The Bab. Bib. Supp. II Islamic Anti-Babi-Baha'i Polemic - Sunni, Shi`i and Shaykhi

THE BAB AND THE BABI RELIGION - BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENTS  

Stephen Lambden, UC Merced.

In Progress - last updated 17-08-2019

Supplement II

Islamic Anti-Babi-Baha'i Polemic and Related materials - Sunni, Shi`i and Shaykhi...

SUNNI  ISLAMIC ANTI-BABI-BAHA'I POLEMIC

Sunni and other Islamic anti-Babi-Baha'i polemic is a massive subject with an immense and ongoing bibliography in Persian, Arabic, Turkish and a host of European and other languages.

Āminah Muhammad Naṣīr

  • أضواء وحقائق الى البابية، البهائية، القاديانية / Aḍwāʼ wa-ḥaqāʼiq alá al-Bābīyah, al-Bahāʼīyah, al-Qādiyānīyah. Beirut: Dār al-Shurūq, 1984. 109 pages.

Niaz, A. Q. 

  • The Babee and Bahaaee religion. Rabwah : Ahmadiyya Muslim Foreign Missions Office, 1960 +  Rabwah, West Pakistan : Vakil-al-Tabshir, 1967. 77 pages. English ed.  Qadian, Punjab, India : M.W. Ahmad, 1975.

Naqavi, Sayyid Ali Raza.

  • "Babism and Baha'ism - A Study of thir History and Doctrines" in Islamic Studies (Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad), vol. 14/3 (Autumn 1975), 185-217. 

Nūrī, Yaḥyā / Ayatollah Allameh Yahya Noori

  • Finality of prophethood and a critical analysis of Babism, Bahaism, Qadiyanism [= khātamīyat-i payāmbar-i islām wa ibṭāl-i taḥlīlī-i bābīgarī, bahā'igarī, qādiyānīgarī. Tehran : Maidan-i Shuhada. c. 1987.

IMAMI SHI`I ANTI-BABI-BAHA'I POLEMIC

Imami shi`i anti-Babi-Baha'i polemic is a massive subject with an immense and ongoing bibliography in Persian, Arabic, Turkish and a host of European and other languages..

SHI`I DOLGOROUKI-ROOTED POLEMIC. 

Dolgorouki (Dolgorukov), 'Dālgorūkī', Dimitri Ivanovich , (1797- d. 1867). Russian Minister in Teran 1846-1856.

See: World Cat: http://worldcat.org/identities/lccn-n87129786/

Originating in 1930s Iran, the so-called `The Confessions of Dolgoruki'  are a fictitious polemical, anti-Babi-Baha'i narrative of memoirs or political confessions. They first surfaced within the Khurasan Year Book which appeared in Tehran and Mashhad. In one form or another this material has been repeadtedly printed in 20th-21st cent. Iran. 

  • Iʿtirāfāt-i siyāsī yā yāddāshthā-yi Kinyāz Dolqorūkī ("Political confessions or memoirs of Prince Dolgorukov"). 1st ed. Mashhad : Khurasan Year Book, 1322 Sh./1943. 
  • Dānistanīhāʼī darbārah-ʼi naqsh-i siyāsī-i rahbarān-i Bahāʼī. Aḥmad A. Murtidà. Tehran: : Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyah, 1344/1965. 127 pages.
  • 'Dālgurūkī, Kinyāz-i , Gusha-hā-yi fāsh-fāshnashuda-ī az tārīkh-i chand chasha-i ʿamaliyyāt-i ḥayrat -angīz-i Kinyāz-i Dālgorūkī, jāsūs-i asrār āmīz-i Rūsiyya-yi tarzārī, wa nukāt-i jāleb-i tawajjuh az paydāyish-i maḏhab-i Bābī wa Bahāʾī dar Īrān. 3rd ed. Tehran, nd.  (so MacEoin, Sources, 252).
  • Gūshahʹhā-yi fāsh nashudahʼī az tārīkh : chand "chishmah" az ʻamaliyāt-i ḥayratangīz-i Kīnyāz Dālgūrkī jāsūs-i asrārāmīz-i Rūsīyah-i Tizārī : va nukāt-i jālib-i tavajjuh az paydāyish-i maz̲hab-i!!! Bābī va Bahāʼī dar Īrān. Tehran : Kitābfurūshī-i Ḥāfiẓ, 197-?  45 pages. Copy in UCLA (World Cat.
  • Gūshahā-yi fāshnashuda-ī az tārīkh. Chand chasma az ʿamaliyyāt-i ḥayrat -angīz-i Kenyāz Dālgorūkī, jāsūs-i asrār āmīz-i Rūsiyya-yi tizārī, wa nokāt-i jāleb-i tawajjuh az paydāyish-i maḏhab-i bābī wa bahāʾī dar Īrān, 3rd ed., Tehran, n.d.

  • Yaddasht-ha-yi Kinyaz Dalgorki ya asrar peiydayesh mazahab bab va baha dar Iran. Tehran: [publisher not identified], 1986? (World-Cat.). 

Select appraisals and critical refutations the Dolgorouki rooted Polemic

Anon.

  • Baḥthī dar radd-i yād dāshthā-yi maj`ūl muntasib bi- Kinyāz-i Dālgurūkī. Tehran 129 BE/ 1972-3. An anonymous discussion of the  (MacEoin, Sources, 171.fn.64).

National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Iran.

https://www.h-net.org/~bahai/docs/vol16/An%20Untitled%20Response%20to%20...

  • Iʻtirāfāt-i siyāsī-i Kīnyāz Dālfūrkī Tehran: Maḥfil-i Rūḥānī-i Millī-i Bahāʼīyān-i Īrān, 1324/ 1946. An 82 page commentary on Iʻtirāfāt-i siyāsī of  Kīnyāz Dālgūrkī (Memoirs of Dolgorouki).  There exists a copy of this document in Princeton Univ. Library. So World Cat.
  • `An Untitled Response to the Dolgorukov Memoirs.Tehran: Mahfil-i Rowhani-ye Melli-ye Baha'ian-e Iran (National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Iran): January-February, 1946. Unpublished manuscript. duplicated on (Cole) H-Baha'i, `Documents on the Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Movements, Vol. 16, no. 1, (March, 2012).
  • https://www.h-net.org/~bahai/docs/vol16/An%20Untitled%20Response%20to%20...

MacEoin, Denis.

  • 1992. The Sources for Early Bābī Doctrine and History. A Survey, Leiden: Brill, 1992, 170-71.

 Anon / Firuz  Kazemzadeh (?)

  • “Excerpts from Dispatches Written During 1848-1852 by Prince Dolgorukov, Russian Minister to Persia.” World Order (Fall 1966): 17-24.

Moojan Momen 

  • BBR 1844-1944: 4, 6, 9 ...
  • 1995 + 2011. `Dolgorukov Memoirs' in  EIr. Vol. VII/5,  477-478.

Mina Yazdani

  • `The Confessions of Dolgoruki: Fiction and Master narrative in Twentieth-Century Iran' Iranian Studies Vol. 44, No. 1 (Jan. 2011), 25-47.
  • Religious Contentions in Modern Iran, 1881-1941. Phd thesis Toronto : University of Toronto, 2012.
  • `The Confessions of Dolgoruki: The Crisis of Identity and the Creation of a Master Narrative',  Ch. Pt. IV of Abbas Amanat; Farzin Vejdani (ed.), Iran facing others : identity boundaries in a historical perspective. New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.xiii, 292 pages.
  • The Islamic Revolution's Internal Other: The Case of Ayatollah Khomeini and the Baha'is of Iran 1. Journal of Religious History, v36 n4 (2012), 593-604.
  • `Anti-Bahā'ī Polemics and Historiography' in Baha'i Studies Review, v17 n1 (2012), 87-100
  • `The Confessions of Dolgoruki: The Crisis of Identity and the Creation of a Master Narrative',  Ch. in Pt. IV (pp. 245-266) of Abbas Amanat; Farzin Vejdani (ed.), Iran facing others : identity boundaries in a historical perspective. New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.xiii, 292 pages. 

SHI`I ANTI-BABI-BAHA'I POLEMIC

Najafī,  Sayyid Muhammad Bāqir,

  • بهائيان = Bahā'iyān.  Tehran : Kitābhāna-i Ṭahūrī, 1969. X, 778 pages.
  • Bahā'iyān. Tehran : Kitābkhānah-i Ṭahūrī, 1357/1978 or 9. X, 778 pages. Has 40 unnumbered pages of plates.

A. 

Select materials on the Shaykhi background to the Babi religion.

For around in year in the early 1840s, the Bab was a devotee of Sayyid Kazim al-Husayni al-Rashti (d. 1259/1843) in Karbala and elsewhere. He referred to him in his  Risāla fi'l-suluk (Treatise on the Pathway to God) in the following manner:

قد كتبها سيدی ومعتمدی و معلمی الحاج سيد كاظم الرشتی   اطال الله بقائه مخصل

"Thus wrote my Lord (sayyidī), my firm support (mu`tammadī) and my teacher (mu`allimī), al-Hajji Sayyid Kāẓim Rashtī, may God extend his specified eternality..."

See further Lambden, `The Babi-Baha'i Exaltation Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i and Sayyid Kazim al-Rashti' : https://hurqalya.ucmerced.edu/node/301/

Denis MacEoin:

  • From Shaykhism to Babism: A Study in Charismatic Renewal in Shí'i Islam. Ph.D. Thesis Cambridge, 1979. (Unpublished), pp.vii+230+bib. pp. 230-240.

A doctoral thesis submitted by MacEoin (Faculty of Oriental Studies King's College, University of Cambridge), in July 1979. This thesis contains  (after the Preface, Acknowledgements, List of Abbreviations and Introduction) six chapters: (1) The Religious Background, 6-49 (2) Shaykh Aḥmad al-Aḥsā'ī, 50-94 (3) Sayyid Kāẓim Rashtī, 96-124 (4) From Shaykhism to Babism, 126-155 (5) Some Aspects of Early Babi Doctrine, 156-183  and (6)The Babi Da`wa among the Shaykhis and the Break with Shaykhism, 185-229.

  • 'al-Aḥsā'ī, Shaykh Aḥmad b. Zayn al-Dīn'. in Enc. Iranica vol. 1 :  674-679. 
  • "Bālāsarī", Enc. Iranica vol. III : 583-585.
  • Cosmology  vii - In Shaykhism', Enc. Iranica Vol. 6 : 326-328.
  • 'Rashtī, Sayyid Kāẓim ' EI2 vol. VIII (Leiden: Brill, 1995) pp. 450-451.
  • 'Shaykhiyya' EI2 vol. IX (Leiden: Brill, 1997) pp. 403-405.
  • `Shaykhism' in L.P. Elwell-Sutton (ed), A Bibliographical Guide to Iran.  Brighton & Totowa, 1983, pp. XXX.
  • 1990. `Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy in Nineteenth-Century Shi`ism: The Cases of Shaykhism and Babism' in JAOS 110/ No.2 April-June, 1990, pp. 323-329.  The synoptic heading preceding the article reads as follows: `Discussions of orthodoxy and heterodoxy presuppose a dichotomy of major proportions. In reality, things are never so simple: relations between opposing viewpoints are characterized by dynamism rather than static confrontation. In a sense, heterodox movements may often be no more than extreme expressions of orthodox values.   In the case of Islam, the most extreme expression of an "orthodox" verses  "heterodox" antagonism is provided by the emergence of Baha'ism as a distinct religion from an originally orthodox Shi`i matrix. An examination of the antecedents of Baha'ism in the nineteenth century -- Shaykhism and Bābism-- shows the way in which heterodoxy was, in a sense, a development of orthodox belief, rather then an aberration.' (p.323).

Vahid Rafati

  • The development of Shaykhī thought in Shī'ī Islam. Dissertation: Ph. D. University of California, Los Angeles 1979. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms, [2008]
  • Nasím-i-Saḥarí ("Breeze at Dawn", a comp. on Shaykhí Concepts in the Bábí and Bahá’í Writings). Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahā’ī-Verlag. c. 2014.  272 pages. In Persian and Arabic.

Moojan Momen.

  • BSBM1 (BSB Monograph 1, ed. S. Lambden), Moojan Momen.`The works of Shaykh Aḥmad al-Aḥsā’ī’. Newcastle upon Tyne: Hurqalya Publications, 1982.

B.

SHAYKHI ANTI-BABI POLEMIC.

B. Shaykhi Anti Babi Polemical and Associated works in Persian and Arabic.

Anti Babi works written by Shaykhis, followers of Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i and his Kirmani and other successors and devotees. See further, Lambden, `Karim Khan Kirmani and Kirmani Shaykhi Leaders - Anti-Babi Writings' https://hurqalya.ucmerced.edu/node/52

Kirmānī, Hajjī Mīrzā Muhammad Karīm Khān (d. 1288/1870 or 71) 

Izhāq al-bāṭil dar radd al-Bābiyya ("The Crushing of Falsehood in refutation of Bābism"). Completed 12th Rajab 1261/17th July 1845.

  •   إزهاق باطل Izhāq al-bāṭil
  • Izhāq al-bāṭil dar radd al-Bābiyya. Kirmān: Maṭba`at al-Sa`āda, 1392/1972.

Risāla dar radd-i Bāb-i murtāb = رساله در رد باب مرتاب

  • Risāla dar radd-i Bāb-i murtāb. 2nd. ed. of Persian text. Kirmān: Maṭba`at al-Sa`āda, Jumādī al-Thāniyya, 1384/ October 1964. 59 pages.

الشهاب الثاقب   Risālat al-shihāb al-thāqib fi rajm al-nawāṣib ("The Piercing Thunderbolt for the Stoning of the Enemies"). Written 1265/1849.

  • Risāla al-Shihāb al-thāqib fī rajm al-nawāṣib. 
  • al-Shihāb al-thāqib fī rajm al-nawāṣib. Kirman: al-Madrasah al-Mubārakah al-Ibrāhīmiyyah, 1353Sh./1974-5. 97 pages.
  • al-Shihāb al-thāqib rajm al-nawāṣib. Kirmān: Maṭba`at al-Sa`āda, 1353 Sh./ 1974-75.

Risāla-yi tīr-i shihāb ... ("The Treatise of the Piercing Meteor", 1262/1846).

  • Risāla-yi tīr-i shihāb .. Kirmān, 1386/1966-7 where it is found within the Shaykhī produced compilation Majmu`a-i rasā'il-i fārsī (Persian Compendia of Treatises) No.1  pp. 162-242.
  • Risāla-yi ṭīr-i shihāb in Majma' al-rasā'il-i Fārsī 1, Kirmān: Maṭba`at al-Sa`āda,1386/1966-67, pp.162-242.

Kitāb-i Irshād al-awwām ("The Book of Guidance for the Masses).

    See Kirmānī, Fihrist, No. 361 p. 376-8. The  Irshād al-`awāmm  was written in 4 vols. between 6th Rajab 1263 / 20th July 1847 and 1st Rabi` II (al-Akhir) 1267/ 3rd February 1851. The following is a list of  various of the printed editions known to the present writer (cf. Kirmani, Fihrist,  No. 361 p. 376-8):

    • 1267/1851. Irshād al-`awāmm... 4 vols. in 1, Bombay:   I267 / 1851, 33cm. (W-Cat.)
    • 1268/1852. Irshād al-`awāmm... 4 vols. Bombay:   I268 / 1852 (Fihrist, 378)
    • 1271/1855. Irshād al-`awāmm... Tabriz   1267/1855 (World Cat. USA).
    • 1271/ 1854-5 Irshād al-`awāmm...Tabriz  1271/1854-5.  (Fihrist, 378).
    • 1325/1907 Kitāb-i Irshād al-`awāmm. 4 vols., Kirmān, 1325/1907 [CHECK]
    • 1380/1960 Kitāb-i Irshād al-awāmm. 4 vols. in 1. Kirman: Chapkhanah-i Sa`ada. xiv+ xvi (Indexes) + 450 pages (vols. 1-3) + (vol.4) 546 pages. 
    • Kitāb-i Irshād al-awwām. 5th ed., 4 vols. Kirmān, I353-I355 Sh. / 1974--1976.

    Iqadh al-ghafilin wa ibtal batilin dar radd-i Bab-i khusran ma`ab.

    • Iqadh al-ghafilin wa ibtal batilin dar radd-i Bab-i khusran ma`ab. Tehran, nd. See MacEoin, Sources, 253.

    Miscellaneous Further Writings of Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani 

    Risāla-yi sī faṣl / Sulṭāniyyah ("Treatise in Thirty Sections on the implications of Shaykhism"). Written 1269/1853.

    • Risālah-i sī faṣl. Bombay: xxx 1313/1895.
    • Risāla-yi sī faṣl. Kirmān: Maṭba`at al-Sa`āda, nd. 
    • Risālah-i sī faṣl : dar javāb-i īrādāt-i baʻdī bar silsalah-ʼi jalīlah-i shaikhīyah. Kirman : Chāpkhānah-i Saʻādat], 1368/1949. 127 pages.
    • Risāla-' sī faṣl dār javāb īrādāt ba`aḍi bar silsalih-' jaliliyyih-' shaykhiyya. Kirmān: Matba`ah al-Sa`adat, Sha`ban 1368/ May 1970.

    رساله مباركه ركن ربيع   = Treatise on the Rukn-i rābiʻ, On The Fourth Support / Pillar [of Religion]. Written1282/1865–66.

    • Risālah-i mubārakah-i Rukn-i rābiʻ. Bombay:   1313/1895. 35 pages.
    • Risāla-yi rukn-i rābi`. 2nd ed. Kirman, 1368/1970. 26 pages.
    • Rukn-i rābiʿ. 2nd ed. Kirmān: Chāp-khāna-yi Sa`āda, 1368 Sh. /1990 CE.
    • K-Nusrat-Lith. [written 1266/1849-50] = Risāla-yi sharīfa-yi Nuṣrat al-Dīn. Lithograh, Bombay: 1285/ 1868.
    • Kitab Nuṣrat al-dīn. Kirmān: Sa`ada. n.d.
    • Risāla fī sharḥ du`ā' al-saḥar. Kirman: al-Sa`adah, n.d.
    • Risála fī jawāb al-Shaykh Ḥusayn ibn al-Shaykh Muhammad al-Mazīdī in Majmu`at al-Rasā’il. vol 61. Kirman ( n.d.)

    Kirmani Shaykhi Leaders - Anti-Babi-Baha'i Polemic.

    Kirmānī, Āqā Ḥajjī Muhammad Khan (d. 1324/1906) 

    • Risālah fi radd al-Bāb al-Murtāb ("The Treatise in Refutation of the Apostate Bāb"), Kirmān: Maṭba`at al-Sa`āda, XXX/XXXX.
    • Risālah dar radd-i ta'wīlāt-i Bābiyya (Treatise in Refutation of the Bābī  Exegesis /Ta'wīl). 2nd printing Kirmān: Maṭba`at al-Sa`āda, n.d.
    • Shams al-mudi`a. np.nd. (?) 1322/1904 or 5. Also (re-)printed in Tehran or Kirman in the 1940s? 417 pages. World Cat.
    • تقويم العوج / Taqwīm al-ʻawj.
    • Taqwīm al-`Awj. Kirman : Chapkhanah-i Saʻadat, c.1970s? iv; 211 pages. 
    • حسام الدين : در اثبات تحريف تورية و انجيل / Ḥusām al-Dīn : dar ithbāt-i taḥrīf-i Tawriyah va Injīl.
    • Ḥusām al-Dīn dar Ithbāt Taḥrīf Tawriyyat wa Injil ("The Sword of Religion in Establishment of the Corruption of the Torah and the Gospel"), Completed 5th Rabi` al-Thani, 1309/ 8th November 1891. 2nd ed./ printing Kirmān: Chap-Khanah al-Sa`āda, n.d. [198X?] (vii + 241pp.). Husām al-dīn. 2nd ed. Kirmān: Sa`ādat 1353/1934-5. An anti-Bible Treatise.

    كرمانى، زين العابدين بن محمد كريم

    Kirmānī, Āqā Ḥajjī Zayn al-`Ābidīn Khān Kirmānī (b. c. 1860 - d. 1360/1942)

    • Fihrist = Fihrist kutub mashāyikh `izám. Kirmán: Sa`ādat, n.d.
    • Risālat Izhāq al-bāṭil fī radd al-Bābiyyah. Kirmān : al-Madrasah al-Mubārakah al-Ibrāhīmīyah, 1392/1972 or 1973. 277 pages.
    • Risalah-yi Ṣā'iqa dar radd-i Bab-i Murtad ("The Treatise of the Thunderbolt in Refutation of the Apostate Bab"). 2nd ed. Kirmān: Maṭba`at al-Sa`āda, 1252 Sh./1974 (v+203+2pp.). Completed 3rd Muharram 1330 = 24th December 1911.
    • صواعق البرهان فى رد دلائل العرفان 
    • صواعق البرهان فى رد دلائل العرفان  /  Ṣawāʻiq al-burhān fī radd dalāʼil al-ʻirfān. Lithographed. Tabrīz, 1331/  1913. 570 pages. 
    • Sawā'iq al-burḥān fi dalāʼil al-ʻirfān. Kirmān: Maṭba`at al-Sa`āda, 1381/1962.
    • Sharḥ al-khuṭba min sharḥ al-qaṣīda ("Commentary on a passage from the Sharh al-Qaṣida al-Lāmiyya of Sayyid Kazim Rashti]) dated 19th Rajab 1336 / 30 April 1918. Kirman: Maṭba`ah al-Sa`ada. n.d. [198?].

    Kirmānī [Ibrahīmī], Āqā Ḥajjī `Abu'l-Qāsim Khān al-Ibrahīmī (d. 1398/1969).

    • Fihrist = Fihrist kutub mashāyikh `izám. Kirmán: Sa`ádat, n.d.
    • Fihrist-i kutub-i Shaykh Aḥmad Aḥsā'ī va sā`ir mashāyik-i `izām. 3rd ed. Kirman: Chapkhanih-yi Sa`adat, XXX / 1977.
    • Trans. Momen as BSBM1 (Bahā’ī Stufies Bulletin, Monograph No. 1) Shaykh Aḥmad al-Aḥsā’ī, Fihrist, pp. 220-288, listing 132 items (= Fihrist Pt.1), 1983.
    • Trans. Lambden as `Sayyid Kāẓim Rashtī, Fihrist, pp. 288-359 listing nos.133-304 (= 171 items) (= Fihrist Pt. II)’, in progress (Hurqalya personal website).

    Various Other Shi`i-Shaykhi Polemicists.

    Mamqānī, Muhammad Taqī ibn Muḥammad Nayyir Mamqānī (1832-1894).

    • گفت و شنود سيد على محمد باب باروحانيون تبريز / Guft va shunūd-i Sayyid ʻAlī Muhammad Bāb bā rūhāniyūn-i Tabrīz,  ed. Ḥasan Mursalʹvand, Nashr-i Tārīkh-i Īrān, 1374 Sh./1995 and 1388 / 2009 or 2010. 302 pages. Table of contents from World Cat :  See https://www.worldcat.org/title/guft-va-shunudha-yi-sayyid-ali-muhammad-b... /oclc/742339196&referer=brief_results

    Shaykhism : Select Writings and materials pertaining to the Shaykhi background to the Babi religion.

    For around in year in the early 1840s, the Bab was a devotee of Sayyid Kazim al-Husayni al-Rashti (d. 1259/1843) in Karbala and elsewhere. He referred to him in his  Risāla fi'l-suluk (Treatise on the Pathway to God) in the following manner:

    قد كتبها سيدی ومعتمدی و معلمی الحاج سيد كاظم الرشتی   اطال الله بقائه مخصل

    "Thus wrote my Lord (sayyidī), my firm support (mu`tammadī) and my teacher (mu`allimī), al-Hajji Sayyid Kāẓim Rashtī, may God extend his specified eternality..."

    See further Lambden, `The Babi-Baha'i Exaltation Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i and Sayyid Kazim al-Rashti' : https://hurqalya.ucmerced.edu/node/301/

    Zarandī, Muhammad, Nabil-i A`ẓam. (d. Acre 1892).

    The bulky Persian Tarikh-i Zarandī  in a partial  edition and Eng. trans. by Shoghi Effendi (d.1957),  with the title The Dawn-Breakers, Nabil's Narrative of the Early Days of the Baha'i Revelation (1st ed. 1932), is a recreation of early Shaykhī and Babi history by the Guardian of the Baha'i religion based upon the ms. notes of Zarandī. It opens with a Chapter 1 `The Mission of Shaykh Aḥmad-i Ahsā'ī (pp.1-18)  and continues at Chapter 2 `The Mission of Sayyid Kāẓim-i Rashtī (pp.19-46). Here the twin founders of Shaykhism are pictured as forerunners of the Bāb as the expected messianic Qā'im and of Bahā'-Allāh as the eschatological Qayyūm ("Deity Self-Subsisting").  For On-line versions of Chapters 1 and 2 see

    Nicolas, Louise, Alphonse,  Daniel  (A. L. M.) (b. Rasht [Persia] 1864- d. Paris 1937). 

    The son of Louis Jean Baptiste Nicolas (1814-1875) of the French consular service. See http://library.bahai.org/sc/nic2.html

    Perhaps the earliest western bibliographical listing of  Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i and Sayyid Kāẓim's Arabic and Persian writings was that of the French scholar of Babism and Shaykhism, A. L. M. Nicolas. This  in the now quite rare 4 volume  Essai sur le Shaykhism...  Nicolas evidently utilized  the Fīhrist-i Sayyid  (see above) for his  list of the works of Shaykh Aḥmad in the Essai sur le Cheikhisme, I. Cheikh Ahmed Lahçahi,  (Paris, 1910), 63-72 is virtually identical to the SOAS ms. listing of Shaykh Ahmad's works. Nicolas' list of the works of Sayyid Kāẓim Rashti in his Essai sur le Cheikhisme, II SÉYYED KAZEM RECHTI, is likewise virtually identical to the Sayyid Kazim's own list of his works.

    Written under the designation Consul de France a Tauris, Nicholas'   4 vols. on Shaykhism are as follows:

    • Essai sur le ChÉikhisme. I. CheÏkh Ahmed LAHÇAHI.  Paris: Librarie Paul Geuthner, 1910. Preface xix+1pp. +72pp.  In 5 chapters. PDf. Nicolas-CheÏkh Ahmed 1.pdf Ch. 5 pp. 63-72 is a bibliography of Shaykh Aḥmad al-Aḥsā'ī. PDf.
    • Essai sur le ChÉikhisme. II  Séyyèd Kazem Rechti. Paris: Librarie Paul Geuthner, 1914. pp. 62+1 Table of  Contents.  In 4 chapters. PDf. Nicolas-SÉYYED KAZEM RECHTI II.pdf
    • Ch. I. Luttes entre les Bala séri et les Chéikhi Séyyèd Kazem Rechti, pp. 5-31. PDf.  See above
    • Ch. II Œuvrea de Séyyèd Kazem Rechti, pp. 32-36. PDf. See above.
    • Ch. III Les prédictiones Chéikhies, pp. 37-55. PDf. See above.
    • Ch. IV. Quelques extraites des œuvres de Séyyèd Kazem Rechti, pp. 56-62. PDf. See above
    • Essai sur le ChÉikhisme. III La Doctrine. [Revue de la Monde Musulman] Paris: Ernest Leroux Édituer, 1911. 1-69 pp. in six sections.  PDf. Nicolas III.pdf
    • Essai sur le ChÉikhisme. 1V. LE SCIENCE DE DIEU. Paris: Librarie Paul Geuthner, 1911. Preface 1-LI+1 Table of contents, +97pp.  In 8 chapters. PDf. Nicolas IV.pdf

    Scarcia, G.

    •  `Kerman 1905: La`guerra tra  Šeiḫī e Bālāsarī' ' in Annali del Instituto Universatario Orientale de Napoli.  N.S. 13 1966 pp.195-238.

    Denis MacEoin:

    • From Shaykhism to Babism: A Study in Charismatic Renewal in Shí'i Islam. Ph.D. Thesis Cambridge, 1979. (Unpublished), pp.vii+230+bib. pp. 230-240.

    A doctoral thesis submitted by MacEoin (Faculty of Oriental Studies King's College, University of Cambridge), in July 1979. This thesis contains  (after the Preface, Acknowledgements, List of Abbreviations and Introduction) six chapters: (1) The Religious Background, 6-49 (2) Shaykh Aḥmad al-Aḥsā'ī, 50-94 (3) Sayyid Kāẓim Rashtī, 96-124 (4) From Shaykhism to Babism, 126-155 (5) Some Aspects of Early Babi Doctrine, 156-183  and (6)The Babi Da`wa among the Shaykhis and the Break with Shaykhism, 185-229.

    • 'al-Aḥsā'ī, Shaykh Aḥmad b. Zayn al-Dīn'. in Enc. Iranica vol. 1 :  674-679. 
    • "Bālāsarī", Enc. Iranica vol. III : 583-585.
    • Cosmology  vii - In Shaykhism', Enc. Iranica Vol. 6 : 326-328.
    • 'Rashtī, Sayyid Kāẓim ' EI2 vol. VIII (Leiden: Brill, 1995) pp. 450-451.
    • 'Shaykhiyya' EI2 vol. IX (Leiden: Brill, 1997) pp. 403-405.
    • `Shaykhism' in L.P. Elwell-Sutton (ed), A Bibliographical Guide to Iran.  Brighton & Totowa, 1983, pp. XXX.
    • 1990. `Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy in Nineteenth-Century Shi`ism: The Cases of Shaykhism and Babism' in JAOS 110/ No.2 April-June, 1990, pp. 323-329.  The synoptic heading preceding the article reads as follows: `Discussions of orthodoxy and heterodoxy presuppose a dichotomy of major proportions. In reality, things are never so simple: relations between opposing viewpoints are characterized by dynamism rather than static confrontation. In a sense, heterodox movements may often be no more than extreme expressions of orthodox values.   In the case of Islam, the most extreme expression of an "orthodox" verses  "heterodox" antagonism is provided by the emergence of Baha'ism as a distinct religion from an originally orthodox Shi`i matrix. An examination of the antecedents of Baha'ism in the nineteenth century -- Shaykhism and Bābism-- shows the way in which heterodoxy was, in a sense, a development of orthodox belief, rather then an aberration.' (p.323).

    Vahid Rafati

    The development of Shaykhī thought in Shī'ī Islam. Dissertation: Ph. D. University of California, Los Angeles 1979. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms, [2008]

    Moojan Momen.

    • BSBM1 (BSB Monograph 1, ed. S. Lambden), Moojan Momen.`The works of Shaykh Aḥmad al-Aḥsā’ī’. Newcastle upon Tyne: Hurqalya Publications, 1982.

    Scholl, Steve.

    •  `SHAYKHĪYAH' in Mircea Eliade et al. ed. The Encyclopedia of Religion  Vol. 13 pp. 230-233.

    Matthiesen, Toby.

    • `Mysticism, Migration and Clerical Networks: Ahmad al-Ahsaʾi and the Shaykhis of al-Ahsa, Kuwait and Basra' in Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volume 34,  Issue 4, 2014, pp. 386-409.