊ Ai-Tara if, ed. 'A. 'Āshūr, Beirut, 1999

Kohlberg, Etan.

  • A Medieval Muslim Scholar at Work: Ibn Tāwūs and His Library. Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Science: Texts and Studies, no. 12. Leiden: E. J Brill, *


al-Būnī, `Alī ibn Aḥmad [Muḥyī al-Dīn] (d. 622/1225).

Muḥyī al-Dīn al-Būnī = `Abu al-`Abbas Ahmad ibn `Ali ibn Yūsuf al-Qurayshī Muḥyī al-Dīn al-Būnī  (622/1225)

See Brockelmann, GAL  I/2:655f.; Deitrich EI2 12:156-7; GALS 1:910f; Fahd, [1966]1987:230ff; Ulmann, 1972: 234,390f, 415.

An Islamic theologian, mystic and magician Ahmad ibn `Alī al-Būnī  wrote around 40 Arabic books on Islamic esoterica and magic having a special facility with the theology of talismanic configurations of the Names of God. Most of his is unedited and unpublished save for a few non-critical editions.

Kitāb shams al-ma`arif  wa latā'if  al-awārif ("The Book of the Sun of Gnosis and the Subtleties of Elevated things").

  • Kitāb shams al-ma`arif ("The Book of the Sun of Gnosis"). 4 vols. Cairo n.d. [1905]
  • Kitāb shams al-ma`arif ("The Book of the Sun of Gnosis"). 4 vols./ Pts. in 1 vol. Beirut: Maktabah al-Thaqafiyya (576pp+16 index). *
  • Pt. I = Kitāb shams al-ma`arif al-kubrā. (in the above Cairo+Beirut  ed.) pp. 1-142.
  • Pt. II = Kitāb shams al-ma`arif al-kubrā. (in the above Cairo+Beirut  ed.) pp. 143-266.
  • Pt. III = Kitāb shams al-ma`arif al-kubrā. (in the above Cairo+Beirut  ed.) pp. 266-535

     Majmū`at Arba` Rasā'il (Compendium of Four Treatises")

        of Sayyid `Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni al-Adhami...

  • Pt.IV = Majmu`at Arba`a Rasā'il (Compendium of Four Treatises") (pp.537-576):
  • [1] Risālah Mīzān al-`adl fī maqāṣid aḥkām al-raml  (pp.537-552)
  • [2] Risālah  Fawa'tih al-raghā'ib khuṣūṣiyyāt awaqāt al-kawākib (pp.552-558)
  • [3] Risālah Zahr al-maruj fi dala'il al-buruj  (pp.558-566)
  • [4] Risālah Latā'if al-Ishārāt fī Khasā'is al-kawakib al-siyāra (pp.566-576).

Sharḥ  ism Allah al-a`zam... ("Commentary upon the Mightiest Name of God..")

  • Sharḥ ism Allāh al-a`ẓam fī al-ruḥānī wa yalayyhi kitāb al-lama`at fī fawā'id al-ruḥānīyya `aẓīẓat al-sama`at ("Commentary upon the Mightiest Name of God in Spirituality and its relationship to the Book of Brilliance in the mighty, reputable spiritual instructions" ) Cairo: al-Maktaba al-Mahmūdiyya al-Tijāriyya bi'l-Azhar, 1358/ 1939 (119+ index).

Ibn al-`Arabī, Shaykh Muḥyī al-Dīn (d. 638/1240)..

  • al-Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya. (`The Meccan Revelations [Openings]', 4 Vols.) Beirut: Dār Ṣadir n.d. [1968 = Cairo Ed. 1911].
  • Ibn ‘Arabî: Les Illuminations de la Mecque, Sinbad, Pais, 1988 (esp.  section “La Science des Lettres”, traducido y comentado por D. Gril,...)...
  • ADD
  • Kashf al-ma'ná an sirr asma' Allah al-husná. ed. and introd., Beneito, Pablo + Hasan Mamduhi. Qum: Bakhshayish, 1419/ 1998. 200pp.  ISBN 9649063633

Ibn ‘Ata’ Allāh (d.709/1309).

  • Traité sur le nom Allah, les Deux Océans, Paris, 1981 -- trans. M. Gloton.
  • ADD

Nwyia, Paul 

  • Ibn 'Ata' Allah (m. 709/1309) et la naissance de la confrérie sadilite. Edition critique et traduction des Hikam précédées d'une introduction sur le soufisme et suivies de notes sur le vocabulaire mystique. Beyrouth Dar el-Machreq 1986.

Taqī al-Dīn Aḥmad Ibn Taymiyya (d.728/1328)

  • Kitāb al-asmā' wa-al-ṣifāt. ed.  Muṣṭafá `Abd al-Qādir `Aṭā. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-`Ilmīyah, 1408/ ‬1988.‬

  • Kitāb al-asmā' wa-al-ṣifāt. ed.  Muṣṭafá `Abd al-Qādir `Aṭā. 2 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-`Ilmīyah, 1418/ ‬1988. 327+595pp.‬  *

  • al-Risālah al-Tadmurīyah fī taḥqīq al-ithbāt li-asmāʼ Allāh wa-ṣifātuh wa-bayān ḥaqīqat al-jamʻ bayna al-sharʻ wa-al-qadar  Cairo: Qaṣī Muḥib al-Dīn al-Khaṭīb ; al-Maṭbaʿah al-Salafīyah, 1405 / 1984. ‬ 68pp.

  • Risālat al-Fatwá al-Ḥamawīyah al-kubrá wa yalīhā al-risālah al-Madīnah fī tah̄qīq al-majāz wa-al-ḥaqīqah fī ṣifāt Allāh taʿalā; taṣḥiḥihā bi-qadr al-imkān wa taʿlīq ḥawāshīyahā Mụammad ʿAbd al-Razāq Ḥamzah. Cairo : Maṭbaʻat al-Madanī, ‪c. ‬1967?.

  • Taqrīb al-Tadmurīyah : taḥqīq al-ithbāt lil-asmā' wa-al-ṣifāt wa-ḥaqīqat al-jam` bayna al-qadar wa-al-shar` ed. Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ ibn `Uthaymīn ; i`taná bi-al-kitāb wa-kharraja aḥādīthahu Sayyid ibn `Abbās ibn `Alī al-Jalīmī. Cairo: Maktabat al-Sunnah, 1413/‬1992. 

  • Nafā'is. ed. Muḥammad Ḥāmid Fiqī. ‬Cairo‬ : Maṭba`at al-Sunnah al-Muḥammadīyah, c.1955. 360 pp. Contents = 1. al-Risālah al-tadmīrīyah / li-ibn Taymīyah -- 2. al-Fatwá al-ḥimawīyah al-kubrá / li-ibn Taymīyah -- 3. Alfiyat muṣṭaliḥ al-Ḥadīth / Zayn al-Dīn `Abd al-Raḥīm al-`Irāqī -- 4.`Umdat al-Aḥkām min kalām Khayr al-anām / `Abd al-Ghanī al-Maqdassī al-Jamā`īlī.

al-Kaf`amī [al-`Āmilī], Shaykh Taqī al-Dīn ( d. 900/1494-5).

  • al-Miṣbaḥ... Beirut: Mu’assasa al-A`lamī, 1414/1994.*
  • al-Miṣbāḥ fi al-Adu`iyya wa'l-ṣalawāt wa'l-ziyārāt wa'l-ajwāz wa'l-`awdhāt, Beirut: Mu`assasat al-Tarikh al-`Arabiyya, 1425/2004 (967pp.).
  • Trans. Stephen Lambden : Taqi al-Din al-Kaf`ami (d. 900/1494-5) on the Mightiest Name of God
  • `The Names of God and theories of His Mightiest Name (al-ism al-a`ẓam) with special reference to the Miṣbāḥ (Luminary) of Tāqī al-Dīn Kaf`amī (d. 900/1494-5) and Bābī-Bahā’ī theologies of the Eschatological Name.'

al-Bursī, Rajab.  (d. XXXX/XXXX ).

  • Mashāriq anwār al-yaqīn fī asrār Amīr al-Mu’minīn.  Beirut: Dār al-Andalus, 1978.

al-Suyūṭī, Jalāl a-Dīn `Abd al-Raḥman (d. 911/1505)

  • الدر المنتظم في الاسم الأعظم = "The Well-strung  Pearls on the Mightiest Name [of God]")
  • الدر المنظم في الاسم الأعظم   = "The Ordered Pearls as to the Mightiest Name [of God]")
  • Titles vary or two works ??
  • al-Durr al-muntaẓim fī al-ism al-a`zam [?] apparently within a mss. extant in the al-Zahiriyya Library in Damascus (?) 831 pages long.
  • al-Durr al-munaẓẓam fī al-ism al-a`zam... [=Rasa'il al-Suyuti No. 17] ed. Sa'id Muhammad al-Liḥām. Beirut: `Alam al-Kitab, 1417/1996. 15pp.
  • al-Durr al-muntaẓim fī al-ism al-a`zam ,  ed. Husayn Jihad al-Husayni. ADD: Mu`assat al-Balāgh, 2001. 56pp. 
  • ADD
  • Trans Stephen Lambden : The Treatise of Jalāl a-Dīn `Abd al-Raḥman al-Suyūṭī (d. 911/1505) on the Mightiest Name of God.
  • الإتقان في علوم القرآن =
  • Al-Itqān fī `ulūm al-Qur’ān
  • al-Itqān fī `ulūm al-Qur'ān, Cairo: Azhariyya Press, 2 vols. 1318/ 1900.*
  • al-Itqān fī `ulūm al-Qur'ān. al- Maktaba al-Assrya, 2006.
  • Al-Durr al-manthūr fī tafsīr al-ma'thūr

تفسير الجلالين

  • Tafsīr al-Jalālayn by Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Maḥallī + Jalāl al-Dīn al-Suyūṭī.
  • al-Durr al-Manthūr fī 'l-Tafsīr al-Mānthūr. 6 vols. in 3. Qum: al-Maktabat Shihab al-Din al-Husayni, Ayat-Allah al-Mar`ashi al-Najafī , n.d. c. 1377/1957 (+1404/1983).
  • Sharĥ al-Isti'ādha  wa’l-Basmala. (In mss. ?)
  • Mīzān al-Madalah fī Sha'n al-Basmalah. (In mss. ?

Majlisī, Muhammad Bāqir. (d. 1111/1699-70)

  • Biḥār al-anwār. 2 [110 Vols] Beirut: Mu'assat al-Wafā', 1403/1983.
  • Zad al-Ma`ad ("Knapsack for the Eschaton").

Maybudī, Rashīd al-Dīn (d. after 520/1126)

  • Kashf al-asrār wa`uddat al-abrār [The Unveiling of he Mysteries and the Preparation of the Pious], 10. vols ed. `Alī Asghar Ḥikmat. Tehran: Intishārāt Dānishgāhī, 1952-1960.*

al-Kaf‘amī [al-‘Āmilī], ShaykhTaqī al-Dīn.

  • al-Miṣbaḥ ADD. Qum: Manshūrāt al-Raḍī Zāhidī, 1405 AH /1984-5 CE.
  • Trans. Stephen Lambden:
  • Taqi al-Din al-Kaf`ami (d. 900/1494-5) on the Mightiest Name of God

Rashtī, Sayyid Kāẓim (d.1259/1243).

  • Sharh al-qaṣīda al-lāmiyya. Tabriz: n.d. [1270/1853/4].
  • Sharh al-Khuṭba al-ṭutunjīya. Tabriz: n.d. [1270/1853/4].

Hajji Hādī ibn Mahdī Sabzavārī (1797-1872 CE) 

  • Sharḥ al-asmāʾ al-ḥusná by Hādī al-Sabzawārī. Qumm : bi-nafaqat Maktabat Baṣīratī, c. 197?, (288,113pp). = Facsimile of ms. dated Rajab 1281 [1864] includes Sabzawārī’s commentary on a prayer attributed to ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib entitled Duʿāʾ al-ṣabāḥ, or, Miftāḥ al-falāḥ wa-miṣbāḥ al-najāḥ... ADD