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TB Tibb 4

Islamic medicine : Some Introductory Bibliographical  and Biographical Notes and Sources. 

Ullmann, Manfred,

  • Die Medizin im Islam, Handbuch der Orientalistik, Abteilung I, Ergänzungsband vi, Abschnitt 1 Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970.
  • Islamic Medicine. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1978. xiv+138pp.

See also 
Roshdi Rashed; Régis Morelon, et. al. ed.

  • Encyclopedia of the history of Arabic science. 3 vols. London ; New York : Routledge, 1996.

Among the best online resources are :

Islamic Medical Manuscripts at the National Library of Medicine.

"Here you can learn about Islamic medicine and science during the Middle Ages and the important role it played in the history of Europe. This site, with its biographies, colorful images, and extensive historical accounts of medieval medicine and science is designed for students and everyone interested in the history of Islamic and European culture".


Hippocrates 5th cent. BC) ابقراط

"A Greek physician of the 5th century B.C., whom many consider the "Father of Medicine". See

Galen (d. c. 216 CE).

"The most important physician of the Roman Empire and arguably the most influential physician in medical history." See :

Hankinson, R. J.

  • The Cambridge companion to Galen. Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2008.


al-Ṭibb al-Nabawī , The Medicine of the Prophet الطب النبوي  The Medicine of the Prophet (Tibb al-nabawi) or Medical Statements and Actions ascribed to the Prophet Muhammad (c. 570-632 CE).

Abu Nu'aym Ahmad ibn `Abd-Allah al-Isfahani (336 AH-430 = 948-1038 CE), أبـو نـعـيـم الأصـفـهـانـي  Hadith specialist and prolific writer.  

  • al-Ṭibb al-Nabawī , The Medicine of the Prophet الطب النبوي According to Elgood : Analysing the Escorial manuscript it becomes evident that the book is divided into seven sections. Section One is on the knowledge and excellence of Medicine in general. It deals with such topics as the education of a doctor (Ch. i), the practice of Medicine by females (Ch.5), and the penalties for improper practices (Ch.7)" (Elgood, 1962:148)

Abu al-`Abbas Ja`far ibn Muhammad al-Mu'tazz al-Mustaghfiri ( d. 431/1040)

  • al-Ṭibb al-Nabawī , The Medicine of the Prophet الطب النبوي      
  • al-Ṭibb al-Nabawī , The Medicine of the Prophet الطب النبوي

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya ( 691-751 = 1292-1350), Hanbali scholar

  • al-Ṭibb al-Nabawī , The Medicine of the Prophet الطب النبوي
  • Natural healing with the medicine of the prophet... by Muhammad M Al-Akili Natural healing with the medicine of the prophet : from the book of the provisions of the hereafter ... by Muhammad M Al-Akili; Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzīyah. Philadelphia, PA : Pearl Pub. House, ©1993.
  • The prophetic medicine by Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr Ibn Qayyim al-Jauziyyah; Sulayman -Issa. Beirut : Dar al-Kotob al-Ilmiyah, ©1999.

al-Suyūṭī, Jalāl al-Dīn ʻAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Bakr ( 849-911 = 1445-1505CE).

  • al-Ṭibb al-Nabawī , The Medicine of the Prophet الطب النبوي

Elgood, Cyril, trans. (see also below).

  • “Ṭibb-ul-Nabbī or Medicine of the Prophet: Being a Translation of Two Works of the Same Name . . . of Al-Suyūṭī . . . [and of] al-Chaghayni,” Osiris 14, 1962, pp. 32-192.


  • As-Suyuti's Medicine of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. London : Ta-Ha, 1994. iv+244pp.
  • Tibb-ul-Nabbi, or Medicine of the Prophet : being a translation of two works of the same name, I. The Tibb-ul-Nabbi of Al-Suyuti ; II. The Tibb-ul-Nabbi of Mahmud bin Mohamed al-Chaghhayni ; together with introduction, notes & glossary.

[al-Suyūṭī +] Maḥmūd ibn Muḥammed Chaghmīnī (      ) = Maḥmūd ibn Muḥammad ibn ʻUmar al-Jighmīnī al-Khwārazmī.

  • al-Tibb al-nabi. Lithograph Muhammad Hasan kaliyakani, Hamadan 1306/1888-9.
  • Traditional medicine of the Prophet (Tibb al-Nabi). Istanbul : Dar al-Fikr, [1985?]

Habib Nishapuri

  • al-Ṭibb al-Nabawī , The Medicine of the Prophet الطب النبوي

'Abd-ul-Malik bin Habib (       )

  • al-Ṭibb al-Nabawī , The Medicine of the Prophet الطب النبوي

Habib ul-Thaini (     )

  • al-Ṭibb al-Nabawī , The Medicine of the Prophet الطب النبوي

Dhahabī, Abī ʻAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad (1274-1348).

  • al-Ṭibb al-Nabawī , The Medicine of the Prophet الطب النبوي. Egypt: Muṣṭafá al-Bākī al-Ḥalabī, 1961. 165pp.

For further bibliographical details on al-Ṭibb al-Nabawī , The Medicine of the Prophet الطب النبوي  vols. see the more than 180 entries in World Cat. Database :


Imam Ja`far al-Sadiq (d. Medina, c. 83/765), the sixth twelver Shi`i Imam.  

  • Tibb al-Imam al-Sadiq. ed. Muhammad Khalili. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-Islami, 1399/1979. 112pp.

Imam '​Alī ibn Mūsā al-Ridā' = علي بن موسى الرضا(b. Medina, c. 148-203 AH =  766-818 CE), the eighth twelver Shi`i Imam,

  • رساله ذهبیه (در علم طب) منسوب به حضرت رضا  

  • Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiyya ("The Golden Treatise"). An Arabic treatise said to have been commissioned by the Caliph al-Ma`mun who had it written in gold ink as a sign of his favourable attitude. It Incorporates Galenic humoral medicine.
  • محمد علي البار الإمام علي الرضا ورسالته في الطب النبوي الرسالة الذهبية أول رسالة في الطب النبوي دار المناهل للطباعة والنشر والتوزيع
  • Persian Translation.
  • الامام الرضا (ع): صَديقُ كُلِّ امْرِء عَقْلُهُ وَ عَدُوُّهُ جَهْلُهُ
  • See Muhammad Baqir Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar 2nd ed. vol. XX:
  • al-Imām ʻAlī al-Riḍā wa-risālatuhu fī al-ṭibb al-Nabawī or awwal risālah fī al-ṭibb al-Nabawī/ Muḥammad ʻAlī al-Bār. al-Risālah al-dhahabīyah : Beirut: Dār al-Manāhil, 1991. 192pp. 

ʻAbd Allāh ibn Bisṭām Nīsābūrī; Batool Ispahany; Andrew J Newman; al-Ḥusayn ibn Bisṭām Nīsābūrī.

  • Islamic medical wisdom : the Tibb al-aʼimma. Islamic medical wisdom : the Tibb al-aʼimma. Qum, Islamic Republic of Iran : Ansariyan, 1991+1994.

 Maḥmūd ibn Muḥammed Chaghmīnī (    )/ Avicenna.

  • Terjuma canoonché Mahmood Cheghmeny der Elm Tebb = Short canons of the art of physic : being a compendium, both of theory and practice. Calcutta : Printed by B. Messink, MDCCLXXXII [1782].

     قانونچه در طب

  • = Qānūnchah dar ṭibb. Shiraz: Intishārāt-i Dānishgāh-i Pahlavī, 24. Tarjamah bi-vasīlah-ʼi Muḥammad Taqī Mīr. 1344/ 1971. 220pp.
  • Khulāṣat al-Qānūn fī al-ṭibb, Qānūnchah
  • Tibb-ul-Nabbi, Or Medicine of the Prophet: Being a Translation of Two Works of the Same Name, I. The Tibb-ul-Nabbi of Al-Suyuti ; II. The Tibb-ul-Nabbi of Mahmud Bin Mohamed Al-Chaghhayni ; Together with Introduction, Notes & Glossary. American Institute of Tibb. 159 pp.


Qusṭā ibn Lūqā
Qusṭā ibn Lūqā (9th century A.D.) : on purgative drugs and purgation = Kitab Qusṭā ibn Lūqā fī l-adwiya al-mushila wa l-ʻilāǧ bi-l-ishāl.   Lena Ambjörn (ed.?).  Frankfurt am Main: Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science at Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, 2004.


RHAZES (Latin).

(Persian) = Muhammad Zakariyā-yi Rāzī = محمد زکریای رازی‎  (854-925 CE).
(Arabic) = al-Rāzī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakarīyā (c. 865?-c.925).  Philosopher, Physician, Alchemist ...
A prolific and very influential Physician.

Colophon of a ms of Razi's Bk of Medicine

Select Medical Writings of al-Razi.

  •  الحاوي = al-Hawi al-kabir (الحاوي الكبير) = The Virtuous Life, Continens Liber. A large medical Encyclopedia.
  • Man la yahduruhu al-Tabib ("For Whomsoever is bereft of a Physician) =  من لا يحضره الطبيب
  • al-Judari wa al-Hasbah (On Smallpox and Measles)
  • C
  • Kitāb al-Ḥāwī fī al-ṭibb.

Oliver Kahl

  • The Sanskrit, Syriac and Persian sources in the Comprehensive book of Rhazes. Leiden ; Boston : Brill, [2015] Series: Islamic philosophy, theology, and science, v. 93. Text in Sanskrit, Syriac and Persian with English translation; introduction and notes in English. xiv, 487 pp.

"This work offers a critical analysis of the Sanskrit, Syriac and Persian sources in Rhazes' (d. 925 CE) Comprehensive Book (or al-Kitāb al-Ḥāwī), a hugely famous and highly unusual medico-pharmaceutical encyclopedia originally written in Arabic. All text material appears in full Arabic with English translations throughout, whilst the traceable Indian fragments are represented here, for the first time, in both the original Sanskrit and corresponding English translations. The philological core of the book is framed by a detailed introductory study on the transmission of Indian, Syrian and Iranian medicine and pharmacy to the Arabs, and by extensive bilingual glossaries of relevant Arabic and Sanskrit terms as well as Latin botanical identifications"--Provided by publisher.


ʿAlī ibn ʿAbbās Majūsī (fl. 338-372 = 949-982 CE )



Abū ‘Alī al-usayn ibn ‘Abd Allāh ibn Sīnā ابن سینا  = Avicenna (370-428 = 980-1037 CE).

Born around 980 CE near Bukhara (now in Uzbekistan), one time capital of the Samanids, the great Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Sīnā,  is reputed to have written around forty books on medicine or related topics.

Kitab al-Shifa' (The Book of Healing).

  • الشفاء، الالهيات = al-Ilahīyāt min al-Shifāʼ
  • The metaphysics of The healing : a parallel English-Arabic text = al-Ilahīyāt min al-Shifāʼ by Avicenna; Michael E Marmura. Provo, UT : Brigham Young University Press, 2004. xxvii, 441 pp.  

"Avicenna, the most influential of Islamic philosophers, produced The Healing as his magnum opus on his religious and political philosophy. Now translated by Michael Marmura, The Metaphysics is the climactic conclusion to this towering work. Through Marmura's skill as a translator and his extensive annotations, Avicenna's touchstone of Islamic philosophy is more accessible than ever before. In The Metaphysics, Avicenna examines the idea of existence, and his investigation into the cause of all things leads him to a meditation on the nature of God. From this discussion, Avicenna develops a theory of divine causation that synthesizes Neoplatonic, Aristotelian, and Islamic ideas. Within this emanative scheme, Avicenna establishes some of the basic ideas of his religious and political philosophy, as he discusses the divine attributes, divine providence, the hereafter, and the ideal "virtuous" city with its philosopher-prophet as the human link between the terrestrial and heavenly realms. With this edition, The Metaphysics can now be better seen as one of the most masterful works of classical Islamic philosophy."--Publisher's description.

  • Shifāʼ : Samāʻ al-ṭabīʻī =  الشفاء: السماع الطبيعي  
  • Shifāʼ : Samāʻ al-ṭabīʻī of Avicenna Trans. Jon McGinnis. The physics of The Healing : a parallel English-Arabic text. Provo, Utah : Brigham Young University Press, 2009. In Series: Islamic translation series. 2 volumes. V. 1. = Books I & II and v. 2. = Books III & IV.

"Avicenna's Physics is the very first volume that he wrote when he began his monumental encyclopedia of science and philosophy, The Healing. Avicenna's reasons for beginning with Physics are numerous: it offers up the principles needed to understand such special natural sciences as psychology; it sets up many of the problems that take center stage in his Metaphysics; and it provides concrete examples of many of the abstract analytical tools that he would develop later in Logic. While Avicenna{u2019}s Physics roughly follows the thought of Aristotle{u2019}s Physics, with its emphasis on natural causes, the nature of motion, and the conditions necessary for motion, the work is hardly derivative. It represents arguably the most brilliant mind of late antiquity grappling with and rethinking the entire tradition of natural philosophy inherited from the Greeks as well as the physical thought of Muslim speculative theologians.."

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Qānūn fī al-ṭibb (The Canon of Medicine)

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Mazhar H Shah

  • The general principles of Avicenna's Canon of medicine [edited and translated by] Mazhar H. Shah. Karachi, Naveed Clinic, 1966.

 al-Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad (973-بيرونى، محمد بن أحمد،,   = (1048.

  • al-Biruni's book on pharmacy and materia medica. Hakim Mohammad Said; Sami Khalaf Hamarneh; Hamdard National Foundation, Pakistan. [Karachi], [Hamdard Academy] ©1973.
  • Al-Biruni

ʻAlī ibn Riḍwān (d.c.453/1061) and al-Mukhtār ibn Buṭlān (d.458/1066).

Fuat Sezgin,

  • ʻAlī ibn Riḍwān (d.c.453/1061) and al-Mukhtār ibn Buṭlān (d.458/1066) : texts and studies. Frankfurt am Main : Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, 1996. Series:Manshūrāt Maʻhad Tārīkh al-ʻUlūm al-ʻArabīyah wa-al-Islāmīyah., Ṭibb al-Islāmī, 47. 311pp.


Ibn Rushd, Abū al-Walīd Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Muhammad = Averroes (d. 595/1198)

Abū al-Faraj, ʻAlī ibn al-Ḥusayn Ibn Hindū

Centre for Muslim Contribution to Civilization

  • Proceedings of the conference held to commemorate the translation of The key to medicine and a guide for students : Doha, State of Qatar, 26-27 April 2010. Reading, UK : Garnet Publishing, [2013] ©2013.
    "On the occasion of the affiliation of Mohammad bin Hammad Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization (MBHCMCC) to the Qatar Faculty of Islamic Studies - Hammad bin Khalifa University - and the launching of an English translation of Abū al-Faraj 'Alī ibn al-Husayn Ibn Hindū's book. "Proceedings of the conference held to commemorate the translation of The key to medicine and a guide for students : Doha, State of Qatar, 26-27 April 2010.".

Fuat Sezgin

  • ʻAli ibn Abi l-Ḥazm al-Qarshī ibn al-Nafīs (d.687/1288) : texts and studies. Frankfurt am Main : Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, 1997. Series: Manshūrāt Maʻhad Tārīkh al-ʻUlūm al-ʻArabīyah wa-al-Islāmīyah., Ṭibb al-Islāmī ;, 79.  Limited ed. of 80 copies (so WorldCat.).

Ibn al-Nafīs, ʻAlī ibn Abī al-Ḥazm (1210 or 11/ 1288).

Ibn al-Nafīs (d. 687/1288).

  •  Mūjiz fī al-ṭibb   موجز في الطب

This "Compendium of medicine" is an abridgment of Ibn Sīnā's Qānūn fī al-ṭibb. For details of a ms. of this work in Princeton University Library. Department of Rare Books and Special Collections. Manuscripts Collection. Islamic Manuscripts, Garrett no. 558H see

Moses Maimoinides (1138-1204). Important Jewish thinker

  • Medical aphorisms. = [3], Treatises 10-15 Kitāb al-fuṣūl fī al-ṭibb : a parallel Arabic-English edition Moïse Maïmonide; Gerrit Bos. Provo (Utah) : Brigham Young University Press, 2010.

"Medical Aphorisms is undoubtedly the best known and most compendious of Maimonides' medical works. It consists of about fifteen hundred aphorisms culled mainly from the treatises of Galen, either as direct quotations or as summaries, and arranged into twenty-five treatises. Most of the traditional medieval medical subspecialties are represented in this work, including anatomy, physiology, gynecology, hygiene, and diet. In addition, Maimonides includes a section addressing unusual cases from Galen, and another containing his own criticisms of Galen's theories. The central subjects of the treatises in this volume are prognosis, aetiology, therapy, and pathology. Most of these aphorisms are based on the works of Galen. Because the source texts from which several of them were derived are no longer extant, these aphorisms provide tantalizing clues about aspects of Galen's thought that are otherwise unknown. They, thus serve as a window onto the ancient medical theories of Galen as well as on the medieval practice of Maimonides."

Miscellaneous 20th-21st century works on Islamic medicine,

 'Abd Al'rahmān Ismā'īl.; Leon Banov

  • Folk medicine in modern Egypt : being the relevant parts of the Tibb al-Rukka, or, Old wives' medicine. London : Luzac, 1934.

Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation (London, England). Conference London, England.
Aliya Haji comp.  with a foreword by Kamāl 'Arafāt Nabhān.

  • Biblīyūjrāfījah: kutub al-'ulūm wa-al-tibb fī al-turāth al-Islāmī = A bibliography of books on science and medicine from the Islamic heritage at the Library of Al-Furqān Foundation. London : Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, ©1998.

Attewell, Guy N A.

  • Refiguring unani tibb : plural healing in late colonial India. Hyderabad, India : Orient Longman, 2007.

Elgood, Cyril Lloyd (1893-1970).

EIr. =  = Vol. VIII, Fasc. 4, pp. 362-363.

  • Medicine in Persia. New York, 1934. Reprint AMS Press, 1978. 105 pp.
  • A Medical History of Persia and the Eastern Caliphate from the Earliest Times until the Year 1932. Cambridge, 1951. Reprint with corrections, Amsterdam, 1979.
  • Safavid Medical Practice: Or, The Practice of Medicine, Surgery and Gynaecology in Persia Between 1500 A.D. and 1750 A.D. London : Luzac anbd Co. Ltd. 1970. 301pp.
  • Safavid Surgery/ Symposium Publications Division, Pergamon Press, 1966. 83pp.
  • “Persian Tibb,” Hamdard Medical Digest 3/1-2, 1959, pp. 139-48.
  • “The Medicine of the Prophet,” Medical History 6/2, April 1962.

Hakim Mohammad Said. 

  • al-Tibb al-Islami : a brief survey of the development of Tibb (medicine) during the days of the Holy Prophet Mohammad (p.b.u.h.) and in the Islamic Age and presented on the occasion of the World of Islam Festival, London, April-June, 1976. Karachi : Hamdard National Foundation, 1976.

Ḥamārna, Sāmī H̱alaf

History of Arabic medicine and pharmacy : studies based on orig. mss. = Taʼrīẖ aṭ-ṭibb wa-'ṣ-ṣaidala ʻinda 'l-ʻArab 1, 3 Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts on medicine and pharmacy at the British Library. Publisher: Cairo [Drucker:] Éditions universit. d'Égypte 1975.

 Jundī, Aḥmad Rajāʼī; Hakeem Mohammad Zahoorul Hasan

  • Proceeding of the Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine. Munaẓẓamat al-Ṭibb al-Islāmī. [Dawlat al-Kuwayt] : Islamic Medicine Organization, [1982]

Sezgin, Fuat.

  • Texts and studies on Islamic medicine. 1, Frankfurt am Main : Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, 1997. in Series: Manshūrāt Maʻhad Tārīkh al-ʻUlūm al-ʻArabīyah wa-al-Islāmīyah., Ṭibb al-Islāmī ;, 88. English : Limited ed. of 80 copies

Shahid Athar;

  • Islamic perspectives in medicine : a survey of "Islamic medicine" : achievements and contemporary issues. Indianapolis, IN : American Trust Publications, ©1993.