Appendix II : A Chronological Listing of Select Persons in Islamic history with the Arabic Honorific title (laqab) Bahā' al-Dīn (The Glory of the Religion).
Stephen Lambden UCMerced.
1980s + 2017 - In progress, last updated 24-04-2018.
The following are a few examples of the many sometimes notable persons whose laqabs, titles or names included the word bahā' in the form of the title Bahā' al-Dīn (The Glory of Religion) and Baha' al-Dawlah (The Glory of the Empire). The granting or adoption of such titles would appear to have originated in the 11th cent. CE., probably after 1.000 CE. Some of those persons listed below are very well-known, others not so famous or in fact little known or distinctly obscure. I shall include below persons with this title listed in a multitde of sources. Especialy useful has been the well-known, extensive work entitled A'yan al-shī'a ... (Eyes of the Shi`a Community) of al-'Āmilī (see main bibliography below).
Druze leaders in Jebel al-Druze (1926),
- [X] Bahā’-al-Dīn 'Ali ibn Ahmad ibn ad-Dayf [al-Ta'i], known as al-Muqtana Bahā’-al-Dīn or Bahā’-al-Dīn al-Muqtana as well as Bahā’-al-Dīn al-Samuqi for he was born in Samuqi/ Sammuqa near Aleppo in 979 and died in 1043 CE. From being al-Hakim’s governor in northern Syria (1015–1016), He was the outward leadrer of the Druze religion from 1021.
This Syrian born Bahā’-al-Dīn was a leading figure in the Shi`i Isma'ili movement and figures prominently in the emergence of the so-called Druze (for Duruz) religious community (Druze is a misnomer after the secondary missionary figure al-Darazi; see Swayd 2006:xxxiif.). The origins of this important mystically and esoterically inclined (loosely) neo-Abrahamic religious movement, are closely associated with the sixth Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (reigned 996-1021 CE) during whose reign it came into being. Baha al-Din was appointed the second spiritual leader by al-Hakim in 1021. With Hamza ibn 'Ali ibn Ahmad ( b, Zawzan, 9XX- d. after his withdrawal in 1027 ) who was appointed an Imam by al-Hakim in 1017, he authored certain of the 111 (in 6 books) رسـائـل الـحـكـمـة, "The Epistles of Wisdom" (nos.109-110 written 1042 CE). These and associated sacred texts are foundational within the canon of the sacred writings of the Druze religion. Philip K. Hitti has referred to Bahā’-al-Dīn as one seen as "the "Left Wing" ... the fifth and last supreme minister who stands at the head of a lower hierarchy and whose multitudinous treatises and epistles, together with those of Ḥamzah, form the Druze sacred literature" and adds, "This Bahā’-al-Dīn may have been of Christian origin as his writings reveal unusual familiarity with the New Testament and Christian liturgy".
Three figures are thus central to the Druze phenomenom; the Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr-Allah, his Imam Hamza ibn 'Ali ibn Ahmad al-Zawzani (Zozani, in Persian Khurasan) knwon (among many other things as al-‘Aql al-Kulli (the Universal Intellect) and huis appointed successor Bahā’-al-Dīn al-Samuqi, the fifth luminary, a major propagandist of high spiritual rank.
Of Baha' al-Din Swayd has written :
"Baha’ al-Din was born in Samuqa near Aleppo to a family known as Ta’i and is known in some historical sources as Abu al-Hasan al-Dayf, ‘Ali Ibn Ahmad Ibn al-Dayf, or ‘Ali Ibn al-Dayf. He was sent by the Fatimi caliph al-Hakim in 1015–1016 on a military mission to Syria in which he conquered Aleppo from the Hamdanis and became its governor. To distinguish him from the other luminaries, he was given a number of titles, including ‘‘The Left Wing’’ (al-Janah al-Aysar), that is, a helper to Hamza Ibn ‘Ali during the period when al-Tamimi was the hujjah between Hamza and other luminaries and al-Qurashi the Safara (ambassadorship) between Hamza Ibn ‘Ali and al-Hakim. Baha’ al-Din is also known as al-Muqtana (the owned), Lisan al-Mu’minin (the believers’ tongue), and Sanad al-Muwahhidin (the Unitarians’ pillar).
Baha’ al-Din has a number of honorary shrines and visitation sites, including one in the Shuf area in the district of ‘Alay, Lebanon, and a more recently constructed one in the town of Bayt-Jann, Israel. The one in ‘Alay is known by two names: ‘‘The Shrine of the Noble’’ and ‘‘The Shrine of Shamleikh’’ (Swayd, 2006:143)
The Druze religious movement had something of a closure or interregnum in 1041 when Baha' al-Din left Cairo, a few years before he died.
Philip K. Hitti, The Origins of the Druze People and Religion. New York: Colombia Univ, Press, 1928 . Samy Swayd, The Druzes: An Annotated Bibliography/ Kirkland, Wash: Isex Publications, 1998; idem, Historical Dictionary of The Druzes (= Historical Dictionaries of Peoples and Cultures, No. 3). Lanham, Maryland • Toronto • Oxford: The Scarecrow Press Inc., 2006
- [X] Bahā’ al-Dīn Karaki = Abu Bakht Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abu Be'r Kharaqi (Marvaze) (d. 533/1138-39). According to Pingree he "was born in a village named Karaq near the city of Marv, where he apparently spent his professional life and where he died in 533/1138-39. His name is sometimes given as Abū Moḥammad `Abd-al-Jabbār b. `Abd-al-Jabbār b. Moḥammad; and he is sometimes identified with Bahā’-al-Dīn Abū Moḥammad K¨araqī, a philosopher and expert on the mathematical sciences of whom a biography is given by Bayhaqī (Wiedemann, pp. 72-73 [Aufsätze I, pp. 654-55]) " from D. Pingree EIr. art. ; See also Brockelmann, GAL Supp. I, (Leiden, 1937), X.
- [X] Bahā’ al-Dīn Zuhayr = Abu al-Fadl Zuhayr ibn Muhammad ibn `Ali Muhallabi al-Azdi (d. Cairo 656/1258). See EI3 aet. Jawdat Rikabi revised Th. Emil Homerin
- [X] Bahā’ al-Dīn Muhammad Walad ibn Husayn ibn Ahmad Katib Balkhi (546-628 AH = 1151-1231 CE), father of the famous poet Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī (1207-1273 CE). See art. H. Algar, EIr. ADD , "In his lifetime he was generally known as Bahā’-e Walad, and often referred to in addition by the title solṭān al-`ulamā’ (king of the scholars)".
- Bahā' al-Dīn Zakariyyā/Multani (b. c. 566/1170 OR 578/1182-3 - d. c. 666/1267). Indian saint and khalifa (deputy-disciple) of Shihab al-Din `Umar al-Suhrawardi (d. 632/1234). See Arnold EI art. `Baha' al-Din Zakariya' vol. X: x; Storey, I/ii, 930, esp. fn. 7), Also known as Bahā' al-Ḥaqq, ("the glory of the True One") a Suhrawardī saint.
- [X] Bahā' al-Dīn (c. CE).
- [X] Bahā' al-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Rāfiʻ Ibn Shaddād (d. Aleppo, 632/1234-5) author of a Fada'il al-Jihad (Excellences of Jihad) and a biography of Salah al-Din (Saladdin) entitled Sirat Salah al-Din, . See H. A. R. Gibb, The Life of Saladin: From the Works of Imad ad-Din and Baha ad-Din. Clarendon Press, 1973. More recently published as `The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin' by Baha Al-Din Yusuf Ibn Rafi Ibn Shaddad and trans. Donald S. Richards. Ashgate Pub Ltd ,2001) ISBN-10: 0754601439. See See David Morray, `Bahā’ al-Dīn Abu al-Mahasin... in Josef W. Meri ed. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Vol.1:368.; Encyclopaedia Brittanica :
- [X] Malik Bahā' al-Dīn Tugrul (late12th-early 13th cent CE),
This Indian slave-born architect was closely associated with the Sultans of Delhi.
See Abū 'Umar Minhaj al-Din 'Uthman ibn Siraj al-Din al-Awzjani, known as Minhaj-i Siraj, Tabaqāt-i Nāṣirī (Calcutta, 1864), pp. 144-46; H. G. Raverty's notes on Baha alDin Tughrul in his translation of the Ṭabaqāt-i Nāṣirī (London, 1881), vol. 2, pp. 554-57; Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah, Tārfkh-i Firishata, vol. 1 (Lucknow, 1864), p. 59; Mehrdad and Natalie H. Shokoohy, The Architecture of Baha al-Din Tughrul in the Region of Bayana, Rajasthan' 1987 In Muqarnas IV: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Oleg Grabar (ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill. 1987.See :
- [X] Bahā’ al-Dīn Juwaynī, Muhammad ibn Shams al-Din, the father of the 13th century CE. historian.
بها الدين زهير
- [X] Bahā' al-Dīn Zuhayr = Abu'l-Faḍl Muhammad al-Muhallabī al-Azdī, a celebrated courtier and official Arab poet of the Ayyūbids (581-656 AH = 1186-1258 CE).
He is several times cited by Shaykh Baha'i in his Kashkul (e.g. ed. Beirut: al-A`lami,1420/1999, vol.3:32-3, 289-90).His Diwan has been published (Brockelmann, GAL I:307-8 +Supp. I:465-6; P.Smoor, `Bahā' al-Dīn Zuhayr' Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, Volume 1 :127; J. Rikabi art. in EI2 1:912-3). See E. H. Palmer, `The Poetical Works of Beha-ud-Din Zoheir of Egypt with a metrical English Translation, Notes and Introduction'.
- [X] Bahā' al-Dīn Baghdādī or Baghdādakī = Muhammad ibn al-Mu`ayyad Baghdādī (Baghdādakī) Khvārazmī (d. after 688/1289).
Bahāʾ-al-Dīn Baghdādī, Muḥammad ibn Muʾayyad Baghdādī (or Baghdādakī) Khvārazmī (d. after 688/1289). Mystic and famed prose writer and poet he authored the al-Tawassul ila’l-tarassul which has been printed with his Risāla-yi ḥabsīya (ed. Aḥmad Bahmanyār). Tehran: XXXX,1315 Sh./1936
See Z. Safa, “BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN BAḠDĀDĪ,” Encyclopaedia Iranica, III/4, pp. 430-431, available online at : http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/baha-al-din-bagdadi-mohammad-b (accessed on 30 December 2012).
He was a "master of the art of Persian letter-writing (tarassol) in the 6th/12th century...from Baghdādak, a place in Khwārazm...His rise to fame began when he took charge of the dīvān-e ensā' (chancellery) of the Kúarazmshah `Alā' al-Dīn Tekes b. Èl Arslān (r. 568/1172-596/1200). In the Haft eqlīm (I, p. 106) he is said to have also been the secretary of the next Kúarazmsah, Sultan Mohammad (596/1199-617/1220), but this is hard to verify" (Z. Safar EIr. vol. III/4 1988 [updated 2011] (See URL above and Storey 1:262; I/ii, 1272).
- [X] Baha al-Dīn Aslam ( d. ADD/ADD), a Mamluk who rose to the rank of silahdar (sword bearer) in Cairo during the reign of Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad ( ). See Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. 1989. Islamic Architecture in Cairo. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Williams, Caroline. 2002. Islamic Monuments in Cairo: The Practical Guide. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press: 93-94.
- Bahā’ al-Dīn Ḥaydar ibn `Ali ibn Ḥaydar al-Ubaydī, al-Āmulī (b. c. Āmil 719/1319–d. 787/1385).
He had an important influence on twelver Shi`i doctrine especially through the assimilation and reinterpretation of aspects of the intellectual mysticism of Ibn al-`Arabi (d. 638/1240). He developed aspects of the ideas of the Great Shaykh about the two seals of sainthood, including the khatam al-wilaya ("Seal of the Divine Intimacy") as he related them to twelver messianism.
Shrine of Baha' al-Din Naqshband in Bukhara.
بهاءالدین محمد نقشبند بخاری
- [X] Bahā’ al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Muhammad Naqshband (718-791 AH = 1318-1391 CE ). The founder of the Naqshbandiyya Sufi order "Bahā' al-Dīn left behind no writings (with the possible exception of a litany named after him , Awrād-i Bahā'iyya)" (VII: 934). Naqshband perhaps means soemthing like 'embroiderer'. See art. Algar, EI2 VII: 93 -934; cf. idem, EI2 VII Nakshbandiyya, VII:934-939 and idem., EIr. `Bahā' al-Din Naqshband =
- Naṣrullāh Efendi, Risāle-i bahāiye, Istanbul, 1328/1910.
"A number of poems and treatises have been attributed to Bahāʾ-al-Dīn Naqšband, almost certainly without justification. On the other hand, the litany that bears his name, Awrād-e bahāʾīya, may indeed have been composed by him, although there is no reference to it in the early Naqšbandī texts and its recitation has never been a pillar of regular Naqšbandī practice (there are numerous printings of the Awrād; see, for example, that in Aḥmad Żīāʾ-al-Dīn Kumušḵānawī, Majmūʿat al-aḥzāb, Istanbul, 1311/1893, II, pp. 2-14, with the commentary of Shaikh Moḥammad Saʿīd Ḵādemī)." (Algar EIr. see URL above).
- Notable Naqshbandi Sufis include Ahmad al-Farūqī al-Sirhindī (d. 1034 AH buried Sirhind, India (1564–1624 CE). Add here ,,,
- [X] Bahā’ al-Dīn `Umar (d. XXXX/1453)
- [X] Bahā’ al-Dīn al-Astarabadi who according to Muḥsin ibn ʻAbd al-Karīm al-Amīn received an ijāza (certificate of religious authorization) from `Ali ibn Halal al-Jaza'iri dated 889/1484 (see al-Amīn, A'yān al-Shi`a, 3:615).
- [X] Bahā' al-Dawlah, Muhammad Ḥusaynī Nūrbakshī (d. c.1507 CE) an outstanding physician of the Safavid era. He received the title Bahā' al-Dawlah from the then Shāh.
- [X] Bahā' al-Din al-`Āmilī = Shaykh Bahā'i = Muhammad ibn Ḥusayn al-Āmilī (b. Baalbeck 953/1547- d. Isfāhān 1030/1622).He was perhaps the most famous Bahā’ al-Dīn as the erudite Safavid Qur;an exegete, theologian-philosopher, mathematician, Sufi mystagogue and man of letters. Bahā’ al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Ḥusayn al-Āmilī (b. Baalbeck 953/1547- d. Isfāhān 1030 AH/1622 CE), the author of around 100 works including a well-known Persian-Arabic anthology entitled Kashkūl ("Begging-Bowl"). A one time Shaykh al-Islām of Isfāhān appointed by Shāh `Abbās the Great, he was accorded the title Baha' al-Din and adopted the takhallus (`pen-name') Baha'i coming to be known as Shaykh Bahā’ī. There exists a Persian mathnawi mystical poem attributed to him which celebrates and highlights the mystery of the al-ism al-a`zam ( "greatest name" of God). He, for example, has it that this "greatest name" is the Name, by virtue of a sunburst of which, Moses experienced the luminous Sinaitic theophany. By reciting it Jesus resurrected the dead. Indeed, it enshrines the (Per.) kunuz-i-asmā', the "treasures of the Names". See further Shaykh Bahā' al-Din al-`Āmilī ( ??) in Tunukabūnī, Qisas al-'ulama' ed. 2004, pp. 267,317, 324, 351, 371-2, 380, 425, 603. Check.
According to the Baha'i writer and apologist `Abd al-Hamid, Ishrāq Khāvarī (d. Tehran, 1972), Muhammad Baha' al-Din al-`Amili (d. Isfāhān 1030 AH/1622 CE), Shaykh Bahā'ī, adopted his aforementioned pen-name in the light of the traditions of the Imāms about the Greatest Name of God and the occurrence of the word bahā' in both the Dawn Prayer of the 5th Imam Muhammad Bāqir ( d. c.126/743; see this website) and the Supplication of the Mother of David (Du`a-yi Umm Dawúd, the Shi`i transmitted supplication of the mother of the Israelite prophet David) in which the sixth Imām Ja`far al-Ṣādiq (d. c. 148/765) reckoned that the Greatest Name (al-ism al-a`zam) was contained (see Ishrāq Khāvarī, Jannāt-i Na'īm 1:469; cf. Noghabai, 149). See Enc. Ir, E. Kohlberg, “BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN ʿĀMELĪ,” Encyclopaedia Iranica, III/4, pp. 429-430, available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/baha-al-din-ameli-shaikh-mohammad-b (accessed on 30 December 2012).
- http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/baha-al-din-ameli-shaikh-mohammad-b See also webpages on this Hurqalya site.
- [X] Bahā' al-Din Jubba`i (d. ADD/ADD).
- [X] [Shaykh] Bahā' al-Dīn ibn `Ala' al-Din Barnawi (d.1038/1628), reputed Chisti saint and musician (Storey, 1/ii, p. 1007-8, No. 1330b), See the Chistiyya-i bihishtiyya or Firdawsiyya-i qudsiyya (on Saints of the Chisti order, c. 1066/ 1555-6)
- [X] Bahā' al-Din
- [X] Bahā' al-Din al-Nabāṭī son of `Ali Āmilī (d. Addd/Addd) See Aqa Buzurg Tehrani, Tabaqat 5:88.
- [X] Khwaja Bahā' al-Dīn - written about by `Abu'l-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Mas`ud wrote a Risala Baha'iyya fi maqamat-i hadrat-i khwajah Baha' al-Din ( so Storey 1/ii p.1060, no. 69 referring to Aligarh Subh MSS p.12 no. 11 (AH 10621652).
- Bahā' al-Dīn ibn Mahmud ibn Makhdum Qadi Hamid al-Din Naguri, known as Rajah (1067/1666-7). Author of the Asrar al-mashayikh (see Storey 1/ii, p.1054, No. 8).
- [X] Bahā' al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Hasan Isfahani, Fāḍil Hindī (1062-1134 AH =1652-1722). See Add ; Henry Corbin, 1976 [Anthologie des Philisophes Iraniens: XVIII] 29-33; Tunukabūnī, Qisas al-'ulama' ed. 2004, No. 74 pp. 404-416.
- [X] Bahā' al-Dīn Hasan Khan, " `Uruj" (d. c. 1814), author of the Tadhkirat al-shu`ara' ("Memorials of the Poets", see Storey 1/ii, p.923 No. 12) and the Bahar u Khazan or (in partial Urdu trans.) Nur al-anwar (The Light of Lights) as well as an anthology on the works of the poets of the Deccan and manuals on epistolatory form (see Nile Green, `Counter-Narratives of Saintly Identity in the Cult of Shah Nur' in Alessandro Monsutti et al. eds., The Other Shiites: From the Mediterranean to Central Asia (Benn, Switzerland : Peter Lang AG, International Academic Publishers, 2007), p. 209 + fn. 32); Nile Green. Making Space: Sufis and Settlers in Early Modern India (New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press, 2012), p. 223.
- [X] Bahā' al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Khwajah Shams al-Din Muhammad... Tunikabūnī, Qisas al-'ulama' ed. 2004, pp. 493-4.
- [X] Bahaeddin Sakir (Bahā' al-Dīn Sākir, 1290/1873?-1922). Article in EI3 by M. Sükrü Hanioģlu, He "was a leading member of the ittihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti (ittihād ve Teraqqī Cemiyyeti, Committee of Union and Progress, CUP), who played a major role in laying the groundwork for the Young Turk Revolution of 1908. He was boru in Istanbul, to parents who had migrated from islimiye (Sliven), in today's Bulgaria. He graduated from the Mekteb-i Tlbbiye-i Sahane (Royal Medical Academy) in 1312/1896 with the highest honours...." EI3 ADD refs
SELECT PERSONS WITH THE WORD BAHA'I AS PART OF THEIR NAME, TITLE OR APPELATION ...
The Arabic derived word Baha' (Glory-Beauty-Splendoir, etc) has for centuries been used as both a male and a female first nameas well as a component of the last name or `surname' ...
- Shaykh Baha'i = the common appelation of Bahā' al-Din al-`Āmilī = Muhammad ibn Ḥusayn al-Āmilī (b. Baalbeck 953/1547- d. Isfāhān 1030/1622.
- Bahā'ī Mehmed Efendi (1010- 1064/1600-1653). Article in EI3 by Gottfried Hagen,: "Bahā'ī Mehmed Efendi (1010- 64/1600-53) was an Ottoman intellectual who served twice as Seyhülislam (Shaykh al-Islām), leaving a contentious and contradictory legacy as a politician, scholar, and poet. Born in Istanbul, Bahā'ī exemplifies the early formation of an ulema ( 'ulamā') aristocracy of Istanbul: his father, a son of Hoca Sadeddin Efendi (Khāca Sa'duddīn, d. 1008/1599, historian, Seyhülis!am, and tutor to several princes), had risen to the rank of kadt-asker ( qādiī-'asker) of Rumelia; two of Bahā'ī's uncles as well as his cousin Ebū Sa'īd (Abū Sa'īd, d. 10 ....." Add refs,
SELECT ADDITIONS - to be organized chronogically as above.
- Bahā' or Bahā' al-Dīn (dates ??) author of a Rishi-Namah ("Beard Treatise") based on that of Nasib (see Storey 1/ii p. 986 No. 1313)
- Bahā' al-Dīn ibn Mahmud ibn Ibrahim
- Bahā' al-Dīn ibn Sa`d al-Din
- Bahā' al-Dīn Kazaruni
- Bahā' al-Dīn Kashmiri
- Bahā' al-Dīn ibn Muhammad ibn al-Mu`ayyad Baghdadi
- Bahā' al-Dīn ibn Muhammad ibn Shaykh `Ali Lahiji
- Bahā' al-Dīn Muhammad Isfahani, al-Fadil al-Hindi
(See Storey, Persian Literature: A Bio-Bibliographical Survey 1/ii index, p.1400).
For some recent uses (there are many variants) of Baha' al-Din and its Turkish form Bahattin in modern personal names see the basic notes in the pertinent Wikipedia page :
BIBLIOGRAPHY : Select works consulted for persons entitled Baha' al-Din aside from those detailed above.
al-'Āmilī, Sayyid Muḥsin ibn ʻAbd al-Karīm al-Amīn (b. Jabal 'Āmil, 1284/1867-d.1371/1952).
- A`yān = A'yan al-shī'a, 56 parts, 1st ed. Damascus : Maṭbaʻat Dimashq,1935-1963.
- A'yān al-shī'a. Beirut : Maṭbaʻat al-Inṣāf 1950s+
- al-Amīn, A'yān al-Shi`a, 3: 615
- A'yān al-Shi`a 10 vols. / + Ḥasan al- Amīn 10 suppl. vols., Beirut: Dār al-Ta'āruf li 'l-maṭbū'āt, 1984 +1406/1986 etc. The Baha' prefixed or infixed names are listed in this edition in the main volume 3 pp. 615-6. I have not found any such baha' related titles for persons mentioned in the Ḥasan al- Amīn ten supplementary volumes to the ten A'yān al-Shi`a referred to above - which are sometimes printed with the original Aʻyān al-Shīʻa vols. and is entitled Mustadrakāt Aʻyān al-Shīʻa. Beirut : Dār at-Taʻāruf li'l-Maṭbūʻāt, 1984, etc.
- Tunukabūnī, Qisas al-'ulama' ed. 2004, p. 531.
- Butrus al-Bustani, Da'irat al-ma`arif 13: 62-63.
On the origins and relationship of names including _____al-Dīn (i.e. Bahā’ al-Dīn) see
- Kramers, J `Les noms musulmans composés avec Dîn', Acta Orientalia V (1926) 63-67. See also Dehkhodā, Lughat-Nāmih, Bahā' al-Dawlih/ Bahā' al-Dīn..(397f); Butrus al-Bustani, Da'irat al-Ma`arif, `Bahā'' vol. 5: 633-5.