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TB - Ṭibb طب The Persianate Shi`i Islamic background.



The Persianate Shi`i Islamic background.

Stephen N. Lambden UCMerced. 

In Progress 2006-7, 2016.







Select Bibliography - In progress and under revision.

Select sources for Graeco-Islamic and Persian Qajar and related Medicine



Moslem Bahadori MD•,

  •  `A Historical Review of the DEVELOPment of Pathology IN Iran'  =

Willem Floor's Public Health In Qajar Iran  (Washington, D.C.,: Mage Pub., 2004)  contains a useful bibliography for medicine in Qajar Persia and has been selectively drawn on here.

Abdel Halim, M.A.S.

  • ‘Medical Ethics in Islam' in Choices and Decisions in Health Care, ed. A. Grubb, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 1993, pp.1-20. 5. ‘Early kalam' in The

Afshar. Iraj.

  • 'Dar bareh-ye Doktor Yusef Mir,'՝ in Iraj Afshar ed., Namvareh-ye Doktor Mahmud Afshaī 12 vols. Tehran: Mowqufeh-ye Doktor Mahmud Afshar, 1367/1988,
    vol. 4. pp. 2169-82.

 Anon (?)

  • Friend of Iran, "Dawdson. " The Doctor. G.E. Dodson of Iran . London: Highway Press, 1940.

Arjah, Akram,  et. al. (eds.)

  • Kitabshinasi-i Nusakh-i Khaṭṭi-yi Pizishki-yi Iran. Tehran: Kitabkhanih-yi Milli, 1371/1992.

Afkhami, Amir A.

  • "Disease and Water Supply: The Case of Cholera in Nineteenth-Century Iran," in J. Albert, Magnus Bernhadsson, and Roger Kenna, eds., Transformations of Middle Eastern Natural Environments: Legacies and Lessons (New Haven: Bulletin Series, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies no. 103, 1998).
  •  "Epidemics and the Emergence of an International Sanitary Policy in Iran," in Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 191:1 (1999): 122-136.
  • "Compromised Constitutions: The Iranian Experience with the 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 77:2 (Summer 2003): 367-392.
  •  "The Sick Men of Persia: The Importance of Illness as a Factor in the Interpretation of Modern Iranian Diplomatic History," Iranian Studies 36:3 (September 2003): 339-352.

 Armin K.

  • History of pathology. The Ninth Seminar in Pathology, Shiraz, Iran; May 1994.

Baker, James E.

  •  "A few remarks on the most prevalent Diseases and the Climate of the North of Persia," appendix to Herbert, Report on the present State of Persia and her Mineral Resources, House of Commons, Parliamentary Papers, Accounts and Papers 1886, vol. 67, pp. 323-26.

Bahadori M.

  • Professor Armin, Biography. Internal News. Iranian Medical Council. 1995; 18: 7-10.

Bahadori M.

  • Kamaleddin Armin. In memoriam. Iranian J Med Sci.  20 (1995) 20: 173.

Brittlebank, William.

  • Persia During the Famine. London: Basil Montague Pickering, 1873.

Browne, Edward G.  (d. 1926).

  • Arabian Medicine. London: Cambridge University Press, 1921. Rep. Westport, CT: Hyperion Press, 1983.  *
  • Tarikh-i tibb-i Islami. Persian translation of Browne's `Arabian Medicine' by Mas`ud Rajabnia. Tehran: Shirkat-i Intisharat-i `Ilmi wa Farhangi (= Scientific and Cultural Publications Company) No. 60. , 1992 (180pp.). *

Campbell, D.

  • Arabian Medicine and its Influence on the Middle Ages, Amsterdam: ADD., 1926.

Clarke, H.T.

  • "Sketches on the State of Medical Knowledge in Persia," London Medical and Surgical Journal 2 (1837), pp. 707-10.

Cloquet,  Dr. Louis-Andre-Ernest (b. Paris, 1818  d. Tehran, 1855). Worked at the Persian Dar al-Funun.

"French anatomist and, from 1262/1846 to 1271/1855, French minister to the court at Tehran, serving as personal physician to Muhammad Shah (1250-64/1834-48) and Naṣir-al-Dīn Shāh Qajar (1264-1313/1848-96)" (from art in Enc. Iranica).

  •  Lutz Richter-Bernburg art. `Cloquet...'  in Enc-Ir.

Cochran, James P.

  • "Treatment of the Sick and Insane in Persia," The American Journal of Insanity 56 (1899), pp. 105-07.
  • "Letter from Persia," Medical Press of western New York 2 (1887), pp. 83-85.

Dār al-Funūn ("Polytechnic College")

See EIr. art.

An educational academy founded in Tehran in 1268/1851 by Mirza Tāqī Farahānī or Mirza Tāqī Khan Amir Kabir (d. 1852). European and other professors  trained Persian students in western medicine and associated subjects. Various professors including Polak, Schlimmer, Tholozan, Albo and others (see below) as well as select students published medical textbooks in Persian (see Arjah, 1998; Ekhtiyah, Dar al-Funun, 314ff; Floor Appendix II pp. 240-243).

Cormick, Dr. John (d. Mayamey [Persia] 1833) Irish physician to `Abbās Mīrzā

Assistant surgeon in the Madras Medical Service in January 1800  then surgeon in February 1807. In  1225/1810 he went to Persia "as the second surgeon attached to Major General John Malcolm's third mission" (Enc. Ir art),

  • ‘Ta’lim-nâmeh yâ Risâlih-yi âbilih kubi. Lithograph,  Tabriz, 1245/1829-30.
  • Risālah-i Ābilah-Kubi ("Treatise on vaccination"),  written c. 1827  On inoculatin for smallpox and the need for its widespread adoption . This volume is a free Persian translation of a treatise by Cormick by Mirza Muhammad Ibn ‘Abd al-Sabūr.  It had 10 chapters and a preface written by Cormick and was among the first books printed in Qajar Persia. 
  • 'Cormick, John' art. by Kamran Ekbal and Lutz Richter-Bernburg in Enc.Iranica:

Cormick, Dr. William (b. Tabriz 1820- d. Tabriz 1877) son of the above.

Educated in England he returned to Persia in 1844 as second physician to the British mission in Tehran. Later he became physician to the family of `Abbās Mīrzā (father of Muhammad Shah Qajar) then Nāṣer-al-Dīn Mīrzā [later Shah, d. 1896] who became Governor of Azerbaijan. He accompanied him to Tabríz as his personal physician on 15 March 1847. Amongst Bahā'īs he is famous for his personal examination of the messianic claimant Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bāb in Tabriz in July 1848. .

Dashti, 'Ali,

  • "Dar bareh-ye Doktor Yusef Mir," in Iraj Afshar ed., Namvareh-ye Doktor Mahmud Afshar 12 vols. Tehran: Mowqufeh-ye Doktor Mahmud Afshar, 1367/1988, vol.4, pp. 2177-79.

Dequevaullier, Dr.

  •  "Notice sur le docteur Ernest Cloquet," in Notices sur le docteur Ernest Cloquet (Paris, 1856), pp.8-23.

D'Vaume, Dr.

  • "La lèpre dans le Kurdistan Persan," Bulletin de la Société d'Anthropologie de Lyon 5 (1886), pp. 158-62.

Dols, Michael W.

  • "The Origins of the Islamic Hospital: Myth and Reality," Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol. 62, 1987, pp. 367-390.
  • `Islam and Medicine' in History of Science 26 (1988), 415-427.
  • Majnun: The Madman in Medieval Islamic Society, ed. by Diana E. Immisch. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1992.

Dols, Michael W. and Adil S. Gamal.

  • Medieval Islamic Medicine: Ibn Ridwan's Treatise `On the Prevention of Bodily Ills in Egypt'. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.

Donaldson, Bess Allen.

  • The Wild Rue. A Study of Muhammadan Magic and Folklore in Iran. London: Luzac & Co, 1938.

Ebrahimnejad, Hormoz.

  • "Introduction de la médecine européenne en Iran au XIXe siècle," Sciences Sociales et Santé 16/4 (décembre 1998), pp. 69-96.
  • "La médecine d'observation en Iran du XIX siècle," Generus 55 (1998), pp. 33-57.
  • "Un traité d'épidémologie de la médecine traditionelle persane: Mofarraq ol-Heyze va'l-Vaba de Mirza Mohammad-Taqi Shirazi (ça. 1800-1873), Studia Ironica 27 (1988)pp. 83-107.
  • Theory and Practice in Nineteenth-Century Persian Medicine: Intellectual and Institutional Reforms," History of Science 38 (2000), pp. 171-78.
  • "Religion and Medicine in Iran: from Relationship to Dissocation," History of Science 40 (2002). pp. 91 -112.

Elgood, Cyril.

  • History of Persian Medicine, New York: 1934.
  • A Medical History of Persia and the Eastern Caliphate From the Earliest Times Until the Year A.D. 1932 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951.
  •  "Persian Gynaecology," Medical History 12 (1968): 408-412.
  • A Medical History of Persia and the Eastern Caliphate from the Earliest Times to the Year A.D. 1932. London: Cambridge University Press, 1951. Rep. with additions and corrections by G. van Heusden, Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1979.
  • Safavid Medical Practice, or The Practice of Medicine, Surgery, and Gynaecology in Persia between 1500 A.D. and 1750 A.D. London: Luzac & Co., 1970. *

Eqbal. Yaghma'i.

  •  "Doktor Mohammad Hasan Khan Hakim al-Dowleh," Amuzesh va Parvaresh 42 ( 1351 /1972). pp. 358-64.

Ferrier, J-P.

  • "Lettre [sur le docteur Cloquet]," in Notices sur le docteur Ernest Cloquet. Paris, 1856, pp. 23-24.

Public Health In Qajar Iran - Compare Prices

Floor, Willem, M.

  • "Sécurité, Circulation et Hygiene dans les rues de Teheran a l'époque Qajar," in: Adle, Charyar et Hourcade, Bernard eds. Téhéran Capitale bicentenaire, Institut Français de Recherche en Iran, 1992 (Bibliothèque iranienne, vol. 37), pp. 173-198.

  • "Bloodletting," EIr. vol.   : ADD.

  • `Bathhouses'  EIr. vol.   : ADD.

  •  "The Art of Smoking in Iran and Other Uses of Tobacco," Iranian Studies 35:1-3 (2002), 47-86.

  • Public Health In Qajar Iran.  Washington, D.C.,: Mage Pub., 2004  ISBN = 0934211-08-6 (270pp.). Contains a very useful bibliography for Qajar Persia, selectively replicated here.

Garrison, F.H.

  • "Persian medicine and medicine in Persia." Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine 46 (1933), 129-53.

G.D (??)

  •  "Sanitätsreformen in Iran. Globus. Illustierte Zeitschrift für Länder- und Völkerkunde 31 (l877), 299-300.

Gilmour. John.

  • Rapport sur la situation sanitaire de la Perse. Geneva, League of Nations. 1924.

Good, Byron J.

  • "The Professionalization of Medicine in a Provincial Iranian Town," in Madeleine Leiniger, ed., Transcultural Health Issues and Conditions (Philadelphia: F.A. Davis, 1976), pp. 51-65.

  • "The Heart of What's the Matter: The Semantics of Illness in Iran," in Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry 1:1 (1977).

  • "The Transformation of Health Care in Modern Iranian History," in Michael E. Bonine and Nikki R. Keddie, eds., Modern Iran: The Dialectics of Continuity and Change (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1981), 59-82.

  • "The Transformation of Health Care in Modern Iranian History," in Michael E. Bonine and Nikki Keddie eds. Modern Iran, ne Dialectics of Continuity and Change (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1981)  59-82.

 Hafizi,  M. A.

  • A Guide to the Schools of Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry, Hospitals, and Affiliated Schools of University of Tehran. Tehran: University Press; 1953.

Hedayaty , J.

  • The History of Contemporary Medicine in Iran. Tehran: Iran University of Medical Sciences. 2000.

Häntzsche, J.C.

  • "Specialstatistik von Persien," Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin 1869, 429-49.

  • "Lepra in Persien," Virchows Archiv 27 (1863), 180-83.

  • Physikalisch-medicinische Skizze von Rescht in Persien, Virchows Archiv 15 (1862),  538-54.

Hassendorfer, Colonel.

  •  "Les médecins militaries français fondateurs et organisateurs de l'Enseignement Médical et de la Santé Publique en Iran," Histoire de la medicine 4/7 (1954), 57-63.

Ibn Abı 'Uşaybi'ah, Ahmad b. al-Qasim.

  • 'Uyūn al-anbā՝ fi tabaqat al-aţibba'. Ed. August Müller. 2 vols, in 1. Königsberg, 1884.
  • 'Uyūn al-anbā' fī ţabaqat al-aţibba'. Ed. August Müller. 2 vols, in 1. 1884. Reprint, Farnborough: Gregg International, 1972.

Ibn al-Jazzār, Abū Ja‘far Ahmad ibn Ibrāhīm ibn Abī Khālid (d. 369/979).

ابو جعفر احمد ابن ابراهيم ابن ابى خالد ابن الجزار

  • Ibn al-Jazzar on Forgetfulness and its Treatment, Gerrit Bos. ADD.
  • Ibn al-Jazzar on Sexual Diseases and Their Treatment. trans and study by Gerrit Bos, A critical edition of Zad al-musafir wa-qut al-hadir (Provisions for the Traveller and Nourishment for the Sedentary) Book 6 .  London and New York: Kegan Paul International, 1997 (417pp.).*

Ibn Juljul.

  • Ţabaqat al-aţibba՝ wa'l-ḥukamā'. Ed. Fu'ād Sayyid. Textes et Traduction d'Auteurs Orientaux 10. Cairo: Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, 1955.

Ibn al-Thahabī = Abu Muhammad `Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad al-Azdi  (d. 466 / 1033).

Twelver Imams on Medicine

Batool Ispahany (trans.) & Andrew J. Newman (Ed.),

  • Islamic Medical Wisdom, The Tibb al-A'imma* ("Medicine of the Imams") London: The Muhammadi Trust 1991)

  • This volume is a collection of statements of certain of the twelver Imams compiled by Abu `Atab `Abd Allah and al-Husayn, the sons of Bistam b. Sabur;  Bistam was a companion of the sixth Imam Abu Abd Allah Ja`far b. Muhammad al-Muhamm  Sādiq (d. 148/765) and the seventh Imam Abu al-Ḥasan Musa ibn Ja`far al-Kāẓim (d. 183/799) (cf. al-Dhari`a  15:139-140). In the preface to this work Newman writes,

"There is no dearth of Twelver Shi`i medical texts. Agha Buzurg al-Tehrani (d. 1389/1970) in his massive bibliography of Twelver texts [see above] devoted several pages to listing texts on medicine completed from the earliest years following the disappearance of the Twelfth Imam up to the last century" (for further details see ibid p. xxxiv ff).

A great many statements are attributed to the Twelver Imams that, in one way or another, have to do with medical matters or with bodily health. To the eighth Imam `Ali al-Rida' (c.768-818 CE) is attributed al-Risala al-dhahabiya / al-mudhahhaba fi'-tibb ("The Golden Treatise..") a treatise on medical cures and good health written for and at the request of the `Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur (text in Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar (2nd ed) LXII: 308-328). A number of commentaries have been written on this Arabic treatise  some of which have been translated into Persian and Urdu (Madelung, Ali al-Reza, EIr. 2:877-8). See also

Muhammad `Ali al-Baqir, al-Imam `Ali al-Riḍā' wa risalat fi al-tibb al-nabawi, al-risala al-dhahabiya, awwal risala fi al-tibb al-nabawī, (Beirut: Dar al-manahil, 1412/1991).

  • This volume commences with material highlighting the glories of the "people of the House of the Prophet" (Pt.I ,11-68) followed by an hagiographical biography of `Ali al-Rida' (Pt.II., 69-110); the text of Imam Rida's `Golden Treatise; (Pt .III., 111-126) and two further sections; a prolegomenon to the understanding of ancient medical books and books of the medicine of the Prophet (Pt .IV, 27-137) the Risala dhahabiya and an exposition and glosses on some of its terms (Pt. V 139-183).

Agha Buzurg al-Tihrani,

  • al-Dhari`a ila tasanif al-shi`a. 25 Vols Tehran / Najaf 1355/1936) see vol. 15:135-144 =



Kar M.

  • Autobiography in Foreword of Technique of Dissection and Macroscopic Pathology. Tehran: University press; 1957.

Larrey, Baron H.

  • "Notice sur le docteur Ernest Cloquet," in Notices sur le docteur Ernest Cloquet (Paris, 1856),  3-6.

M. Levey,

  • Early Arabic Pharmacology.. Leiden: Brill, 1973)

 Lichtwardt, H.A.

  • "Ancient Therapy in Persia and England," Annals of Medical History 6 (1934), 280-84.
  • "Ancient medicine in modern Persia." Ann. Med. Hist. 7 (1935),  81-84.
  • "Western Medicine in.Iran," Muslim World 32/3 (1937),  236-41.

Lindberg, David C.

  • Theories of Vision from al-Kindi to Kepler. University of Chicago History of Science and Medicine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.*

Mahdavi, Shireen

  • `Shahs, Doctors, Diplomats and Missionaries in 19th Century Iran'  in  British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Volume 32, Number 2, November 2005, pp. 169-191.

Mir M. A+  Mir A. M.

  • Dr. Y[usuf]. Mir. His Life and His Career, a Brief History of Medicine and Surgery from 1850–1950. Tehran: Talayeh Publication; 2005

Mullen. T. F.

  • "Cholera in Persia," Appendix C to Part I of Government of India, Administration Report of the Persian Gulf Political Residency and Muscat Political Agency for the Year 1889-90, pp. 15-18.

Natisi. Sa'id.

  • "Doktor 'Ali Akbar Nafisi Nazem al-Atebba," Yadgar 3/4 (1325/1946), 52-65.

Najmabadi, Mahmud.

  • "Hakim Shelimer Felamanki, Rahnama-ye Ketab 13 (1349/1970),  574-80.

Nazare Aga (Ardachir Khan).

  • Contribution à l'étude des conférences sanitaires internationales dans leurs rapports avec la prophylaxie des maladies pestilentielles en Perse. Paris, thesis 1903-04.

Neligan, Andrew. R.

  • "Public Health in Persia. 1914-24," The Lancet Part I; Part II-March 27, 1926, pp. 690-94; Part III-April 3, 1926, pp. 742-44.
  • "Public Health in Persia 1914-1924: Part II," Lancet, 1926, 210: 690-694. 
  • The Opium Question with Special Reference to Persia (London: Bale & Danielsson, 1927).

Newman, Andrew J.

  • "Bxqir al-Majlis and Islamicate Medicine: Safavid Medical Theory and Practice Re-examined," in Andrew J. Newman, ed., Society and Culture in the Early Modern Middle East: Studies on Iran in the Safavid Period (Leiden: Brill, 2003), 371-396.
  • ADD

Perho, Irmeli.

  • The Prophet's Medicine. A Creation of the Muslim Traditionalist Scholars. Helsinki, Finnish Oriental Society, 1995.

Polak, Dr. Jacob Eduard = Ḥakīm Pūlāk Namsavī (1818–1891).  Austrian physician to Nāṣir al-Dīn Shāh (d. 1896) and instructor at the Dar al-Funun

See (see p.5).

"Additionally, of special interest here are compositions by Dr. Jakob Eduard Polak (Ḥakīm Pūlāk Namsavī), an Austrian physician, who practiced medicine at the court of Shāh Nāṣir al-Dīn Qājār between 1851 and 1860, and by Dr. Johann L. Schlimmer (Hakīm Shalīm Flamankī), a Dutchman. Both Polak and Schlimmer taught at the Dār al-Funūn College in Tehran. The Osler collection includes Polak’s Risālah dar bayān-i `ilm-i jarrāḥī and two copies of Schlimmer’s Jalāl al-`uyūn. To Schlimmer are also attributed two other compositions: Miftāḥ al-khavāṣṣ and Qavā`id al-amrāz..." (Adam Gacek, Persian Manuscripts in McGill University Libraries, URL above, p. 5.).

Dr. Polak was an Austrian medical teacher at the Persian Dar al-Fonun where he succeeded  Dr. Ernest Cloquet (1818–1855).

  • Mu'alejat va Tedabir-i Amrāḍ-i Nuwbih va Ishal ("On the treatment of malaria and diarrhea"), 1269/1852.

  • Bist Bab dar Tashrih ("Twenty chapters on anatomy"). 1269/1852

  • Vaba 'iyeh ("On cholera"). 1269/1852.
  • Tashrih-i Badan-i Ensan (Human anatomy). 1270/1853
  • Zubdat al-Hikmah ("The essence of medical science"). 1272/1855
  • A laj al- Aq as a m ("Treatment of illnesses"). 1273/1856
  • Kitab-i Jarrrāḥī  (On surgery). 1273/1856
  • Patuluzhi (Pathology).. 1277/1860
  • Jala al- ՝Oyim (Ophthalmology). 1300/1882
  • Sumusat va Taryaq (Poisons and Antidotes). 1304/1886
  • Kitabchih-yi Ṭibb-i Nizami ("Military Medicine"). ?
  • Kahhali (Ophthalmology).  ?
  • Bimariha-yi chishm (Eye diseases)
  • Patuluzhi (Pathology) ?
  • Tashrih (Anatomy) ?
  • Tashrih-badart-i insan (Anatomy of the Human Body) 1053
  • Jarrāḥī (On Surgery) 1311
  • Jarrāḥī va darsha-yi kiliniki (Surgery and clinical lessons) 1306
  • Jala ' al- ՝uyun (Ophthalmology) 1287
  • Risalih-yi mu'alijih-ye marḍ-i vaba (On the treatment of cholera) 1269
  • Zubdat al-Hikmah (Essence of medical science) 1279
  • Risālah dar bayān-i `ilm-i jarrāḥī  (mss. copy see URL above).
  • Risalih dar Jarrāḥī (Treatise on surgery) 1302

Western languages (German).

  • Persien, das Land und seine Bewohner, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1865 + Hildesheim-New York: Georg Olms, 1976.
  • "Medicinische Briefe aus Persien," Zeitschrift der k.k. Gesellschaft der Aerzte zu Wien 9 (1859), 138-40.
  • "Medicinische Briefe aus Persien," Zeitschrift der k.k, Gesellschaft der Aerzte zu Wien 9 (l 859), 173-75.
  • "Ueber den Gebrauch des Quecksilbers in Persien," Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 10 (1860), 564-68.
  • "Lepra in Persien," Virchows Archiv 27 (1863), 175-80.
  •  "Prostitution in Persien," Jahrbuch des Verbandes Iranischer Akademiker in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und Berlin 2 (1982), pp. 31-44. Originally in Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift no. 32 (1861).
  • "La médicine militaire en Perse," Revue scientifique et administrative des médecins des armées de terre et de mer 7 (1865).
  • "Das persische Opium," Österreichische Mitteilungen für den Orient 9 (1883): 124-125.

Qazvini, Mohammad Shafi՝.

  • Qanun-e Qazvini - enteqad-e owza՝-ye ejtema՝i-ye Iran dowreh-ye Naseri. ed. Iraj Afshar. Tehran: Talayeh, 1370/1991.

Rabino, -H. L.

  • "A Journey in Mazanderan (from Resht to Sari)", Geographical Journal 42 (1913), pp. 435-54.

Rasooli, Jay M. and Allen, Cady H.

  • The Life Story of Dr. Sa՝eed of Iran. Grand Rapids: Grand Rapids International Publications, 1958.

Richter-Bernburg, Lutz.

  • "Avicenna gegen Pockenimpfung. Iranische Reaktion auf die Einführung westlicher Medizin im 19. Jahrhundert," in: Tiiman Nagel ed., Asien blickt auf Europa. Begegnungen und Irritationen . Beirut: ADD, 1990, 73-87.

Roustai, M.

  • History of Medicine in Iran. Vol. 1; Tehran: National Library Archives of the I.R. Iran; 2003.

Ross, Elizabeth N. MacBean.

  • A Lady Doctor in Bakhtiyari Land. London: Parsons, 1921.

Sajjādi, S.

  • ‘Bimarestan,’ in Enc. Ir.  IV: ADD.,

Siraisi, Nancy G.

  • Medieval and Early Renaissance Medicine. An Introduction to Knowledge and Practise. Chicago and London: Univ. Chicago Press. 1990.*

 Sargis, Yacob Allahverdy.

  • "Persia and Her Doctors," Columbus Medical Journal 25 (1901), 583-88.

Schlimmer,  Dr. Johann Louis = Hakīm Shalīm Flamankī (1819-1881).  A Dutchman who practised medicine at the court of Nāṣir al-Dīn Shāh (d. 1896) between 1851 and 1860  and taught at the Dār al-Funūn (cf. on Polak above).

"Additionally, of special interest here are compositions by Dr. Jakob Eduard Polak (Ḥakīm Pūlāk Namsavī), an Austrian physician, who practiced medicine at the court of Shāh Nāṣir al-Dīn Qājār between 1851 and 1860, and by Dr. Johann L. Schlimmer (Hakīm Shalīm Flamankī), a Dutchman. Both Polak and Schlimmer taught at the Dār al-Funūn College in Tehran. The Osler collection includes Polak’s Risālah dar bayān-i `ilm-i jarrāḥī and two copies of Schlimmer’s Jalāl al-`uyūn. To Schlimmer are also attributed two other compositions: Miftāḥ al-khavāṣṣ and Qavā`id al-amrāz..." (Adam Gaeck, Persian Manuscripts in McGill University Libraries, URL p.5 : see URL above at Polak).

"[Schlimmer] was born in 1819 and graduated from the Medical School of Leiden in Holland. After coming to Iran in 1849, he was first sent to Talesh. Then, he worked in Rasht, Gilan Province, in the North of Iran, where he was engaged in the treatment of patients with leprosy for a few years. Then, in 1855, he became the vicegerent of Dr. Jacob Eduard Polak (1818 – 1891) at Dar al-Fonun. Dr. Polak was a famous Austrian medical teacher at Dar al-Fonun. After Dr. Ernest Cloquet (1818 –1855), the former French king special physician, has passed away, Dr. Polak was assigned for the position. So, Dr. Schlimmer joined the teaching staff at Dar al-Fonun in 1855 and worked there until 1864. Initially, he taught most of his classes and wrote course materials in French. Later on, Dr. Schlimmer learned Persian language to more effectively teach the students. He was an efficient physician and a superb teacher. He also studied endemic diseases such as leprosy and cholera in Iran, and was responsible for the clinical training of medical students at the “Marizkhaneh-ye-Dowlati” (the State Hospital) which was founded in 1852" (from the URL above).

    Schlimer Bibliography adapted from URL and Floor 2004 App. II pp. 240-3 :

  • Terminologie Médico-Pharmaceutique: Française - Persane Tehran, 1874
  • Terminologie Medico-Pharmaceutic et Anthropologique. Tehran, Iran: Tehran University Press; 1951: 69.
  • Terminologie Médico-Pharmaceutique: Française...  Tehran: Daneshgah, 1970.
  •  Zinat al-Abdan  ("On Skin Diseases"), 1279 /1862;
  •  Shafaiyeh  ("On Remedies"), 1284/1867;
  •  Loghat-namih  (Persian-French Medical Dictionary), 1291/1874;
  • Qavā'id al-Amrāḍ  ("Rules of Diseases, on Pathology"), 1292/1875;
  • Miftāḥ al-khavāṣṣ ("On Pharmacology"), n.d.
  • Jalāl al-`uyūn ("Ophthalmology") n.d. two mss. in Canada see Gacek Cat. p.5.
  •  Adviyeh and Nuskheha  (Drugs and Prescrip-­ tions), n.d.
  •  Ashab al-Taviyya ("Drugs"- "Pharmocology"), 1292 /1875.
  •  Amrāḍ al-Sibyan ("Children’s Diseases"), n.d.
  • Pathology, n.d.
  • “Tuhfih-yi Naseri” ("Naseri’s Gift"), n.d.
  • “Tashrih-e Madeh-ye Asabi” ("Anatomy of the Nervous System"), 1294/1877.
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  • “Sirr al-Ḥikmah” ("The Secret of Medical Sciences"), n.d.
  •  Sirr al-Hikmah  ("the Secret of Medicine"), 1279/1862;
  • “Shafaiyeh” (Curative Medicine), 1274 / 1857.
  • “Qarabadeyn” (Pharmacopoeia), 1292 / 1875. 

Schneider, D.

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Speer, Robert E.

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Stuart, Emmeline M.

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Tholozan, J. D.

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  Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.)

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