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Mullā Ṣadrā II -Bibliography, Secondary Sources + Miscellany

Muhammad ibn Ibrāhim al-Qawāmī al-Shīrazī = Ṣadr al-Dīn Shīrazī  =  Mullā Ṣadrā (born Shiraz c. 979/ 1572 - died Baṣra 1050 /1641 CE).

Stephen Lambden UCMerced.

2006-7 - Under revision, correction and updating -last updated: 02-12-3016.

Select  Secondary Sources with URLs and PDfs.

Ṣadr al-Dīn Shīrazī

The philosophical-theological thought of Ṣadr al-Dīn Shīrazī, Mulla  Ṣadra,  remains alive and flourishing in Iran today. As a major Safavid era scholar and philosopher,  he is credited with forty to fifty works, mostly in Arabic.

Select URLs.


The Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (SIPRIn) was established in 1994 with the aim of holding the World Congress on Mulla Sadra, introducing Mulla Sadra and his famous school of thought; the Transcendent Philosophy, and contacting the main world philosophical centers. Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute. Imam Khomeini Complex, Resalat Exp., Building #12, Tehran, Iran. E-Mail: , Telephone : 021-88734685 , 021-88734686 , 021-88734689 , Fax: 021-88831817

Mulla Sadra site:

Papers and Abstracts:

  • Mulla Sadra and Comparative Studies - Islam-West Philosophical Dialogue. Papers of the World Congress on Mulla Sadra, Tehran, May 1999.Volumes 1 & 2, SIPRIn. 2001. by 1999 papers MULLA SADRA CONGRESS , 2001 :

  • The Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (SIPRIn), Volumes 3 & 4, SIPRIn. 2002. = 1999 papers of the Mulla Sadra Congress, 2002.

  • Mulla Sadra and Comparative Studies. The Papers Presented at the World Congress on Mulla Sadra (May 1999, Tehran) Volume 4 by The Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (SIPRIn), 2002.

Alphabetical Bibliography - with occasional Pfs.

`Abdul Haq, M.,

  • "An Aspect of the Metaphysics of Mullā Sadra", Islamic Studies, vol. 9, 1970, pp. 331-53.

  • "The Metaphysics of Mullā Sadra II", Islamic Studies, vol. 10, 1971, pp. 291-317.

  • "Mullā Sadra's Concept of Being", Islamic Studies, vol. 6, 1967, pp. 268-76.

  • "The Psychology of Mullā Sadra", Islamic Studies, vol. 9, 1970, pp. 173-81.

Açıkgenç, Alparslan,

  • Being and Existence in Sadra and Heidegger, Kuala Lumpur: I.S.T.A.C., 1993.

‘Alawi, Hadi,

  • Nazariyyat al-Harakah al-Jawhariyyah ‘ind al-Shirazi, (Beirut: 1983).

Akbarian, Reza.

  • `Existence as a predicate in Kant and Mulla Sadra'  in  Al-Tawḥīd: A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Thought and Culture, 2003, Vol. 17/  iv, 39-73.

  • The Fundamental Principles of Mulla Sadra's Transcendent Philosophy.  Xlibris Corporation, 2009. 318pp. ISBN-10: 1441580808 ISBN-13: 978-1441580801

Ashtiyani, Sayyid Jalal al-Din,

  • Sharh-i hal wa aray-i falsafi-i Mulla Sadra (Mashhad, 1382/1962).

Avens, Robert,

  • “Theosophy of Mulla Sadra”, Hamdard Islamicus 9:3 (1986), 3-30.

‘Awn, Faysal Badir,

  • Fikrat al-Tabi’ah fi’l-Falsafat al-Islamiyyah, (Syria: University of ‘Ayn al-Shams, 1980).

Badur, Salman,

  • “al-Harakat al-jawhariyya fi falsafati Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi”, Dirasat ‘ulum al-insaniyyah wa’l-turath 11: 4 (1984), 29-40.
  •  “Mitafiziqa al-wujud fi falsafati Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi”, Dirasat ‘ulum al-insaniyyah wa’l-turath 13: 4 (1986), 215-235.

Browne, Edward, G. (d. 1926)

  • A Literary History of Persia, vol.  IV, Cambridge, 1969.

Corbin, Henri (d. 1978).

Corbin, Henry,

  • “Le Thème de la résurrection chez Mollâ Sadra Shirazi (1050/1640) commentateur de Suhrawardi (586/1191)” in Studies in Mysticism and Religion Presented to Gershom G. Scholem (Jerusalem, 1967), pp. 71-115. *  
  • “Mollâ Sadra Shirazi” in En Islam iranien, (Paris, 1972), Vol. IV, pp. 52-122. *     
  • En Islam iranien, vol. IV, Paris, 1973.

  • "Histoire de la philosophie islamique, Ile Partie: Depuis la morte d'Averroës jusqu'à nos jours", Encyclopédie de la Pléiade, Histoire de la philosophie, Ile partie, Paris, 1974, pp. 1067-88.

  • `La place de Mollā Sadra dans la philosophie iranienne', Studia Islamica, vol. XVIII, pp. 81-113.

  • Le Uvre des pénétrations métaphysiques, Tehran-Paris, 1964.

  • `Le thème de la résurrection chez Mollā Sadrā Shīrāzī (1050/1640) commentateur de Sohrawardî (587/1191)", in Studies in Mysticism and Religion presented to Gershom G. Schalem, Jerusalem, 1967, pp. 71-115.

  • Terre celeste et corps de résurrection d'après quelques traditions iraniennes, Paris, 1961.

Corbin, H.  +  Ãshtiyanî, SJ.,

  • Anthologie des philosophes iraniens, vol. 1, Tehran-Paris, 1972.*  

Dagheim, Samih

  • Mawsu`at Mustalahat Ṣadr al-Dīn Shīrazī (Eng. title = `Encyclopedia of Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi's Terminology'), 2 vols. Dharwa al-Qurbi, 1428/XXXX, lxiii680+681-1250 + Indexes pp.1251-1423pp. * 

Dakake , Maria Massi

  • `The Soul as Barzakh: Substantial Motion and Mullā Sadrā's Theory of Human Becoming '  in The Muslim World, vol. 94/ 1 (2004) pp.  107 ?

Fakhry, Majid,

  • Islamic Occasionalim and its Critique by Averroes and Aquinas. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1958.
  • ‘The Concept of Perpetual Creation in Islamic Mysticism and Zen Buddhism’ in Mélanges Offerts a Henry Corbin ed. S. H. Nasr, Tehran: 1977.

Gobineau, J. A. Comte de, (d. 1888).

  •  Les religions et les philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, Paris, 1923.

Horten, M. (1874- d.          ).

 Ibrahimi,  Nādir

  • Mardi dar ta'yyid abadī bar asās-i dustān-i zindagi-yi Mullā Sadra-yi Shirazi...  , Tehran: Karim Khan Zand, 1375/1996.*

Iqbal, Muhammad.,

  • The Development of Metaphysics in Persia, London, 1908.

Izutsu,  Toshihiko

  •  1971  The Concept and Reality of Existence, Studies in the Humanities and Social Relations 13, Tokyo: Keio Institute of Cultural and Linguistic Studies.

Jambet, Christian  and Jeff Fort (trans. from French)

  • The Act of Being: The Philosophy of Revelation in Mulla Sadra  2006  = ISBN-10: 1-890951-69-2 ISBN-13: 978-1-890951-69-6 * 

Kalin, Ibrahim  (College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA.  USA).

  • “The World Congress on Mulla Sadra”, American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences Volume 16, No 3 (Fall 1999), pp.145-148; reprinted in Iqbal Review Vol. 40, No. 3-4 (October, 1999), 107-110.

  • “Knowledge as the Unity of the Intellect and the Object of Intellection in Islamic Philosophy: A Historical Survey from Plato to Mulla Sadra”, Transcendent Philosophy: An International Journal for Comparative Philosophy and Mysticism, Vol. 1, Number 1, (June 2000), pp. 73-91; also published in Seyed Safavi (ed.), Perception According to Mulla Sadra, Salman-Azadeh Publication, n.p., 2002, pp. 74-99.

  • “Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi (Mulla Sadra)”, Center for Islam and Science, Resources on Islam and Science at (posted in March 2001).

  • `An annotated bibliography of the works of Mullā Sadrā with a brief account of his life' in   Islamic studies,  42 (2003) pp. 11ff.

  • `Mullā Sadrā's realist ontology of the intelligibles and Theory of Knowledge' in The Muslim world 94 (2004),pp. 81-106.

  • `Mulla Sadra’s Realist Ontology and the Concept of Knowledge' The Muslim World, Vol 94, No 1 (January 2004), pp. 81-106.

  • “Why Do Animals Eat Other Animals? Mulla Sadra on the Best of All Possible Worlds” Turkish Journal of Islamic Studies, Vol. 12 (June, 2004) (forthcoming).

  • “Between Physics and Metaphysics: Mulla Sadra on Nature and Motion” Islam and Science Vol. I, 2003, pp. 65-93; an earlier version published in Mulla Sadra and Transcendent Philosophy: Proceedings of the World Congress on Mulla Sadra (Tehran: Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 301-327.

  • `Mullā Ṣadrā on Theodicy and the Best of All Possible Worlds' in Journal of Islamic Studies,  Vol. 18, No. 2 May 2007,  pp.


"The argument that the world that God has created is the best of all possible world-orders (asan al-nim) is based on the premise that God always acts optimally. As a response to the problem of evil, the argument seeks to remove any tensions between the imperfection of the world and God's power and goodness. ar al-Dn al-Shirz, known commonly as Mulla Sadr (d. 1640), develops a number of arguments to defend the thesis as formulated by al-Ghazl. While reiterating the previous arguments, Mull adr revises the question of theodicy within the context of his concept of existence and its modalities. Instead of discussing the problem of evil in terms of moral imperfections alone, he defines the world of existence as ‘that which is necessarily less than God’ and thus bound to be imperfect. Furthermore, Mull adr interprets all evil, natural or moral, as serving a higher purpose because the world is structured in a hierarchical way and for everything there is a teleological history. The article looks critically at the eight arguments which adr advances to defend his position. At the end of his elaborate discussions, however, adr takes refuge in blessed ignorance and faithfully accepts that not all problems of philosophy can be solved decisively. "

Rizvi review

Lumbard, Joseph.

  • `The place of prophecy in Mulla Sadra's philosophy of perception'  in Transcendent Philosophy, 2000, Vol. 1/ii, 63-79.

Meisami, Sayeh,

  • 2016 `Mullā Sadrā's philosophical arguments for the necessity of the Imamate', Religion Compass 10: 247-256.

Moris, Zailan,

  • Revelation, Intellectual Intuition and Reason in the Philosophy of Mulla Sadra: An Analysis of the al-Hikmah al-Arshiyya. London: Routledge Curzon, 2003. ISBN ISBN = 0–700–71503–7. (238pp.).

Mulla Sadra Comm. vol.

  • Mullâ Sadrâ commemoration volume : on the occasion of the 400th anniversay of the birth of Ṣadr al-Din Shirazi = Yād-nāma-i mullā ṣadrā. Tehran : Tehran Univ, 1961 = 1380/1340.

James W . Morris (Review)

  • Revelation, Intellectual Intuition and Reason in the Philosophy of Mulla Sadra: An Analysis of the al-Hikmah al-Arshiyya. • By ZAILAN MORIS (London: Routledge Curzon, 2003), 238 pp.  Journal of Islamic Studies 2005 16. pp. 360-362

Nasr, Seyyed  Hossein.,

  • English introduction to Sadr al-Dīn Shīrāzī, al-Mabda' wa'l-ma'ad ed. by S.J. Ashtiyanî, Tehran, 1976. 

  • English introduction to Sadr al-Dln Shïra/î, Three Treatises, ed. by S.J. Ashtiyani, Meshed, 1392/1973.

  • English preface to Sadr al-Dīn Shīrāzī, al-Shawähid al-rubũbiyyah, ed. by S.J. Ashtiyani, Meshed, 1967.

  • `Mullā Sadrā and the Doctrine of the Unity of Being', Philosophical Forum, vol. IV, no. 1 Fall, 1972, pp. 153-61.

  • `Mullā Sadra as a Source for the History of Muslim Philosophy". Islamic Studies, vol. Ill, no. 3, Sept., 1964, pp. 309-14.

  • (ed.), Mullā Sadrā Commemoration Volume, Tehran, 1380/1961.

  • `Mullā Sadrā' in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, vol. 5, New York, 1966, pp. 411-13.

  • `Şadr al-Dīn Shīrāzī, His Life, Doctrine and Significance', Indo-Iranica, vol. XIV, no. 4, Dec. 1961, pp. 6-16.

  • `Sadr al-Dīn Shīrazi 'Mullā Sadra' ', in Sharif, M. M., (ed.),A History of Muslim Philosophy, vol. II, Wiesbaden, 1966, pp. 932-61.

  • 1978. Sadr al-Din Shirazi and His Transcendent Theosophy: Background, Life and Works, Tehran: Imperial Academy of Philosophy.

  • 1996  'Mulla Sadra: His Teachings', in S.H. Nasr and O. Leaman (eds) History of Islamic Philosophy, London: Routledge, 643-52.

  • Mulla Sadra and His Transcendent Philosophy (Tehran: 1997, 2nd edition).
  • “Mulla Sadra: His Teachings” in A History of Islamic Philosophy ed. by S. H. Nasr and O. Leaman (London: Routledge, 1996), Vol. I, pp. 643-662.
  • “Mulla Sadra as a Source For the History of Islamic Philosophy” Islamic Studies, 3:3 (1964), 309-314.
  • “Mulla Sadra” The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Paul Edwards (Editor in chief), Vol.5 (New York: The Macmillan Company and The Free Press, 1967), pp. 411-413.
  • (ed.) Mulla Sadra Commemoration Volume Tehran, XXXX.,1380/1960.
  • “Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi (Mulla Sadra)” in A History of Muslim Philosophy, ed. M. M. Sharif, (Wiesbaden: 1962).

Nelson, Jim and Sada Georges Hormuz

  • Mulla Sadra's Transcendent Philosophy (Ashgate World Philosophies Series) (Ashgate World Philosophies Series)  2006.

Peerwani, Latimah-Parvin.

Quarterly of History of Philosophy

  • Publication of Issue 24 of the Quarterly of History of Philosophy.


Rahman, Fazlur.

  • 1975 The Philosophy of Mulla Sadr (Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi), Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

  • The Philosophy of Mullā Sadra. Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press, 1976.

  • 2009 The Philosophy of Mulla Sadr (Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi),  New York: State University of New York Press, 2009. 277 pp. ISBN-10: 0791458520 ISBN-13: 978-0791458525

  • Prophecy in Islam: Philosophy and Orthodoxy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.
  • Essence and Existence in Avicenna. Vol. 4, Medieval and Renaisance Studies. London: Warburg Institute, 1958.
  • "The Eternity of the World and the Heavenly Bodies in Post-Avicennian Philosophy", in Houráni, G. (ed.), Essays on Islamic Philosophy and Science, Albany (New York), 1975, pp. 322-37.

  •  "The God-World Relationship in Mullā Sadra", in Houráni, G., (ed.), Essays on Islamic Philosophy and Science, Albany (New York), 1975, pp. 238-53.
  • "Mullā Sadrā's Theory of Knowledge", Philosophical Forum, vol. IV, no. 1, Fall, 1972, pp. 141-52.

  •  ‘Mulla Sadra’ Encyclopedia of Religion, Vol. 10, (New York: 1987), 149-153.

  • ‘Mir Damad’s Concept of Huduth Dahri: A Contribution to the Study of God-World Relationship Theories in Safavid Iran’ Near Eastern Studies 39 (1980), 139-151.
  •  'Essence and Existence in Avicenna' Mediaeval and Renaissance Studies, IV (1958), 1-16

Rizvi, Sajjad Haydar.

  • Reconsidering the Life of Mulla Sadra Shirazi (d. 1641): Notes towards an Intellectual Biography... in IRAN XL (2002), 181-201.

  • Reconsidering the life of Mulla Sadra Shirazi: notes towards an intellectual biography, Iran: Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, vol. 40, 2002, 181-202

  • The Soteriology of Wilaya: early tashayyu' and Mulla Sadra, International Journal of Shi'i Studies, vol. 1, 2003, 157-176

  • `Mulla Sadra and Causation: Rethinking a Problem in Later Islamic Philosophy' in Philosophy East and West 55  No. 4 (2005), 570-583

  • Mysticism and philosophy: Ibn Arabi and Mulla Sadra, in Taylor RC, Adamson P (eds) The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005, 224-246,

  • Au-dela du miroir: Mulla Sadra's pedagogical epistemology, in Smet D, Sebti D, M (eds) Miroir et savoir. La transmission d'un theme platonicien des Alexandrins a la philosophie arabo-musulmane, Leuven: Peeters, 251-271

  • `Mullā Sadrā Shīrāzī : his life and works and the sources for Safavid philosophy'. Oxford : Oxford University Press on behalf of the University of Manchester, 2007.  viii, 191 pp.  (= SERIES Journal of Semitic studies. Supplement ; 18). ISBN 0199297428. / ISBN 9780199297429. Product Description "Mulla Sadra Shirazi is the first attempt in English to produce a thorough preparatory study of the intellectual biography of this famous Safavid thinker. Previous attempts by other thinkers have been marred by ideological prejudice and the lack of serious intellectual rigour. A proper understanding of Islamic intellectual history requires the study of canonical thinkers, of which Mulla Sadra is certainly one in the philosophical tradition of Iran. The book eschews legends and theoretical constructs of bibliography in favour of a rigorous life that draws upon a wide range of primary sources, many of which are unpublished, and that demonstrate the significance and context of the intellectual contributions of Mulla Sadra. Mulla Sadra Shirazi is quite a traditional biography in that it seeks to locate the life of the thinker and his works in his historical and intellectual content. The course of ideas in Islam is an area of research that is of great interest at the moment; even the study of philosophy has flourished in recent years. Consistently, with recent works on other Islamic philosophers, this book sets the standard for approaching Islamic intellectual history by insisting upon an historical and source-critical approach, allied with a keen philological, but also philosophical, appreciation of the intellectual life of a thinker. The life is based upon the most recent scholarship on Safavid history and draws widely upon primary sources in Arabic and Persian, including a number of works in manuscript. For students of Islamic thought in the early modern period and those with a particular interest in philosophy in Safavid Iran, this book should be the first point of reference. Mulla Sadra Shirazi will become the foundation for further research both on Mulla Sadra and his thought, as well as the thought and intellectual trends of his period."

  • Mulla Sadra and Metaphysics (Culture and Civilization in the Middle East). 2009.
  • Mulla Sadra and Metaphysics: Modulation of Being, London/Abingdon : Routledge, 2009.
  • Mulla Hadi Sabzavari and the school of Mulla Sadra, in Mervin S, Hermann D (eds) Shi'ism in Modern Times (1800-1925), Beirut/Frankfurt: Deutsches Orientinstitut, 2010.
  • Ḥikmah mutaʿāliyah in Qajar Iran: Locating the Life and Work of Mullā Hādī Sabzavārī (d. 1289/1873), Iranian Studies, vol. 43, Taylor and Francis.         
  • Reality and Realities: Mulla Sadra Shirazi and structure of reality., JOURNAL OF ISLAMIC STUDIES, vol. 21, no. 1, 2010, 119-122.
  • Mulla Sadra and causation: Rethinking a problem in later Islamic philosophy, PHILOS EAST WEST, vol. 55, no. 4, 2005, 570-+

See further for Rizvi :

Sabahuddin, Abdur Rahman,

  • "Mullā Sadrā", Indo-Iranica, vol. XIV, no. 4, Dec. 1961, pp. 17-29.

Sells, Michael.

  • Mullā Ṣadrā (Ṣadr al-Din Shirazi) in `Great Thinkers of the Eastern World. The major thinkers and the philosophical and religious classics of China, India, Japan, Korea, and the world of Islam' . Ed. Ian P. McGreal.   XXXX: Harper Collins Publishers, ADD, pp. 484-488.

Segovia, Carlos Andrés.

  • Sadr Ad - Din Sirazi [Mulla Sadra Sirazi, 1571-1640]. La filosofía islámica y el problema del ser. Estudio y comentario del «Kitab al - masa'ir». Prólogo de José Antonio Antón Pacheco.

Tabrizi,  Ja`far  Sajjadi 

  • Hastī Shināsī dar Maktab-i Sadr-i Muta'alihin (Ontology in Sadr al-Din Shirazi's school). Tehran: Kitābkhānah-yi Millī-yi Iran   (= Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies) 1398/ 1977 + 2nd ed. 1400/1979. *

 Tabrizi, Ja`far Subhani

  • Hastī Shināsī dar Maktab-i Sadr-i Muta'alihin (Ontology in Sadr al-Din Shirazi's school). Tehran: Kitābkhānah-yi Millī-yi Iran   (= Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies) 1398/ 1977 + 2nd ed. 1400/1979. *

Yusuf, K.M.,

  • "Iran Society celebrates the Quadringenary of Mullā Sadrā", Indo-Iranica, vol. XIV, no. 4, Dec. 1961, pp.1-5.

Ziai, Hossein.

  • 1996  'Mulla Sadra: His Life and Works', in S.H. Nasr and O. Leaman (eds) History of Islamic Philosophy (London: Routledge) 635-42.

  • "Beyond Philosophy: Suhrawardi's Illuminationist Path to Wisdom," in Myth and Philosophy, ed. Frank E. Reynolds and David Tracy, New York, 1990a, pp. 215-43.

  • Knowledge and Illumination: A Study of Sohravardi's Hikmat al-Ishrăq, Atlanta, 1990Ե.

  • "Mošāheda. raveš֊e ešraq, wa zabān-e še'r," Irān-nāmailran Nameh 8/1, Winter 1990e, pp. 81-94.

  • "The Manuscript of al-Sajara al-elahiya, a Philosophical Encyclopedia by Šams-al-Din Šahrazuri." Iranšenasillranshenasi 2/1, Spring 1990d, pp. 89-108.

  • "Sohravardi wa siāsat." Irān-nāma/Iran Nameh 9/3, Summer 1991. pp. 396-410.

  • "Source and Nature of Authority: A Study of Suhrawardi's Illuminationist Political Doctrine," in The Political Aspects of Islamic Philosophy. ed. Charles Butterworth, Cambridge, Mass., 1992a. pp. 304-44.

  • Ta'rifwa mabāni-e šenākt dar f al safa֊ ye ešraq (Definition and the foundations of knowledge in Illuminationist philosophy), section on al-aqwal al-šāreha from the unpublished text al-Masare' wa'l-motãrahãt, in Borhān Ebn Yousef, ed. Jaśn-nama-ye 'Ostad Jawãd Mosleh, Los Angeles, 1993. pp. 108-30.

  • "The Illuminationist Tradition" and "Shihab al-Din Yalıya Suhrawardi," in The Routledge History of Islamic Philosophy, eds. S. H. Nasr and Oliver Lea-man, London, 1995, pp. 434-64 and 465-96.

  • "al-Suhrawardi, Shihab al-Din." in El՝՜ IX. 1997. pp. 782-84.

  • "Illuminationist Philosophy." in The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy \\. ed. Eduard Graig, London, 1998b, pp. 700-703.

  • Suhrawardi's The Book of Radiance 'forrou• \amehi. a parallel English Persian text. ed. and tr. with introd.. Costa [page 1] Mesa, 1998c.

  • + Ahmad Alwishah, Studies in Medieval Physics: Ibn Kammuna's al-Tanqihatfi Shark al-Talwihat. Costa Mesa. 2003.

  • + John Walbridge. The Philosophy of Illumination. English tr. of Suhrawardi's Hikmat al-Ishraq, plus a new critical ed. of the Arabic text, with introd., notes, and glossaries of technical terms, 2000.

  • `Illuminationism' in EIr. vol. XII/6-p. 671f+ XIII/1 pp.1-2.