Miscellaneous Notes regarding the Bab and the Literary and Intellectual Milieu of Early Qajar Shiraz.

Two 19th cent. Images of Joseph Wolff (d.1862) and a glimpse of the Vakil Mosque in Shiraz.

Miscellaneous Notes regarding the Bab and the Literary and Intellectual Milieu of Early Qajar Shiraz.

Stephen Lambden UC Merced,

In Progress - Last updated 19-05-2020,

In order to throw some light of the literary milieu of the birthplace and main residence of the Bab between 1819 and the mid. 1840s, the following notes will be gradually completed, supplemented and commented upon in the light of a source-critical analysis of the revelatory Persian and Arabic writings of the Bab. While the Bab claimed, like the prophet Muhammmad,  to be a ummi (unlettered, uneducated) prophet and mazhar-i ilahi (Manifestation of God) he did cite and was influenced by the massive literature of the Shi`i Islamic country into which he was born and the Persiante literary culture of Shiraz and elsewhere in what is today Iran.

A very useful glimpse into the intellectual milieu of early 19th century Shiraz can be gained by an analysis of the interactions between the German-born Jewish convert to Catholicism then Protestant, Anglican Christianity, Joseph Wolff (1795-2 May 1862) and persons he visited in early Qajar era Shiraz. A somewhat eccentric though courageous missionary and one-time student of oriental languages at Cambridge (UK), Wolff met and had spirited dialogue with Jews, Christian and Muslims of various kinds resident in Shiraz and elsewhere in the mid. 1820s (and later). In the third volume of his 1829 Missionary Journal of the Rev. Joseph Wolff, Missionary to the Jews (London: James Duncan + L.B. Seeley &  Sons. 1829,  pp. 53-54). Wolff lists a wide range of Persian and Arabic books that were the object of study in Shiraz in the 1820s among learned Muslims. In the sometimes very poor transliteration of Wolff, we may tentatively note our understanding of the following  thirty-five or so listed Persian and Arabic works (22 Persian and 13 Arabic works) mentioned in his Missionary Journal. I have added a few clarificatory details and bibliographical notes. On attempting to identify the Perian and Arabic sources communicated to Wolff I shall include brief notice of select 19th century and later publications and translations of these poetical, historical and religious texts. Hopefully this will encourage students of the writings of the Bab to enter and identify with the literary universe into which he was born.

Persian and Arabic books in the third volume of the 1829 Missionary Journal follow along with a few clarificatory notes and select modern publications details:

The Twenty-two (largely) Persian works listed by the  Muslim informants of Joseph Wolff. 


Dīvān-i Anvarī - `Ali ibn Muhammad Anvārī (b. Abivard.Turkmenistan c. 1126 CE -d. Balkh Afghanistan, c.1189 CE).

انورى، اوحد الدين، 

[1] “Anware” [sic.] = Kulliyāt-i Anwārī  + Dīvān-i Anwārī = Poetical works of `Ali ibn Muhammad Awḥad al-Dīn, Anvarī (d. ca. 585/1189-90).

"Anvari's poetry was widely read in his time and in the next centuries. We even find allusions to verses and tales from his Dīvān in the poetry of the greatest mystical poet who ever wrote in Persian, Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi ( 1207-73), who grew up in Balkh, where Anvari spent most of his life. Anvari's qasīdas became models for all later poets, and as late as the nineteenth century the major Persian poets continued to imitate the  zamīn - the meter and rhyme scheme - of his most famous qasīdas" (Annemarie Schimmel in Anvari's Divan, 1983: 65),

ديوان انورى / Dīvān-i Anvarī or Anwārī - Printed editions

  • كليات   / Kullīyat / Dīvān Tabrīz, 1266/ 1849 or 50. 381 pages.
  • كليات نظم انورى / Kullīyat-i naẓm-i Anvārī, Cawnpore, Kānpūr : Maṭbaʼ, 1897. 769 pages. See HathiTrust Digital Library : 
  • https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015043628539&view=1up&seq=1
  • Dīvān-e Anwārī. ed. Sa'id-e Nafisi. Tehran: Amir Kabir, 1337 Sh./1958.
  • Dīvān-i Anwārī, ed. Muhammad Taqi Mudarris Ridawi, vol. 1, Qasā'id. Tehran, 1337 Sh./1958; vol. 2. Muqatta'āt, ghazaliyyāt, rubā 'iyāt .Tehran, 1340 Sh./ 1961.1347 Sh./1968.
  • منتخبات از قصايد انورى : (بعد حذف و اضافه) / Muntakhabāt az qaṣāyid-i Anvarī baʻd ḥadhf va idāfah (= Selections from qasāid-i Anwarī ...). Bombay : Sharafuddin & Sons, 1966. 63 pages.
  • Dīvān-i Anwārī. Tehran: Shirkat-i Intishārāt-i ʻIlmī va Farhangī, 1364/1986.
  • Dīvān-i Anwārī. Introduction Saʻīd Nafīsī. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Nigah, 1376/1997. 742 pages.
  • ديوان انورى  Diwan-i Anwārī . ed.  Saʻīd Nafīsī; Parvīz Bābāyī. Tehran: Nigāh, 1389/ 2010.

Awḥad al-Dīn Anvarī; ed. Saʻīd Nafīsī; Farīd Fatḥī

  • Dīvān-i Anvarī : shāmil : qaṣīdahʹhā, ghazalʹhā, qiṭʻahʹhā, rubāʻīʹhā. Tehran: : Intishārāt-i Sunāyī, 1397/ 2018 or 2019. 807 pages.

ابو الحسن حسينى فراهانى، Abū al-Ḥasan Husaynī Farāhānī, et al. 

  •  شرح مشكلات ديوان انورى . Sharh Mushkilat-i Diwan-i Anwārī. Tehran: Dānishgāh-i Tihrān, 1340/1961.

Auhaduddin Anvarī / Annemarie Schimmel; Stuart Carey Welch.

  • Anvari's Divan: A Pocket Book for Akbar ; a Dīvān of Auhaduddin Anvari, copied for the Mughal emperor Jalaluddin Akbar (r. 1556-1605) at Lahore in A.H. 996/A.D. 1588. Now in the Fogg Art Museum of Harvard Univ. New York : Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1983. 142 pages.

Smith, Paul

  • Divan of Anvari. Victoria, Australia: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform: 2018, 212 pages. Translation & Introduction Paul Smith Ahad-ud-din Anvari Abeverdi (1126-1189) was a court poet of the Seljuk sultans. Jami composed a ruba’i where he names him, along with Firdausi and Sadi as one of the ‘three apostles’ of Persian poetry.

Note also Anvari's `The Tears of Khorasan'. translated by William Kirkpatrick in 1785, E. H. Palmer, trans. in  A. J. Arberry  ...

Edward Granville Browne (d. 1926). 

  • A Literary History of Persia. Volume II. Cambridge, 1902+1928), 364-94. Browne here draws upon the monograph on Anvari of Valentin A. Zhokovskii (1858-1918), `Materials for a Biography and Characteristic Sketch; `Alī Awhadu'd-Din Anwarl (St. Petersburg. 1883) summarizcd by Wilhelm Portsch in Literaturblatt für Orientalische Philologie (Leipzig. 1884·5)), II: 16. (so Schimmel in Anvari's Divan: 1983: 68).

[2] “Khakane” [sic.] = خاقانى، افضل الدىن شروانى، Afdal al-Dīn Bādil Ibrāhīm ibn ʿAlī Khāqānī Shīrvānī, (b. Shīrvān [now Azerbayjan] c. 1106, - d.  Tabriz, c. 1190), the son of a Muslim and a Nestorian Christian woman.

Afdal al-DīnIbrāhīm ibn ʿAlī Khāqānī Shīrvānī (d. Tabriz, 1190 CE),Image edited from Toos foundation

Khāqānī was a Persian poet, famous for his sometimes complex, difficult or abstruse court poems, satires, and epigrams. He he took his pen-name while at the court of the ruler or Shīrvān Shah, initially the khāqān (“Regal”), Manūchehr. He is especially famous for his Ḥabsiyya (prison poetry or “jail ballad”) a Mathnavī (poem in rhyming couplets) and another Mathnavī, the five part, around 3000 verse, poetical travelogue of his pilgrimage to Mecca entitled Tuḥfat al-ʿIrāqayn (“Gift of the Two Iraqs”= loosely “Persia” and Iraq).  

“Of these qaṣidas and tarjiʿāt, nearly two-thirds are panegyrics. Most of them are profane, but some are in praise of the Prophet (naʿtiyas). These naʿtiyas in particular, but many of his other panegyrics as well, more specifically those dedicated to mystical and religious figures, have an ethical and pious content (zohdiyas).” (from Beelaert EIr.).

    Dīvān-i Khāqānī

    • ديوان حسان العجم افضل الدين ابراهيم بن على خاقانى شروانى / Dīvān-i Ḥassān al-Aʻjam Afz̤al al-Dīn Ibrāhīm ibn ʻAlī Khāqānī Shirvānī. ed. ʻAlī ʻAbd al-Rasūlī. : Kitābkhānah-ʼi Saʻādat, 1317/1938 + Reprinted Tehran: : Kitābkhānah-ʼi Khayyām, 2537. 1978. 11, 979 pages.
    • Dīvān-i Khāqānī : guzārish-i dushvārīhā. ed. comp and annotation, Mīr Jalāl al-Dīn Kazzāzī, Tehran: Markaz, 1999. 963 pages.

    Afdal al-Dīn Shirvānī Khāqānī

    • تحفت العراقين = ختم الغرايب / Tuḥfat al-ʻIrāqayn = Khatm al-gharāyib. Zabān va adabīyāt-i Fārsī, 45. ed. ʻAlī Ṣafarī Āqʹqalʻah. Tehran : Mīrāth-i Maktūb, 2009. 64, 830, [8], 6 pages.

    ʻAbbās Māhyār,

    • Sharḥ-i mushkilāt-i Khāqānī. 3 vols. Karaj : Intishārāt-i Jām-i Gul, 1382 /2003 or 2004.

    Muhammad Ridā Barzgar Khāliqī

    • شرح ديوان خاقانى : همراه با مقدمه، تلفظ واژه‌هاى دشوار، درست‌خوانى، زيباشناسى و شرح ابيات / Sharḥ-i Dīvān-i Khāqānī : hamrāh bā muqaddamah, tallafuẓ-i vāzhahʹhā-yi dushvār, durustʹkhvānī, zībāshināsī va sharḥ-i abyāt. Tehran: Tihrān : Zavvār 2008; 2nd printing : Zavvār, Zamistān 1390 / 2012.

    Maʻṣūmah Maʻdanʹkan

    • بزم ديرينه عروس : شرح پانزده قصيده از ديوان خاقانى = Bazm-i dīrīnah-i ʻarūs : sharḥ-i pānzdah qaṣīdah az dīvān-i Khāqānī. Tehran: : Markaz-i Nashr-i Dānishgāhī, 1372/ 1993. 547 pages.

    See further :

    • Mīr Jalāl al-Dīn Kazzāzī, خاقانى شروانى /  Khāqānī Shirvānī. : Daftar-i Pizhūhishhā-yi Farhangī, 1387/ 2008 or 2009. 108 pages. 
    • Rypka, Jan (2011). History of Iranian Literature. Springer.
    • Khaqani". Encyclopedia Britannica.
    • Beelaert, Anna Livia, “ḴĀQĀNI ŠERVĀNI (or Šarvāni)” in Eir. Vol. XV/ 5, pp. 521-529.

    Alireza Korangy,

    • Development of the ghazal and Khaqani's contribution : a study of the development of ghazal and a literary exegesis of a 12th c. poetic harbinger. Thesis. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 2013; idem,
    • Khaqani, poet-philosopher of medieval Persia : the life and writings. London : I. B. Tauris, 2016.


    [3]”Khamsae Nasaama” [sic.], خمسه نظامى گنجوي ميرزا على قلى خوى  = the Khamseh.  خمسه, or "Quintet" or  “The Quintuplet”, the five narrative poems  of Elyās Yūsof Niẓāmī Ganjavī, Mīrzā ʻAlī Qulī Khūʼī  (b. Ganja, Azerbayjan, c. 1141 - d. Ganja, 1209).

    Niẓāmī reciting the story of Alexander...

    Also known as the Panj Ganj, پنج گنج, ("Five Treasures"), this constitutes a pentalogy of around 30.000 mathnavī or rhymed couplets. The five portions are  :

    • مخزن‌الاسرار 1, Makhzan al-asrar, "The Treasury of the Mysteries"
    • خسرو و شیرین 2  Khusraw va Shirin "Khrosrow and Shirin". See further No. 8 below,

    • 3  لیلی و مجنون  Layli va Majnun "Layli and Majnun" the two originally Arab lovers "Night" and "Manness".

    • 4  اسکندرنامه,  Iskandah-Nameh. The Tale / Romance of Alexander [the Great] (356-333 BCE)" - for some a proto-Islamic warrior and prophet figure... See Niẓāmī Ganjavī; Euangelos Venetēs, The Persian Alexander : the first complete English translation of the Iskandarnāma, London : I.B. Tauris, 2018.  x, 381+4 pages. See further and for an indication of contents World Cat :

    • https://www.worldcat.org/title/persian-alexander-the-first-complete-engl...

    • 5 هفت پیکر  Haft Paykar, "The Seven Beauties" -  Niẓāmī Ganjavī, trans. Julie Scott Meisami, The Hayft Paykar. Oxford University Press, 1995. 307 pages,


    [4]”Nechem Sanae” [sic.], Hakīm Sanāʼī  =ائى الغزنوى، ابو المجد مجدود بن آدم،      = Abū al-Majd, Majdūd ibn Ādam Sanāʼī al-Ghaznavī  (b. Ghazna c.   /1087- d. c. 525/1130).  Also known as Khātam al-Shuʿarā ("The Seal of the Poets"),

    Dīvān-i Hakīm Abū al-Majd Majdūd ibn Ādam Sanāʼī Ghaznavi

    • Dīvān-i Hakīm Abū al-Majd Majdūd ibn Ādam Sanāʼī-yi Ghaznavi. ed. Muhammad Taqi Mudarris-i Radavi, 3rd ed. Tehran: Kitab-Khaneh-yi Sanāʼī, 1362 Sh./1981.

    The Didactic Poem Ḥadiqat al-ḥaqiqa... A mystical Mathnawi. 

    • Ḥadiqat al-ḥaqiqa wa-shariʿat al-ṭariqa  (The Garden of Truth and the Law of the Right Path).

    The Ilāhi-Nāma ("The Divine Book"),

    Kārnāma-yi Balkh or Muṭāyaba-nāma ("The Book of Jest"). A secular poem of 433 couplets.

    Select Articles

    Franklin D. Lewis,

    • “Reading, Writing and Recitation: Sanāʾī and the Origins of the Persian Ghazal,” Ph.D. dissertation, Chicago University, 1995.

    Julie Scott Meisami,

    • Medieval Persian Court Poetry, Princeton, 1987. 

    J. T. P. de Bruijn,

    • Of Piety and Poetry: the Interaction of Religion and Literature in the Life and Works of Hakīm Sanā’ī of Ghazna, Leiden, 1983. Contains an extensive bibliography; Persian tr. Mehyār ʿAlavi and Moḥammad Javād Mahdavi as Ḥakim-e eqlim-e ʿešq, Mashhad, 1999.

    See further EIr. Originally Published: May 17, 2012


    [5] “Kolleat Sheikh Saade” [sic.] The Kulliiyāt (Comprehensive Compendium) of Shaykh `Abd-Allah ibn Musharrif al-Din Saʻdī Shīrāzī (b. Shiraz c.1210; d. Shiraz, d. 691/1292).



    This compendium is in more than twenty sections or divisions See Losensky EIr (below). Sa`di is especially famous for his Gulistan (Rose-Garden”), Bustan (         ), various Ghazals (“Lyrics”), and Qaṣīdahs ("Odes") as well as  miscellaneous other writings. See

    A. J. Arberry, Classical Persian Literature, London, 1958: 186-213.

    See   Paul Losensky. "SAʿDI, Abu Moḥammad Mošarref-al-Din Moṣleḥ b. ʿAbd-Allāh b. Mošarref Širāzi" in EIr.. January 1, 2000. Last Updated: February 1, 2012 :

    "Gulistān" ("Rose-Garsen"), completed 656/1258 :

    "Written in prose liberally sprinkled with verse in a variety of forms and meters, the Golestān follows the general themes and organization of the Bustān, but is grouped under eight (rather than ten) chapter rubrics, like the eight gates to paradise (G57): “On the Conduct of Kings” (41 stories), “On the Morals of Dervishes” (48 stories), “On the Excellence of Contentment” (29 stories), “On the Benefits of Silence” (14 stories), “On Love and Youth” (21 stories), On Frailty and Old Age (9 stories), On the Effects of Education (tarbiat, 20 stories), On Manners (non-narrative aphorisms and maxims)." Extract from EIr (see below).

    "Bustan" , 4,100 mathnavī couplets completed in 655/1257. See G. Michael Wickens art in EIr. Vol. IV, Fasc. 6, pp. 573-574. December 15, 1990



    [6] ”Dewaan Hafiz” [sic.] = Dīvān-i Ḥafiẓ.

    The “Poetical Compendium” of Ḥāfiẓ of Shiraz (d.792/1390); شمس‌‌الدین محمد حافظ شیرازی‎  Shams-al-Din Muhammad Ḥafiẓ-i Shirazī  (ca. 715-792/1315-1390), celebrated Persian lyric poet,  

    18 April 2013 - A rare commentary on the Divan of Hafiz

     "Ḥāfiẓ" - Overview (Multiple Authors), 2002 +2012:

    English Translations of  the poems of Ḥāfiẓ  are scattered and numerous and of very varying quality. This is evident in the EIr article (cited above) and drawn on below.

    Hafez x. Translations of Hafez in English by Parvin Loloi in EIr. Vol. XI, Fasc. 5, pp. 498-500 - Those early translators loosely chronologically listed below are not generally well-received in the EIr article (drawn on here); with the exception of that of Gertrude Bell which is often highly praised.

    Sir William Jones (1746-94), translated a few poems including the “Turk-i Shīrāzī” ghazal, See his A Grammar of the Persian Language, Oxford, 1771.

    • John Nott (1751-1825), Select Odes from the Persian Poet Hafez, London, 1787.
    • Lieut.-Col. H. Wilberforce Clarke (1840-1905), trans. Dīvān  (complete).
    • Edward Byles Cowell (1826-1903),
    • John Payne (1842-1916), The Poems Of ... Hafiz of Shiraz, London, 1901
    • Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell (1868-1926).: Poems from the Divan of Hafiz, London, 1897; reissued as The Hafez Poems of Gertrude Bell, Bethseda, Md., 1995.
    • Walter Leaf (1852-1927), Versions from Hafiz, An Essay in Persian Metre, London, 1898.
    • Arthur John Arberry (b. Portsmouth, 1905 - d. Cambridge, 1969), “Orient Pearls at Random Strung,” BSO(A)S 11, 1946; Idem, “Hafiz and His English Translators,” Islamic Culture 20, 1946, pp. 111-28; 229-49' Idem, Fifty Poems of Hafiz, Text and Translations, Cambridge, 1947 (As in EIr.
    • Paul Smith (b. 1945). Divan Of Hafiz, Melbourne, 1983.
    • Julie. Scott Meisami, Lecturer in Persian at The Oriental Institute, Oxford + University of California, Berkeley.
    • Elizabeth T. Gray, Jr., The Green Sea of Heaven: Fifty Ghazals from the Diwan of Hafiz, Ashland, Ore., 1995.


    [7] “Iaame Iaame” [sic.]. A compendia of the writings of `Abd al-Raḥman Jāmī (d. Herat, 898/1492) ??;




    [8] “Ferhada Shereen” [sic.] = شیرین و فرهاد  / خسرو و شیرین = Shīrīn va Farhād / Khusraw va Shīrīn,

    Tile depicting Khusraw and Shīrīn

    A poetical romance between the  Sassanian king Khusraw (Chosroes) II,  Parvēz (r. 591-628) and/or the Parthian prince Farhād and an Armenian princess named Shīrīn (“Sweetness”) found within the massive fivefold Khamseh of Niẓāmī Ganjavī (see [3].2 above) ; 



    [9] “Shah Nameh : Jerdouse” [sic.] = the شاهنامۀ The Shāh-Nāmeh ("Book of Kings") of Manṣūr ibn Ḥasan Ḥakīm, Abu'l-Qāsim Firdawsī al-Ṭūsī (b. Bāzh or Pāj near al-Ṭūs, Khurasan, 329/ 940- d.c.411/1020), حکیم ابوالقاسم فردوسی توسی

      Select Editions and translations.

      "The current standard edition of the poem [Shahnameh], which runs to nine volumes, includes over 50,000 lines... for an English reader.. that is over 100.000 lines long" (Davis, Shahnameh, 2006: xiii).

      Firdawsi, Shāhnāmah / ed. trans. Jules Mohl

      • Le Livre des Rois par Abou'lkasim Firdousi, traduit et commenté par J. Mohl. Publié par Mme. Mohl. / Firdawsī.; Jules MOHL; Mary Elizabeth MOHL, Madame. Paris: Mme. Mohl, 7 vols. 1876-8.
      • Rep. Paris 1976,

      Firdawsi, Jamshedji Dorabji Khandalawala; Julius Mohl; K.R. Cama Oriental Institute.

      • An introduction to the Shah-nameh of Firdousi from the French of Jules Mohl. Mumbai [Bombay] : K.R. Cama Oriental Institute, 2001. vii, 116 pages. Originally published: 1898. "Study on Shāhnāmah of Firdawsī based on Julius Mohl's, 1800-1876, Le livre des rois in French" (World Cat.).

      Firdawsī.; Helen Zimmern; Lawrence Alma-Tadema [etchings]; Edmund Gosse [prefatory poem].

      • Epic of kings : stories retold from Firdusi. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1882.  xlvii, 339 pages.  Based upon Jules Mohl's French translation of: Shāhnāmah.

      Firdawsī / ed. Evgenij Ė Bertelʹs et al. 1960s-1971 ["Moscow ed."]

      • Shahnameh, 9 vols. Moskva Izdat. Vost. Lit.,  1966-1971. In series "Pamjatniki literatury narodov Vostoka / Teksty / Bol'šaja serija, 2; Pamjatniki literatury narodov Vostoka / Teksty.; Bol'šaja serija",
      • Šāhnāma-i Firdausī : matn-i intiqādī / 1. Moskva : Nauka,  1963. vol. 3 (1965) In Silsila-i āthār-i adabī-i milal-i ḫāwar .; Bolšaja serija...

      Firdawsī.; E Ė Bertelʹs; Niẓām al-Dīn Nūrī

      • شاهنامۀ فردوسى بر اساس چاپ مسکو / Shāhnāmah-ʼi Firdawsī bar asās-i chāp-i Muskū. Tehran: : Nashr-i Zuhrah, 1381/ 2002 or 2003. 697 pages. Persian - taḥt-i naẓar-i A. Birtils, bih kūshish-i Niẓām al-Dīn Nūrī Kūtanāyī.

      Firdawsī / Ṭūmār Murshid ʻAbbās Zarīrī Iṣfahānī ; vīrāyish-i Jalīl Dūstkhvāh.

      • شاهنامۀ نقالان : داستان‌های پهلوانی ايرانيان در زنجيره‌ای از روايت‌های سينه به سينه و سنتی / Shāhnāmah-ʼi naqqālān : dāstānʹhā-yi pahlavānī-i Īrāniyān dar zanjīrahʹī az rivāyatʹhā-yi sīnah bih sīnah va sunnatī. Tehran:  Intishārāt-i Quqnūs, 1396 / 2017 or 2018. 5 volumes + 1 audio disc.

      Firdawsī. /  Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh; Mahmoud Omidsalar; Abū al-Faz̤l Khaṭībī.

      • Shahnameh, 5 + (7) vols. New York. 1988-1997 / 1987-2008. In series : Majmūʻah-ʼi mutūn-i Fārsī, silsilah-ʼi nū, shumārah-ʼi 1.‏ Bibliotheca Persica،‏ Niyū Yūrk : Bibliotheca Persica, ©1987-<2008. + Mazda Publishers. vol.1.includes introd. in English. See further World Cat. :
      • https://www.worldcat.org/title/shahnamah/oclc/16924521&referer=brief_res...
      • ادداشت‌هاى شاهنامه / Yādʹdāshtʹhā-yi Shāhnāmah by ‏خالقى مطلق، جلال. Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh. New York : Persian Heritage Foundation, Bibliotheca Persica Press ; Winona Lake, Ind. : Eisenbrauns [distributor], 2001. Includes Concordance and Notes on the Shahnameh.

      Translations +

      • The Shah Nameh : an heroic poem. Containing the history of Persia from Kioomurs to Yesdejird ; that is, from the earliest times to the conquest of that empire by the Arabs. By Abool Kasim Firdousee. Carefully collated with a number of the oldest and best manuscripts, and illustrated by a copious glossary of obsolete words and obscure idioms: with an introduction and life of the author, in English and Persian ; and an appendix, containing the interpolated episodes, &c. found in different manuscripts. By Turner Macan, Persian interpreter to the Commander in Chief, and Member of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta Carefully collated with a number of the oldest and best manuscripts and illustrated by a copious glossary of obsolete words and obscure idioms: with an introduction and life of the author in English and Persian and an appendix ... By Turner Macan. Assisted by Hāfiz Ahmad Kabīr Pers. I,II,III,IV... Kalkatah/ Calcutta : The Baptist Mission Press, Circular Road,  1829. Rep. Tehran:   1365-67/1849-50. Very early publication. 
      • Manṣūr b Ḥasan Firdawsī; Reuben Levy (trans.), iranist; Amin Banani (rev. trans.), The Epic of the Kings : Shāh-nāma, the national epic of Persia. London : Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1977 (Persian Heritage Series 2). 423 pages.

      • The Shahnameh - The Persian Book of Kings, A New Translation by Dick Davis with a foreward by Azar Nafisi. USA: Viking /Penguin Books/ Mage Publishers, 1997, 2000+ 2004+ 2006. 886 pages.
      • Sheila R Canby; [Ṭahmāsp, Shah of Iran], The Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp : the Persian book of kings. New Haven, Conn. ; London : Yale University Press, 2012. 287 pages. "One of the most voluminous epics of world literature, the "Shahnama" (or "Book of Kings") narrates the history of the ancient kings of Iran, from their mythical beginnings to the Arab conquest in 651 AD. This title presents 258 illuminated pages of this famous volume in colour and close to their original size". See Image above...
      • Ahmad Sadri; Firdawsī.; Sheila R Canby; Hamid Rahmanian, Shahnameh : the epic of the Persian kings. New York : Liveright Publishing Corporation, a division of W.W. Norton & Company, 2017. xvii, 570 pages. Summary in World Cat. =

      "Ferdowsi's classic poem Shahnameh is part myth, part history-beginning with the legend of the birth of the Persian nation and its tumultuous history, it contains magical birds and superhuman heroes and centuries-long battles. Written over 1,000 years ago, it was meant to protect Persian collective memory amidst a turbulent sea of cultural storms. Originally written in couplets, the translation and adaptation by Ahmad Sadri retells the mythological tales in prose format. The spectacular illustrations in this edition were created from elements culled from thousands of manuscripts, lithographs, and miniatures dating from the thirteenth through the nineteenth centuries, and each panel becomes a new work of art, an exquisite collage of traditional forms".

      Select Articles.

      Browne, Edward G., A Literary History of Persia vol. II:129-48,

      See Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh,

      Omidsalar, Mahmoud,

      • Poetics and politics of Iran's national epic, the Shahnameh. Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, Summary in World Cat. = "This book considers some of the Western interpretations of The Shahnameh - Iran's national epic, and argues that these interpretations are not only methodologically flawed, but are also more revealing of Western concerns and anxieties about Iran than they are about the Shahnameh". Abstract "This book considers some of the Western interpretations of The Shahnameh - Iran's national epic, and argues that these interpretations are not only methodologically flawed, but are also more revealing of Western concerns and anxieties about Iran than they are about the Shahnameh" (W.Cat.).  

      Lewis, Franklin,

      • "The Shahnameh of Ferdowsi as world literature", in International Society for Iranian Studies, v. 48, no. 3. pp. 313-514. Abingdon: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2015.


      دبستان المذاهب

      [10] “Dabestan” = the  Dābestān-i madhāhib (The School of Religious Doctrines”) of Mīr  Dhu’l-Fiqār Ardistānī (ca. 1026-81/1617-70).  See article` DABESTĀN-E MAḎĀHEB’ by Fatḥ-Allāh Mojtabāʾī in  EIr. Vol. VI/5, 532-534;

      Original Persian Printings:

      •  هذا كتاب دبستان المذاهب = Hādhā Kitāb-i Dabistān al-madhāhib. Muḥsin Fānī; Ibrāhīm ibn Nūr Muḥammad. Bombay: Lithograph, 1267/ 1851 +1292/ 1875. 327 pages.
      • دبستان مذاهب. Dabistān al-madhāhib,  Lucknow : Munshī Naval Kishūr, 1877.Here attributed to  فانى كشميري، محسن.  Muḥsin Fānī Kashmīrī. 396 pages.
      • دبستان مذاهب / Dabistān-i madhāhib. Kaykhusraw Isfandiyār; Muḥsin Fānī; ed. Raḥīm Ridāzādah-ʼi Malik. Tehran: : Kitābkhānah-ʼi Ṭahūrī, 2 vols. 1362 /1983 [= Adabiyāt-i dasātīrī, 1] Vol.1/ mujallad-i 1. Matn =Text; vol. 2  mujallad-i 2. Taʻlīqāt. Notes and commentary. Here the book is attributed by the editor to Mūbad Kaykhusraw Isfandiyār though often previously or commonly attributed to Muḥsin Fānī (see above and translations below).
      • Dābestān-i madhāhib

      Select Translations

      Early Victorian English translation in 3 vols.  London, 1843. Authorship attributed to Muhammad Muḥsin Fānī  (following William Jones) ...

      Shea, David, & Anthony Troyer (eds.) / Mīrzā Muḥammad Fānī; David Shea; Anthony Troyer

      • The Dabistan, or School of Manners, translated from the original Persian, with Notes and Illustrations, by David Shea the oriental department in the Honourable East India Company's College; and Anthony Troyer, member of the Royal Asiatic Societies of Great Britain and Ireland, of Calcutta and Paris, And of the ethnological society of Paris; edited, with a preliminary discourse, by the latter. Paris : Printed for the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. Sold by Benjamin Duprat, bookseller to the bibliothèque Royale, 7. Rue du Cloitre Saint-Benoit. And Allen and Co., Leadenhall-Street, London.,  3 vols. 1843. cxcvii, 380 pages (Vol.1);
      • The Dabistán: or, School of Manners: The Religious Beliefs, Observances, Philosophic Opinions and Social Customs...: of the nations of the East. Translated from the original Persian by David Shea and Anthony Troyer with a special introduction by A. V. Williams Jackson. by Fānī / Muḣammad Muḣsin, d. 1671 or 2. Shea, David, 1777-1836.
      • PDf. https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.24735/page/n9/mode/2up
      • PDf.https://ia600206.us.archive.org/31/items/dabistnorschoo01shea/dabistnors...
      • https://ia600206.us.archive.org/31/items/dabistnorschoo01shea/dabistnors...
      • Abridged edition Washington: M. Walter Dunne, 1901.
      • Oriental Literature: Or, The Dabistan by Shea, David; Troyer, Anthony (translators). New York: Tudor Publishing Co, 1937. 8vo (medium). Translated from the original Persian. vii, 411 pages.

      Sheth, Sudev,

      • "Manuscript Variations of Dabistān-i Maẕāhib and Writing Histories of Religion in Mughal India" article in Manuscript Studies: A Journal of the Schoenberg Institute for Manuscript Studies, vol., 4 no.1 (2019), pp.19-41. Summary:

      "ABSTRACT: A text that has found renewed interest among scholars of early modern India is the Persian compendium of religion called Dabistān-i Maẕāhib. Written between 1645 and 1658, the Dabistān presents a lively ethnographic and historical account of customs and habits of various major and minor religious communities in northern India during the heyday of the Mughal Empire (1526-1707). Written like a travelogue, it moves between various modes of description including mythical revelations, storytelling, ethnographic notes, and authorial commentary. The Dabistān-i Maẕāhib is also valuable because it is the earliest work outside of the Sikh literary tradition that contains first-hand accounts of the growing Sikh socio-religious movement established in Punjab during the sixteenth century. Focusing on this section titled "The Nanak Panthis", this article explores what translators, commentators, and historians have variously understood as comprising the original text. Since the early twentieth century, scholars have relied on later manuscript and print editions in their English translations and use of this work without necessarily reflecting on how these choices have preconditioned interpretive possibilities. My analysis of a recently discovered and earliest known manuscript copy of the Dabistān-i Maẕāhib from 1650 suggests that all of the later hand written and print editions, which have now become standardized through scholarly convention, omit certain details and even entire passages. This has major implications for how we have understood the genesis and transmission of the text, and perhaps more significantly, the social groups and historical moments depicted in this one-of-a-kind work" ( As cited World. Cat.).

      The possible influence of the Dabistan on the writings of the Bab has yet to be examinbed in any detail.This subject first came to my attention in the 1970s when I ordered (through Oxford central library ILL service) the then scare Shea and Troyer printing of the Dabistan and read it through. I soon became aware of its very probable influence upon Babi-Baha'i sacred writings and aspects of its doctrinal universe.... 



      [11] “Anwar Saheile” [sic.] = انوار سهيلى = Anwār-i Suhaylī (“Lights of the Canopus”; adapted in Persian from Kalílah va Dimnah (rooted in the fables of Bídpáí) as a `Mirror for Princes’ from India of Mulla Ḥusayn ibn `Alī, Ḥusayn Vāʻiẓ Kāshifī   

      See further "KALILA WA DEMNA (کلیله و دمنه)", a collection of didactic animal fables... in EIr.  Vol. XV, Fasc. 4, pp. 386-397 Multiple Authors. Originally Published: December 15, 2010.Last Updated: April 20, 2012.







      [12] “Rawsat Alsafaa” [sic.] = Rawḍat al-ṣafā’ of Mirkhwand   ;



      [13] “Habib alsegar” [sic] حبيب السيّر، = [Tārīkh-i] Habīb al-siyār of Ghiyāth al-Dīn ibn Humām al-Dīn Khwānd Mīr (d.             );



      [14] “Atesh Keda” [sic.] = Ātish Khadah  ?? (“the [Zoroastrian] Fire of God”?) =  Ātish va Ātishkadah of Khudādād Khanjarī ?? =



      [15}”Ketab Aashek” [sic.] = Kitāb al-Shaykh `Aṭṭār ??  Tadhkirat al-Awliya' ?



      [16] “Ketab Sheikh [Shaykh] Utar, [sic.] in contain 114 volumes and “highly esteemed” by the Sufis = the book(s) of Farīd al-Dīn `Aṭṭār Nīshābūrī  (           )



      [17] “Aseere Sheik Nosbakhsh [sic.] which speaks about the Soffees” =  The  al-Sirah/ Asrār-i Shaykh Nūrbakhsh which speaks about the Sufis...


      [18]”Ketabe Sheikh Ali Kobe about Soffees” [sic.]


      [19] Masnawee, the Gospel of the Soffees” [sic.] = The Mathnavī of Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī (            )


      [20] Deevan Mayhrabe” [sic.]


      [21] “Devan Shams” [sic.]= Divan Shams-i Dīn Ṭabrīzī                 [Rūmī]


      [22] “Peer Jamaale” [sic.] =



      The Fifteen (largely) Arabic works listed by the informants of Wolff.  

      [1] Koran = Qur’ān. The Holy Qur'an, the sacred book of the Islamic religion and of the Muslim world.

      [2] "Amsala" [sic.] = Amthila the Arabic plural of mithal meaning, `example, lesson, parable, proverb, pattern, paradigm...

      This is a the title of a bilingual Persian-Arabic elementary text on Arabic accidence (the inflections of words; morphology, syntax, grammar…) by ʻAli ibn Muhammad al-Jurjani (d. Shiraz, 816/1413), also entitled Sayyid-i Sharīf  (the Noble Sayyid) and Mir (Notable, Commander). It was part of the madrasa curriculum and was first published from the early 19th century in India, Persia  and elsewhere, e.g. Calcutta (1805), Lucknow (1843) and Bombay (1845), then slightly later in Tehran (1852, etc)

      [3] “Tasreef” = Taṣrīf in Arabic means "change, alteration, inflections, declensions, conjurgations. etc. Note also (from the same triliteral root -ṣ-r-f) that the verbal-noun ṣarf  also can have the same  grammatical senses of `alteration, inflection, declension and conjurgation, etc' .

      [4] “Sharea Tasreef” =  Sharḥ-i Taṣrīf

      [5] “Sharah Marah” = Sharḥ-i M

      [6] “Jaa Barde”

      [7] “Sharah Uamal”

      [8] “Hedayat”

      [9] “Anmoosaj”

      [10] “Sharah Karr”

      [11] “Sayyote” = Ṣuyūṭī.

      This is most likely an Arabic work of the extremely polymathic Jalal al-Din al-Ṣuyūṭī (          ).

      [12] “Sharah Jame” = Sharḥ-i `Abd al-Raḥman Jāmi ??

      [13] “Mabsoot” [sic.] = Arabic,  المبسوط  al-Mabsūṭ, المبسوط في فقه الإمامية.

      This is most likely the Arabic المبسوط في فقه الإمامية  - al-Mabsūṭ fī fiqh al-Imāmiyya  a multi-volume work of Shi`i or Imami jurisprudence with anciliary materials written by Abū Jaʿfar Muhammad ibn al-Ḥasan ʿAlī Ṭūṣi = Shaykh al-Ṭūsī / al-Ṭā'ifa (b. 385-460 =  d. 995-1067-68),

      See Āqā Buzurg al-Tehrani, al-Dharīʿa,19:54.

      Publications of المبسوط في فقه الإمامية 

      • Al-Mabsut fī fiqh al-Imāmiyya...  Lithographin the  handwriting of Muhammad 'Ali Khwansari. ed. Mirza Masih in 1270/1853-54. 
      • Al-Mabsut fī fiqh al-Imāmiyya..: Tehran:   1855, Lithograph, 345 folios.
      • Al-Mabsut fī fiqh al-Imāmiyya..: Tehran: al- Matba`at al-Haydariyya ,,,  8 vols. ?
      • Al-Mabsut fī fiqh al-Imāmiyya...  ed. Muḥammad al-Bāqir Bahbūdī in 8 vols., 3rd printing  (2992 pages) al-Maktabat al-maktabah al-murtaḍiyyah li-Iḥyāʼ al-Āthār al-Jaʻfarīyah, 1387/1967-68 + 1351 Sh./1972. Includes marginal comments by Muhammad Taqī Kashfī.

      All eight vols. of the 3rd printing available in PDf. on Archive. Org.

      These weighty Fiqh vols open with a Kitab al-Ṭahārah (`The Book of Purity') which, among many other things, includes directives regrading impure things (e.g. blood) and the manner of their purification.