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The Bab and his citation of Islamic Literatures, Shi`i-Shaykhi and Others.

 

 

The Bab and his citation of Islamic Literatures, Shi`i-Shaykhi and Others.

Stephen Lambden, UC Merced

In Peogress and under revision and correctio

Last updated 23-01-2022.

The Bab occasionally cited Islamic literatures in Arabic and/or Persian. He sometimes explicitly mentioned their their titles and sometimes also their author's names. Some texts are cited wirhour explicit reference, some are paraphrased. Most important in this respect, is the Arabic Qur'an which he cited, paraphrased and re-revealed or "rewrote" on numerous occasions. This within many of his writings, sometimes bearing the title Tafsir (Commentary) or Sharh (also "Commentary" in Persian or Arabic). Aside from the Qur'an he often cited traditions or hadith often deriving from the Prophet Muhammmad, one or more of the twelver Imams - from `Ali ibn Abi Talib (d. 40/661) up till the twelfth Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi (d.c. 260 or later/ around 874 or a few years later). He cited both poetry and prose texts and writings. 

The following list includes authors explicitly cited along with others very likely directly or indiorectly cited, paraphrased or variously drawn upon and interpreted. The post-19th century editions are obviously usually not explicitly cited as listed by the Bab/ This is work in Progress.....

Tafsir writings.

In certain of his writings the Bab specifically cites Islamic Tafsir works. His Tafsir Surat al-Baqara makes explicit mention of the Tafsir attributed to the 11th Imam Ḥasan al-`Askarī (d. 260/873-4):

 

Sayyid Haydar al-Amuli  (d. 787/1385 CE)

Sayyid Ḥaydar al-Āmulī (b. Āmul, Mazandaran, 719/ 1319–d. Najaf, –787/1385)

See ĀMOLĪ, SAYYED BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN – Encyclopaedia Iranica (iranicaonline.org).

This learned twelver Shī`ī scholar and mystic was much influenced by Ibn al`Arabī upon whose seminal Fuṣūṣ al-ḥikam (The Bezels of Wisdom) he wrote a commentary entitled Naṣṣ al-nuṣūṣ (The Text of Texts). His imamology and theory of Wilaya as associated with Jesus and the Mahdi may have influenced what the Bab says about such matters in commenting on the letter "w" (al-waw) in his Tafsir on the wa'l-Asr, loosely, the Surah of the Afternoon [Time-Age-Era]. (Q. 103; see the Bab page on this website).

It would also seem likely that the Bab had some familiarity with the Tafsir of  Sayyid Haydar al-Amuli  (719–787 AH = 1319–1385 CE) known as the  Tafsir al-Muhit al-A`zam wa'l-bahr al-khidamm (The All-Encompassing, Most Supreme Commentary which is as the Vast Ocean"). The (partially lost) Tafsir (Qur'an Commentary), was recently printed as Tafsīr al-muḥīṭ al-a`ẓam wa'l-baḥr al-khidamm fi ta`wīl kitāb Allāh al-`azīz al-muḥkam.  The Bab quite frequently cites the mystical `Hadith of Incarnation and Crucifixion'  which is also cited in this Tafsir, a tradition which does not seem to be at all common place elsewhere. It reads: 

 

 

Select Shi`i Tafsir writers.

Muqātil b. Sulayman al- Khurasani (d. Basra, 150/767).

  • Tafsīr Muqātil b. Suklayman. Ed. `Abd-Allāh Maḥmūd Shahḥata . 4+1 vols. Cairo: 1979-1988.

Ḥasan al-`Askarī (11th Shiite Imam, d. 260/873-4)

  • Tafsīr al-`Askari [attributed to the 11th Imam Ḥasan] al-`Askarī.

al-Qummi, `Alī b. Ibrahīm al-Qummī (d.10th cent.).

  •  Tafsīr al-Qur’ān.

 `Abd al-Razzāq al-Kashānī (d. 1330?) attributed also to Ibn al-`Arabi

  • Tafsir al-Qur'ān al-Karīm. 2 Vols I. Edited by Mustafa Ghalib. Beirut: Dar al-Andalus, 1399/1978

al-Ṭabarsī (= al-Tabrīzī), Abū `Alī al-Faḍl ibn al-Ḥasan al-Ṭabrisī (d. 548 /1154).

  • Majma' al-bayān fī tafīr al-Qur'ān. 6 vols. Mat`ba`at Saydā' [Sidon, Lebanon]: Maṭba`at al-`Irfān, 1333-56/1914-37 
  •  Majma` al-Bayān fī tafsīr al-Qur’ān. 5 vols. Qumm: Maktabah `Ayat-Allāh Uzmā al-Mar`ashī al-Najafī. 1403/ 1982

Kāshānī, Mullā Muḥsin Fayḍ (d. 1091/1680).

  •  Tafsīr al-ṣāfī. 5 Vols., ed. Shaykh Ḥusayn al-A`lam. Mashhad:
    Sa`āda n.d.
  • Ilm al-yaqīn fī uṣūl al-dīn. 2 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Balāgha, 1410/1990. 
  • Nawādir al-akhbār fīmā yata`allaq bi uṣūl al-dīn. Tehran. 1375 
    Sh./.1997.

 al-Ḥuwayzī, `Abd `Alī (d.1112/1700)

  • Thaqalayn = Kitāb Tafsīr nūr al-thaqalayn, Qumm: ADD., 1409/ 1988-9.

Hadith Compilations and related Writings.

al-Ju`fī, `Abu `Abd-Allāh al-Mufaḍḍal b. `Umar ( d. before 148/765).

  •  K-Tawhid = [ Imam Ja’far al-S*adiq ] K. al-Tawhīd [wa’l-ihlīlaja]. Cf. Biḥār 2
    III:152-198.

Kulaynī [Kulīnī], Abū Ja`far Muhammad (d. 329/941).

  • Kafi al-Uṣul min al-Kāfī (vols. 1-2). ed. A.A. Ghafārī. Beirut: Dār al-Aḍwā, 1405/1985. 
  • Furū` min al-Kāfī (vols. 3-7).ed. A.A. Ghafārī. Beirut: Dār al-Aḍwā, al-      1405/1961.

al-Ṭūsī,  Abī Ja`far  Muhammad ibn al-Ḥasan = al-Shaykh al-Tā’ifa (d. 460/1067)

  • Tafsir = al-Tibyan fi al-tafsir al-Qur’an.
  • Tahdhīb al-aḥkām (The Rectification of Judgments). One vol. ed. Beirut: Mu`assat al-A`lamī l’l-Maṭbū`at, 1426/2005.
  • Al-Istibṣār  fī-mā  ikhtilaf  min al-akhbār (“The Clarification regarding that over which there are diffwerences respecting the Traditions” ). One vol. ed. Beirut: Mu`assat al-A`lamī l’l-Maṭbū`at, 1426/2005.

al-Kaf`amī [al-`Āmilī], Shaykh Taqī al-Dīn ( d. 900/1494-5).

  •  al-Miṣbaḥ. Beirut: Mu’assasa al-A`lamī, 1414/1994.

Ibn Bābūya [Bābawayh], Abū Ja`far Muhammad. b. `Alī, al-Ṣādūq (d.381/991)

  • Kamāl [Ikmāl] al-dīn wa tammam [itmam] al-ni`ma fī ithbāt al-gḥayra wa kashf al-ḥayra. Beirut: Mu`asasat al-A`lamī, 1412/1991.
  • K. al-tawhid. Beirut: Dār al-Ma`rifa. n.d.
  • K. al-`Ilāl al-sharā`i. Beirut: Mu`asasat al-A`lamī, 1408/1988.
  • (K.) al-Khiṣāl. Beirut: Mu`asasat al-A`lamī, 1410/1990.
  • Thawāb al-a`māl. Beirut: Mu`assat al-A`lamī. 1403/1983.
  • 'Uyūn akhbār al-Riḍā, [lith.,1899/1317] rep. Qumm, 1377; Najaf, 1390/1970.
  • Risāla fī’l-ghayba, IV [Qumm CDRom]).

al-Bursī, Rajab. al-Ḥāfiẓ (d. c. 814/1411),

  • Mashariq = Mashāriq anwār al-yaqīn fī asrār Amīr al-Mu'minīn. Beirut: Dār al-Andalus, 1978.
  • = Borsi] Les Orients des Lumires. (Henri Corbin), Verdier, 1994.

Muhammad Bāqir Majlisī (d. 1111/1699-1700).

  •  Biḥār al-anwār, 1st ed. in 5 vols. Tehran, 1887-1898.
  •  Bihar 2 Biḥār al-anwār (2nd ed.) 110 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Iḥyā al-Turāth al-`Arabī, 1376-94/1956-74 and 1403/1983.
  •  Ḥayāt al-qulūb. 5 vols. ed. Sayyid `Alī Imamiyān. Intishārāt Surūr, 1375-6 Sh/ 1997-8.

Sufi Poetry and Mystical Writings.

Ḥusayn bin Manṣūr al-Ḥallāj' (b. al-Bayḍā', Fars, Persia (b. Ṭur near Baydā, c.244/858- d. executed Baghdad, 309/922), A Sufi  disciple of the  Sahl al-Tustari (d. 283/896) especially famous for his theophanic cry أنا الحق Anā al-Ḥaqq "I am The Truth [God]".

 

See Jawid Mojaddedi `ḤALLĀJ, ABU’L-MOḠIṮ ḤOSAYN b. Manṣur b. Maḥammā Bayżāwi' EIr, Vol. XI, Fasc. 6, pp. 589-592/  https://iranicaonline.org/articles/hallaj-1

Ḥusayn ibn  Manṣur al-Ḥallāj

Tafsirحقائق التفسير او، خلق خلائق القرآن والاعتبار : Ḥaqāʼiq al-tafsīr  aw khalq khalāʼiq al-Qurʼān wa-al-iʻtibār. ed.  Maḥmūd al-Hindī. Cairo: Maktabat Madbūlī, 2006. 374 pages

Tafsir in Massignon,  1968, pp. 359–412.

  •  

الطواسين   al-Ṭāwāsīn.

"His main work, the Ṭawāsin (ed. Massignon, 1913), consists of eleven reflective essays, in which he frequently employs line diagrams and cabbalistic symbols, in what seems to be a determined struggle to convey profound mystical experiences which he could not express in words." (Mojaddedi `ḤALLĀJ in EIr. - see above). Contains a section in which Satan is glorified, the “Ṭā-sin al-azal wa’l-Iltibās".

  • Kitâb al ṭawâsîn. Ḥusain ibn Manṣūr, called al-Ḥallāj; al-Baḳli Rūzbahan ibn Abi Naṣr, al-Shīrāzi; Louis Massignon. Texte arabe publié pour la première fois, d'après les manuscrits de Stamboul et de Londres; avec la version persane d'al Baqlî, l'analyse de son commentaire persan, une introduction critique, des observations, des notes et trois indices, par Louis Masignon. Paris, P. Geuthner, 1913.

  • Kitāb aṭ-ṭawāsīn = Kitāb al ṭawâsîn. Bagdad Muthannā [ca. 1970], French : Reprint v. Paris 1913.

  • Le Livre Tāwasīn de Hallāj by al-Ḥusayn ibn Manṣūr Ḥallāj; Stéphane Ruspoli; Rūzbihān ibn Abī al-Naṣr Baqlī. Beirut: : Dar Albouraq, 2007. 395 pages. Introduction, traduction annotée et édition critique du texte arabe avec le commentaire de Rûzbehân, suivi du Jardin de la connaissance ; préface de Christian Jambet.

  • الطواسين   al-Tawasin.  Riḍwān al-Saḥḥ ;introd. ʻAbd al-Qādir al-Ḥiṣnī  Damascus : Dār al-Farqad, 2010.

  • Kitāb al-ṭāwāsīn [ṭā-wa-sin] ('The Books of the Ta' ("T") and the Sin ("S")' of  Ḥusayn bin Manṣūr al-Ḥallāj'
  • The Tawasin of Mansur al-Hallaj. Trans. Aisha abd ar-Rahman at-Tarjumana   Berkeley ; London Diwan Press , 1974.
  • Le livre des Tawassines ; suivi de Le jardin du savoir : fragments by al-Ḥusayn ibn Manṣūr Ḥallāj; Chowki Abdelamir; Philippe Delarbre. Monaco : ʹEditions du Rocher, 1994.
  • The Tawasin : (book of the purity of the glory of the One), Paul Smith trans. Campbells Creek, Victoria, Australia : New Humanity Books /Book Heaven Booksellers & Publishers, 2013.

Dîwân ديوان الحلاج

  • Diwān al-Ḥallāj, ed. Massignon, Paris, 1931.
  • Le Dîwân d'ál-Hallâj. "Extraits du Journal Asiatique et des Mélanges Fuad Köprülü." Édité, traduit et annoté par L. Massignon.  Paris, [Librairie orientaliste] Geuthner, 1955.
  • ديوان الحلاج : ويليه أخباره وطواسينه = Dīwān al-Ḥallāj : wa-yalīhi akhbāruhu wa-ṭawāsīnuh. Jamaʻahu wa-qaddama la-hu Compiled and introducced by Saʻdī Ḍannāwī. Bayrūt : Dār Ṣādir, 2008. 320 pages.
  • al-Ḥusayn ibn Manṣūr al-Ḥallāğ, Dîwân. traduit de l'arabe et présenté par Louis Massignon. Paris : Seuil, 1992,
  • ديوان الحلاج أبي المغيث الحسين بن منصور بن محمى البيضاوي، ٢٤٤-٣٠٩ ھ/٨٥٨-٩٢٢ م / Dīwān al-Ḥallāj Abī al-Mughīth al-Ḥusayn ibn Manṣūr ibn Maḥmá al-Bayḍāwī, 244-309 H/858-922 M حلاج، الحسين بن منصور. al-Ḥusayn ibn Manṣūr Ḥallāj; Paul Nwiya; Kāmil Muṣṭafá Shaybī. Kūlūnyā-Alimānyā : Manshūrāt al-Jamal, 1997. + Baghdād : Muwazziʻ, Maktabat al-Nahḍah, 1974.
  • ديوان الحلاج : ومعه اخبار الحلاج و ذكر مقتل الحلاج لابن زنجي وكتاب طواسين = Dīwān al-Ḥallāj : wa-maʻahu akhbār al-Ḥallāj wa dhikr maqtal al-Ḥallāj li-ibn Zanjī wa-kitāb ṭawāsīn by al-Ḥusayn ibn Manṣūr Ḥallāj; Muḥammad Bāsil ʻUyūn al-Sūd. Tehran : Intishārāt-i Shafīʻī, 1386 Sh./ 2007.

Compilations

Majmūʼat āthār Ḥallāj : ṭavāsīn, bustān al-maʻrifah, kitāb ruvaȳat, tafsīr Qurān, kitāb kalimāt, tajrīyāt ʻurfānī va ashʻār by al-Ḥusayn ibn Manṣūr Ḥallāj.  Ed. Muḥammad Bāsil ʻUyūn al-Sūd. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʻIlmīyah, 2007.

اشعار حلاج Ashʻār-i Ḥallāj   حلاّج، الحسين بن منصور. al-Ḥusayn ibn Manṣūr Ḥallāj; Comp. Bīzhan Ilāhī, Tehran:  Anjuman-i Shāhanshāhī Falsafah-ʼi Īrān, 1354/ 1975. 148 pages Arabic + Persian.

اشارات حلاج. Ishārāt-i Ḥallāj by  al-Ḥusayn ibn Manṣūr Ḥallāj; ed. Shakībā Māhyār. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Ilhām, 1390 /2011 or 2012.

_____

Abu Ja`far Muhammad ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Farrukh al-'Ash'ari al-Qummi (d.290/903)

  • Baṣā'ir al-darajāt of al-Ṣaffār al-Qummī
  • This work seems to be occasionally drawn upon by the Bab in the Kitab-i Panj Sha'n.

Suhrawardī, Shihāb al-Dīn Yaḥyā ( d. 587 /1191).

  • Shihāb al-Dīn Yaḥyā Suhrawardī (549-587 AH = 1154-1191CE): Annotated Bibliography. 2015.
  • Shihāb al-Dīn Yaḥyā Suhrawardī (549-587 AH = 1154-1191CE): Bibliography, Secondary Sources  2015.
  • `Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy -Suhrawardi.

Muhammad ibn `Ali, Muḥyi al-Dīn Ibn al-`Arabī (Damascus , Syria 638/1240).

Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad, Muḥyi al-Dīn Ibn al-`Arabī, al-Ḥātimī aṭ-Ṭāʾī.  (b. Murcia, Spain c. 560/1165 - d. Damascus, Syria, 638/1240).

 Select Introductory Books and Articles

Addas, Claude,

  • Quest for the Red Sulphur: The Life of Ibn ‘Arabi,    Islamic Texts Society, Cambridge, 1993 + Fons Vitae Publishing, 19XX.

Ates, A.

  • `Ibn al-‘Arabî',  EI2  III (1971): 707-711.

Chittick, William C.

  • Ibn ‘Arabi. Heir to the Prophets (Makers of the Muslim World). Oxford : Oneworld, 2005.
  • "Ibn Arabi" in  Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2008 + 2014  :  https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ibn-arabi/

Hirtenstein, Stephen

  • The Unlimited Mercifier, The Spiritual life and thought of Ibn 'Arabi. Anqa Publishing & White Cloud Press. 1999.

 SELECT MAJOR WORKS OF IBN AL-`ARABI

Muhammad ibn `Ali, Muḥyi al-Dīn Ibn al-`Arabī (Damascus , Syria 638/1240).

Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad, Muḥyi al-Dīn Ibn al-`Arabī, al-Ḥātimī aṭ-Ṭāʾī  (b. Murcia, Spain c. 560/1165 - d. Damascus, Syria, 638/1240).

  • عنقاء مغرب في معرفة ختم الأولياء
  • ʻAnqá Maghrib fī khatm al-awlīyāʼ,,,
  • عنقا مغرب في ختم الأولياء وشمس المغرب
  • ʻAnqá Maghrib fī khatm al-awlīyāʼ wa shams al-maghrib. ed. Bahnasāwī Aḥmad al-Sayyid al-Sharīf. Cairo: al-Maktabah al-Azharīyah lil-Turāth.  1998.
  • كتاب ختم الولاية : عنقاء مغرب في معرفة ختم الأولياء وشمس المغرب، محيي الدين بن عربي،   / Kitāb Khatm al-wilāyah : ʻAnqāʾ mughrib fī maʻrifat khatm al-awliyāʾ wa shams al-Maghrib. ed. ʻAbbās, Qāsim Muḥammad. Damascus: Dār al-Madá, 2004.  
  • `Anqā mughrib fî khatm al-awliyā’ wa shams al-maghrib. G. T. Elmore (trans.), Islamic Sainthood in the Fullness of Time: Ibn al-‘Arabî's Book of the Fabulous Gryphon. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1999.
  • `Anqā mughrib fî khatm al-awliyā’ wa shams al-maghrib.

 Elmore, Gerald T., trans.

  • `Anqā mughrib fî khatm al-awliyā’ wa shams al-maghrib. G. T. Elmore (trans.), Islamic Sainthood in the Fullness of Time: Ibn al-‘Arabî's Book of the Fabulous Gryphon. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1999.
  • Islamic Sainthood in the Fullness of Time. Ibn al-‘Arabī's Book of the Fabulous Gryphon. Leiden: E.J. Brill. 1999.
  • The "Millennial" Motif in Ibn al-ʿArabī's "Book of the Fabulous Gryphon" in The Journal of Religion 81 (2001), pp. 410-437.

al‑Futūḥāt al‑makkiyya (`The Meccan Disclosures / Revelations / Openings / Inspirations ...

Begun in Mecca in 598/1201 Ibn al‑`Arabī’s massive (560 chapter) compendium al‑Futūḥāt al‑makkiyya (`The Meccan Openings) spanning some 2,500 + pages was completed jn 629/1231 [636/1238‑9]). Within this work are many thelogical mystical and esoteric interpretations of the Qur`an, Hadith texts,, Islamic laws and rituals, Sufi sayings and much more besides.  

Lithograph and Printed editions,

  • al-Futuḥāt al-makkiyya. 4 vols. Cairo: Bulaq Press,  ed. 1329/1911.
  • al-Futuḥāt al-makkiyya. 4 vols. rep. Beirut: Dār Ṣadir, n.d.
  • al-Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya, Vols. 1–14,.  ed.   Ibrāhīm Madkūr, and ʻUthmān Yaḥyá.  Cairo : al-Hayʼah al-Miṣriyya al-ʻĀmmah li'l-Kitāb, 1972. A critical edition by Osman Yahya in 14 vols. which correspond to  vol. 1 of the above Cairo/Beirut edition.
  • al-Fuṭūḥāt al-Makkiyya. Ed. O. Yaḥyā. Cairo: al-Hay`a al-Miṣriyya al-`Amma li’l-kitāb. 1972 (14 + vols.),
  • al-Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya, Vols. 1–14,.  ed.   Ibrāhīm Madkūr, and ʻUthmān Yaḥyá.  Cairo : al-Hayʼah al-Miṣriyya al-ʻĀmmah li'l-Kitāb, 1972. A critical edition by Osman Yahya in 14 vols. which correspond to  vol. 1 of the above Cairo/Beirut edition.

al-Fuṭūḥāt al-Makkiyya. Ed. O. Yaḥyā. Cairo: al-Hay`a al-Miṣriyya al-`Amma li’l-kitāb. 1972 (ongoing 14+ vols.), 1405/1985.

Chodkiewicz, Michel , et. al.

  • Les Illuminations de La Mecque. The Meccan Illuminations. al-Fuṭḥhât al-Makkiyya. Textes choisis / Selected Texts présentés et traduits de l'arabe en français ou en anglais sous la direction de Michel Chodkiewicz, avec la collabo- ration de William C. Chittick, Cyrille Chodkiewicz, Denis Gril et James W. Morris. Ouvrage publié avec le concours de The Rothko Chapel. Paris: Sindbad, 1988.

Bewley, Aisha

  • Ibn Arabi on the Mysteries of Fasting : From the Futuhat al-Makkiyya (Meccan Revelations) (Muhyi Din Ibn al-`Arabi. Aisha Bewley (translator); Laleh bakhtiar (editor); Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Series Editor). Great Books of the Islamic World, Inc. , 2009.  274 pp. "Translated from Chapter 71 of the Futuhat al-Makkiyya by Aisha Bewley, Ibn al-Arabi relates mysteries of fasting from the gnostic (irfani) perspective while at the same time explaining the divine law in every detail."
  • Ibn Arabi on the Mysteries of the Pilgrimage : From the Futuhat al-Makkiyya (Meccan Revelations) (Muhyi Din Ibn al Arabi). Muhyi Din Ibn al Arabi; Aisha Bewley (translator); Laleh bakhtiar (editor); Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Series Editor)
  • Great Books of the Islamic World, Inc., 2009.  "Translated from Chapter 72 of the Futuhat al-Makkiyya by Aisha Bewley, every detail that a pilgrim would want to know about the mysteries of the pilgrimage in addition to the divine law rulings is contained in this volume."
  • Ibn Arabi on the Mysteries of the Purifying Alms : From the Futuhat al-Makkiyya (Meccan Revelations) (Muhyi Din Ibn al Arabi). Muhyi Din Ibn al Arabi; Aisha Bewley (translator); Laleh bakhtiar (editor); Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Series Editor). Great Books of the Islamic World, Inc. , 2009. 253 pp.  "Translated from Chapter 70 of the Futuhat al-Makkiyya by Aisha Bewley, Ibn al-Arabi explains the mysteries of the Islamic practice of the purifying alms in a way no other scholar ever has. He opens up doors of intuition to the astute reader."
  • Ibn Arabi on the Mysteries of Purity and Formal Prayer : From the Futuhat al-Makkiyya (Meccan Revelations) (Muhyi Din Ibn al Arabi). Aisha Bewley (translator); Laleh bakhtiar (editor); Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Series Editor). Great Books of the Islamic World, Inc., 2009. pp. 660.  "This work is a translation of Chapters 68 and 69 of the Futuhat al-Makkiyya by Aisha Bewley. Ibn al-Arabi delves into the mysteries of the Islamic practice of purification and the formal prayer. In exhaustive detail he explains possible issues that may arise from the point of view of the divine law as well."

Ruspoli, Stéphane

 L’Alchemie du bonheur. Tr. S. Ruspoli. Paris: Berg International. 1981.

Morris. James W.

The Reflective Heart: Discovering Spiritual Intelligence in Ibn ‘Arabi’s ‘Meccan Illuminations, Louisville KY : Fons Vitae, 2005. 420 pp,

"This introduction to Ibn ‘Arabi’s Meccan Illuminations highlights the mysticism and realization of Sufi spiritual life, providing an intellectually penetrating look without requiring specialized knowledge. The Reflective Heart is about the ways we gradually discover the deeper significance of all the familiar elements of our everyday life-not just those memorable moments we ordinarily view as “spiritual”." (Dust J.).

Winkel. Eric.

  • Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyah: The Openings in Makkah - Volume 1. Books 1 and 2.
  • Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyah: The Openings in Makkah - Volume 2. Books 3 and 4.
  • Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyah: The Openings in Makkah - Volume 3. Books 1 and 2.
  • Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyah: The Openings in Makkah - Volume 4. Books 1 and 2.
  • Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyah: The Openings in Makkah - 

Select Commentaries / Glosses on parts of the al‑Futūḥāt al‑makkiyya

`Abd al‑Karīm al‑Jīlī (d. 832/1428).

An important commentator on the al‑Futūḥāt  of Ibn al‑`Arabī `Abd al‑Karīm al‑Jīlī authored around thirty books, the best known being his al‑Insān al‑kāmil.. ("The Perfect Human.."). This work includes many interesting sections including discussions of the divine Essence (al‑dhāt), of key theological terms and various divine Names and Attributes. Among others he discussed senses of al‑dhāt  (The Divine Essence),  al‑huwiyya (The Ipseity, "He‑ness"), al‑Jamāl  (the Divine Beauty) and  al‑`amā’  (the Abyssmal Cloud  ). This later he, unlike the Bāb,  understood to indicate the Non‑manifet Divine Essence.  Other sections cover, for example,  the Sidrat al‑muntahā (Lote‑Tree of the Boundary, II:12‑13) and al‑`aql al‑awwāl (The Primal  Intellect, II:27‑30) as well  as the significance of  Tawrah (Torah) and the Zabūr ("Psalter") and the  Injīl  (Gospel) (II:114‑127).

Fuṣūṣ al‑ḥikam  (Ringstones/ Bezels  of Wisdom), 627/1230).

Among the most influential and important of Ibn `Arabī’s later works is his relatively brief (around 200 pp.) yet "incomparably vast in content and philosophical significance" (Izutsu, EIr. 5:554), Fuṣūṣ al‑ḥikam  (Ringstones  of Wisdom, 627/1230).  Its author claimed that each of its twenty‑ seven chapters were handed to him in a vision of the Prophet Muḥammad. They revolve around one of the aforementioned 27 prophets  each of whom enshrines a divine attribute, mode (maqām) or wisdom central to coming to engage with aspects of  the  divine reality (cf. Chittick, EIr. VII:665). It is the quintessence of Ibn al‑`Arabī’s prophetology that: ".. every Qur’anic prophet, beginning with Adam, is qualified in his relations to certain divine names and attributes and appears in his "spiritual" state" (Izutsu, Enc.Rel. V:554).  In Islamic esoterica a good deal was made of mystical significances enshined in the traditional succession of twenty‑eight.

  • Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam.
  • Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam. Lithograph ed. Muhammad al-Bārūnī. 1309/1891.
  • Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam. ed. Abū al-A`lā al-`Afīfī  [Cairo] Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-`Arab, 1946. 2nd ed.  Beirut: Dār al-Kitāb al-`Arabī, 1400/1980.
  • Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam, with glosses of `Ayat-Allāh, Imam Khomeini / Fuṣūṣ al-ḥikam  li-Ibn ʻArabī ; taʻlīq al-imām al-Khumaynī. Beirut: Dār al-Muḥajjat al-Bayḍa, 1422/2001.

The Bab makes specific, sometimes critical reference to the Fuṣūṣ al‑ḥikam of Ibn al-`Arabi.

See

Naqsh al‑fuṣūs.. ("The Imprint of the Ringstones of Wisdom").

Ibn al‑`Arabī himself wrote a summary, brief exposition of its essential ideas entitled  Naqsh al‑fuṣūs.. ("The Imprint of the Ringstones of Wisdom" see Chittick, JMIAS I:31‑93; HIP 1:516) which also came to be much commented upon in Arabic and Persian. An example, being that of the commentator, poet and  mystic `Abd al‑Raḥman Jāmī (d. 000/1492).

Commentaries and Glosses on the Fuṣūṣ al‑ḥikam.

In excess of one hundred Arabic and Persian  commentaries have been written upon the quintessence of his work, the Fuṣuṣ al‑ḥikam.  The first and especially influential being the  Sharḥ fuṣūṣ al‑ḥikam   of Mu’ayyad al‑Dīn Jandī (d. c. 700 /1300).  

Ṣadr al‑Dīn al‑Qūnawī (d. 673 /1274‑5).

The Great Shaykh’s  important disciple and stepson  Ṣadr al‑Dīn al‑Qūnawī (d.673 /1274‑5),  through whom Ibn `Arabī’s teachings "reached the Persian speaking world" (Chittick, ibid 666).  He commented on the prophetogical‑theosophical chapter headings of the Fuṣūṣ  in his al‑Fukūk..  ("The XXXs). Key prophet figures are given multi‑faceted interpretations in the writings and treatises of Ibn al‑`Arabī and those representative of his school. They  had a wide‑ranging theosophical, prophetological impact.  Joseph son of Jacob, for example, is associated with that bright luminosity which is the Logos of Light and Beauty ( see Ibn `Arabī, Fuṣūṣ,  00; Naqsh  [trans. Chittick] 58). In the words of al‑Qūnawī the Fuṣūṣ  "..brought the quintessence of the  tasting [dhawq]  of our Prophet.. concerning the knowledge of God. It points to the source of the tasting of the great prophets and friends of God mentioned within it.." (al‑Fukūk, 184 trans. Chittick in HIP 1:515). This influence of this often mystically oriented prophetology is markedly evident in  the non‑literal, allegorically oriented  prophetology of Bābī‑ Bahā’ī scripture.  

Ḥaydar al-Āmulī (b. Āmul 719–787 / 1319–1385). SEE ABOVE

This learned twelver Shī`ī scholar and mystic was much influenced by Ibn al`Arabī upon whose seminal Fuṣūṣ al-ḥikam (The Bezels of Wisdom) he wrote a commentary entitled Naṣṣ al-nuṣūṣ (The Text of Texts). It seems very likely that the Bab had encountered certain of his works ...

Sharaf al‑Dīn Dāwūd al‑Qayṣarī (d. 751/1350)

A student of `Abd al‑Razzāq Kashānī Qayṣarī wrote an important commentary on the Fuṣuṣ al‑ḥikam of Ibn al‑`Arabī. Within this massive and dense work  Qayṣarī several times uses the prophetological terminology al‑nubūwwa al‑khāṣṣa (specific prophethood) as differentiated from al‑nubūwwa al‑`amma  (general prophethood). The former relates to dimensions of the prophethood of a specific, commissioned prophet figure (nabī)  while the latter is the explication of general principles of the eternal nature, office and rank of  prophethood. At the opening of the section of his commentary upon the `Ringstone of the wisdom (ḥikma)  of prophecy  (nubūwiyya) in the utterance [Word] of Jesus (kalimat `isawiyya). Qayṣarī writes:

Now as regards the attribution of the wisdom of prophecy (nubūwiyya)  relative to the word of Jesus (kalimat `isawiyya)  he [Jesus] is a prophet (nabī) according to general prophethood (bi‑al‑nubuwwa al‑`amma) which is eternal  without beginning  and everlasting without end  (azal an abad  an ) as well as according to the specific prophethood (bi‑al‑nubuwwa al‑khāṣṣa)  which is actualized at the moment of arising with the [time of the prophetic] commission (ḥīn al‑ba`th). Wherefore did he [Jesus] announce his prophethood from the cradle through his saying, "He has given me the Book and he made me a prophet (nabiyy  an)" (Q. 19:30b) and he [also] made announcement from the womb of his mother (fī baṭn ummuhi)  on account of his eternal sovereignty (siyāda azaliyya) by means of His saying, "Grieve not for thy Lord has made beneath you [Mary] a rivulet" (Q.19:24), that is to say a sovereign [sayyid  an = Jesus] over the people. Thus was he [Jesus] granted supremacy over the [other] prophets (al‑anbiyā’)  through the instrumentality of  the spiritual ones (aḥwāl al‑ruḥāniyyīn) . His proclamation (du`a) was thus centered upon the interior realities  (al‑bāṭin) which  are  supremely ascendent  (aghlab)... [specific] legalistic prophethood (al‑nubūwwa al‑tashrī`ayya) is the collective concern of various [specific] prophets (al‑anbiyā’) .. (Qayṣarī, Sh. Fuṣuṣ, 843).

It is clear from this passage that al‑nubūwiyya al‑khāṣṣa (specific prophethood) has it earthly genesis at the time of the prophetic call while al‑nubūwiyya al‑`amma  (general prophethood) is al‑azaliyya, an all eternal phenomenon. The bearer of the office (ṣāḥīb hadha maqām) of general prophethood holds it eternally. Eternal realities are communicated by the prophets and the al‑awliyā’ (intimates, friends of God) for al‑nubūwiyya al‑`amma  (general prophethood) results in wilayā  (divine guidance).

al-Qayṣārī, Muhammad Sharaf al-Dīn Dāwūd

  • Miftåh, `Abd al-Båqi.

 

    Ibn al-`Arabī, Muḥyī al-Dīn (c. 638 /1240).

    •  Futuhat = al-Fuṭūḥāt al-Makkiyya. 4 Vols. Beirut: Dār Ṣadir n.d. [1968 = Cairo Ed.1911].
    • al-Fuṭūḥāt al-Makkiyya. Ed. O. Yaḥyā. Cairo: al-Hay`a al-Miṣriyya al-`Amma li’l-kitāb. 1972 (ongoing 14+ vols.), 1405/1985.
    • Les Illuminations = Les Illuminations de La Mecque. The Meccan
      Illuminations. al-Fuṭḥhât al-Makkiyya. Textes choisis / Selected Texts présentés et traduits de l'arabe en français ou en anglais sous la direction de Michel Chodkiewicz, avec la collabo- ration de William C. Chittick, Cyrille Chodkiewicz, Denis Gril et James W. Morris. Ouvrage publié avec le concours de The Rothko Chapel. Paris: Sindbad, 1988
    • Kitāb Inshā’ al-dawā’ir. `Ālam al-Fikr. n.d.
    • Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam. Ed. A. `Afifi. [Cairo] Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-`Arab, 1946.
    • Rasá'il Ibn al-`Arabí. Hyderabad-Deccan: Dairatu'l-Ma`arifi'l- Osmasnia, 1948
    • Rasā’il Ibn al-`Arabī. ed. Afifi. Rep. Beirut: Dār Iḥyā al-turuth al-`arabī. Nd.

    al-Jīlī, `Abd al-Karīm ibn Ibrāhīm ( d. c. 832/1428).

    •  al-Insān al-kāmil fī ma`rifat al-awākhir wa'l-awā'il. 2 vols in 1.Cairo: Muatāfa al-Bābī al-Ḥalabī, 1375/1956.
    •  Qaṣīda al-nādirāt al-`ayniyya. Beirut: Dār al-Jīl, 1408/1988.

     

    `Aṭṭār, Farīd al-Dīn (d. 627/1230).

    • Takhkirat al-awliyā’
    • tr. of Takhkirat al-awliyā’ by Arberry as, Muslim Saints and Mystics. London, and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1966[73].

     

    Eschatology, Messianism and Apocalyptic

    al-Nu`mānī, Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ja`far (d. 360/970)

    • Kitāb al-Ghayba. Tabriz: Maktabat al-Sabirī, 1382/1963.
    • Kitab al-Ghayba, ed. Ali Akbar al-Ghifari, Tehran, 1397/XXXX..
    • Kitāb al-Ghayba, Beirut: A`lami., 1403
    •  

    Isma'ili Miscellany

    Sijistānī, Abū Ya`qūb Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad (d. after 361/971)

    • Ithbāt al-nubuwwa, ed. Arif Tamir. Beirut: al-Maṭba`a al-Kāthūlīkiyya, 1966.
    • K.Yanabi` = Kitāb al-yanābi`   in Corbin, H (ed), Trilogie Ismaelienne (Bibliotheque Iranienne Vol. 9 ., Tehran & Paris 1961
    •  Kitāb al-yanābi` in Corbin, H (ed), Trilogie Ismaelienne (Bibliotheque Iranienne Vol. 9), Tehran & Paris: A. Maisonneuvre, 1961

    Safavid Era theologians and philosophers

    Āmulī, Sayyid Ḥaydar (d. 787/1385)

    • Jami` al-asrar = Jāmi` al-asrār wa manba` al-anwār, in Corbin H. & Yahia O.La Philosophie Shi'ite. 1. Somme des doctrines ésotériques (Jâmi' alasrâr). (Bibliotheque Iranienne Vol. 16), [Rep.] Tehran: Shirkat-i Intishárát-i `Ilmí va Farhangi. 1368/1989.

    Ṣadr al-Dīn al-Shīrāzī, Muhammad ibn Ibrāhim al-Qawāmī al-Shīrazī, Mullā Ṣadrā (d. 1050 /1641 CE)

    •  al-Ḥikma al-muta`āliyya f'īl-asfār al-aqliyyat al-arba`a 9 Vols. (Ed. M. Riḍā’ al-Muzaffr) Qum: Maktabat al-Muawaf, 1378 AH / 1958-59 CE.
    •  `Arshiyya = Kitāb al-`Arshiyya. Beirut: Mu`assasat al-Tarikh al-`Arabi [= The Arabic History Est.] 1420/2000.
    •  The Wisdom of the Throne: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mullā Sadra. trans. James Winstron Morris. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981
    •  Al-Masha’ir = Kitab al-masha'ir (The Book of Metaphysical Penetrations), ed.,trans. and intro. by H. Corbin, Le livre des pénétrations métaphysiques, Paris:Départment d'Iranologie de l'Institut Franco-Iranien de Recherche, and Tehran: Librairie d'Amerique et d'Orient Adrien-Maisonneuve, Bibliothèque Iranienne vol. 10, 1964 + 1982.
    •  Kitāb al-mashā'ir. Beirut: Dar al-Ihya al-Turath al-`Arabi, 2000+2003.
    •  Kitāb al-mashā'ir.Beirut: Mu`assat al-Tarikh al-`Arabi [The Arabic History Est.], 1420/2000.373
    •  Sharḥ uṣūl al-kāfī. 3 vols. Intishārāt `Ilmī va Farhang.1370Sh./1992.
    •  al-Shawahid = al-Shawāhid al-rububiyyah fi manahij al-sulukiyyah, ed. by Sayyid Jalal al-Din Ashtiyani in 2 volumes together with Sabziwari’s commentary 2nd ed. Mashhad: Chapkhanih Daneshgah, 1360Sh. /1981
    •  Mafātīḥ al-ghayb lil-Ḥakim al-ilahi wa'l-Faylasuf al-Rabbani Ṣadr al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Shīrazī (Ṣadrā al-Muta'alihin)... 2 vols in 1, Beirut: Mu`assa al-Tarikh al-`Arabi, 3rd ed. 1424/2003.
    •  al-Mabda' wa'l-Ma`ād ("The Book of the Origin and the Return"), 2nd ed. Beirut: Dar al-Hādī, 1426/2005.

    Ibn Isfandiyār, Kay Khusraw Fani Muhsin (d. c. XXX/1671-2)

    • Dabistān-i madhāhib. 2 vols. ed. Raḥīm Riḍā-zādIh Malik. Tehran: Kitābkhānah-yi Ṭahūrī, 1362/1983.
    •  Trans. by David Shea and Anthony Troyer as The Dabistan or School of Manners. Washington and London: Walter Dunne, 1901.

    Miscellany - Early Qajar Era.

    al-Ṭabaṭabā’ī, Sayyid Muḥammad Mahdī (= Baḥr al-`ulūm) (d. 1212/1797)

    • Rijāl al-Sayyid Baḥr al-`ulūm al-ma`rūf bi’l-fawā’id al-rijāliyya.  Najaf: Maktabat al-`Alamī  al-Ṭūsī wa’l-Baḥr al-`ulūm, n.d.

    Early Missionary  and related Bible Translations into Persian and Arabic.

    Henry Martyn

    Wolff, Joseph (   -1862).

    • MJ = Missionary Journal and Memoir..  Rev & ed. John Bayford. New York:  E. Bliss & J. White, 1824  Vol.II-III.
    • RML = Researches and Missionary Labours among the Jews, Mohammedans and Other Sects. Philadelphia: Orin Rogers, 1837. 2nd ed. London:XXXX, 1835.

    Pfander, Carl. G. (1803-1865)

    •  Mîzân-ul-Haqq (= Mizān al-ḥaqq) (The Balance of Truth): originally written in German at Shusha in 1829.
    •  1st Arabic ed. published (?) at Shusha in 1835 (?) and later Jerusalem in 1865 and elsewhere including, [Kitāb] Iẓhār al-ḥaqq. 1st Arabic ed. Constantinople [Istanbul], 1280/1867.
    •  Kitāb Mīzān al-ḥaqq (Arabic), Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus., 1888.
    • 1st Persian ed. published at Shusha in 1836; 2nd Persian ed. Calcutta. 1839.
    •  1st English trans. 1866/7 = Mizan Ul Haqq; or Balance of Truth ... London: Church Missionary House, trans. R. H. Weakley. London: Church Missionary House, 1867.
    •  Revised by William St Clair-Tisdall (1859-1928) in 19XX and published as •
    •  Miftáḥu’l-Asrár (= Miftāḥ al-asrār) (“The Key to the Mysteries”): composed in German at Shusha in 1837.
    •  1st Persian ed. Calcutta, 1839; Agra, 1850.
    • `Translated and thoroughly revised’ by William St Clair-Tisdall (1859-1928) and published in 1912 as : Miftáḥu’l-Asrár (`The Key of Mysteries’), A Treatise on the Doctrine of the Trinity in Unity by the late Rev. Dr. Pfander, CMS., translated and thoroughly revised by The Rev. W St. Clair Tisdall, M.A., D.D., C.M.S. The Christian Literature Society for India. London, Madras and Colombo, 1912.
    •  Tarîq-ul-Hyât (= Tarīq al-ḥayāt) (“The Path of Life”): composed in German at Shusha in 1837 this work presents the Christian doctrine of salvation as contrasted with the Islamic notion of sin and sinfulness.
    • • 1st Persian ed. Calcutta, 1840
    •  4th ed. English trans. as Tariq-ul-hayat. A treatise on sin and redemption, with especial reference to the false views entertained by the Muhammadans on these doctrines’. London: 1862.
    •  Revised by William St Clair-Tisdall (1859-1928) in 19XX and published as

    Powell, A. A.

    • `Maulānā Rahmat Allāh Kairānawī and Muslim-Christian Controversy in India in the mid. 19th Century’ JRAS 1976/1, 42-63.
    •  1983 Contact and Controversy between Islam and Christianity in Northern India, 1833-1857: The Relations between Muslims and Protestant Missionaries in North-Western Provinces and Oudh. Ph.D Thesis, University of London, 1983.
    •  1993 Muslims and Missionaries in Pre-Mutiny India. Richmond: Curzon Press.

     

    Naraqī, Aḥmad ibn Muhammad Mahdī (d. 1244/1828-9)

    •  Sayf al-ummah wa-burhān al-millah (The Sword of the Community and Vindication of the Religion). Lithographed Ed. Tabriz, 1850 and n. p. [Tehran?], 1331/1912-3.

    Shaykhi Writings of the first two leaders +

    Shakh Ahmad a-lAhsa'i  (d.1241/1826)

    Rashtī, Sayyid Kāẓim (d.1259/1843).

    •  Dalil = Dalīl al-mutaḥayyirīn. 2nd ed. 3rd printing 1423/2002
    •  Ḥujjat al-bāligha ("The Climactic Proof"). URL = 370
    •  Risāla fī sharh wa tafsīr ism Allāh al-a`ẓam. School of Oriental and African Studies Library. Ms. Ar. 92308 fol. 271a-74a.
    •  Sharh al-qāṣida al-lāmiyya. Tabrīz. 1270/1853.
    •  Sharh du`a' al-simāt wa … Sharḥ ḥadīth al-qadr. Beirut: Mu`assat Fikr al-Awḥad, (Syria [Damascus] al-Sayyida Zaynab). 1423/ 2002.
    •  Sharḥ al-Khuṭba al-ṭutunjiyya [taṭanjiyya]. Tabriz, 1270/1853-4.
    •  Sharḥ al-khuṭba al-ṭutunjiyya, 3 vols. ed. Ḥajji Mīrzā `Abd al-Rasūl al-Ihqāqī, Kuwait: Jami`a al-Imam al-Ṣādiq 1421/2001
    •  Sharḥ āyāt al-Kursī. Mss. School of Oriental and African Studies Library. Ms. Ar. ADD.

     

    Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i and his successor Sayyid Kazim al-Husayni al-Rashti (d.1259/1843) were both influenced by the writings of Suhrawardī as was the Bab.

    • 1970 (ed. Nasr & Corbin ) Œuvres Philosophiques et Mystiques. Tome III. uvres en Persan. Tehran & Paris, 1970.
    • Hikmat = The Philosophy of Illumination. A New critical edition of of Ḥikmat al-Ishrāq with English translation, Notes, Commentary and Introduction.  John Walbridge and Hossein Ziai. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1999.
    • Hayakil = Hayakil al-Nūr. ed. Muhammad `Alī Abū Rayyān. Cairo: Grande Library Commerciale, 1377/1957.
    • 1999 The Philosophical Allegories and Mystical Treatises, (Persian+ English text) ed. & tr. W.M. Thackston. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Pub. 1999.
    • Ishq = Fī ḥaqīqat al-`Ishq   (On the Reality of Love) text and tr. In Suhrawardi, 1999 (Treatise VI), 58-76.

    Kirmānī, Hajjī Mīrzā Muhammad Karīm Khān (d. 1288/1871)

     Izhāq al-bāṭil dar radd al-Bābiyya ("The Crushing of Falsehood in refutation of Bābism").Completed 12th Rajab 1261/17th July 1845.
     Izhāq al-bāṭil dar radd al-Bābiyya. Kirmān: Maṭba`at al-Sa`āda, 1392/1972.
     Risāla-yi tīr-i shihāb dar... ("The Treatise of the Piercing Meteor..."). Kirmān,1386/1966-7 where it is found within the Shaykhī produced compilation

    Tunukābunī, Muḥammad ibn Sulaymān (d.   /   )

    • Qiṣas al-`ulamā.  Tehran: Kitābfurūshī-i `Ilmiyyih-i Islāmiyyih, N.d.