Bibliography I : The Bab and the Babi Religion, Persian, Arabic Turkish +

A Letter of the Bab to Mulla Husayn Bushru'i, the First believer.

Bibliography I : The Bab and the Babi Religion, Persian, Arabic, Turkish and other non-European languages.

Stephen N. Lambden,  UC Merced.

 IN PROGRESS 2015>. Last updated 17-09-2019

Select Bābī-Bahā’ī and other writers on the person and religion of the Bāb. For western language sources see the similarly organized Pt. II :

There exists a massive amount of writing in mss. and in print as well as diverse archival material, about the Bab, his followers and his religion. The bibliographical data is thus immense, even in western sources. It includes traveller, orientalist, missionary, diplomatic, academic sources and other categories of writing in manuscript and published form as books, papers and articles. Bābī-Bahā’ī generated materials relating to the history and theology of the Bāb and his followers and writings, cannot be comprehensively set forth in detail here. At present there  seems to be no adequate survey of Baha’i perspectives about the Bāb and his writings as set forth by either the central figures of the Bahā’ī religion - Bahā’-Allāh (d. Acre 1892), `Abd al-Bahā’ (d. Haifa, 1921) and Shoghi Effendi (d. London, 1957) - or by 19th-21st century  academics or Bahā’ī scholars and apologists living in Iran, the Middle East and elsewhere. The primarary scriptural writings of the central figures of the Baha'i religion will only very selectively be listed below; they figure in other bibliographies on this website.

I shall include in the entries below, select authors who wrote on the Babi and Baha'i or Babi-Baha'i religions with precedence given to authors of books and papers dealing mostly directly with the Bab and his religion. Many writers on Baha'i matters include materials about the Bab and his teachings since he came to be considered the "founder" of the [Babi-] Baha'i religion as expounded by its Guardian (vali-yi amr Allah) Shoghi Effendi Rabbani. Succinct biographical details will occasionally be spelled out below regarding authors of Babi-Baha'i materials as well as occasional images and/or data associated with such writers whatever their background or religious orientation.

Part II   of this bibliography  will list select sources pertaining to major disciples of the Bab and episodes with early Babi History.   A few western language bibliographical materials will be listed below as a number of them contain impotant Persian or Arabic primary and / or secondary sources. Mss and printed volumes of Babi-Baha'i history will also be listed below in this Part I as many of these writings contain important pre-Baha'i biographical and historical data pertaining to the Bab and his religion and followers. A comprehensive carrying out of this bibliographical task would include some consideration of the writings of  such leading followers of the Bāb as Mulla Muhammad Husayn Bushru'i (b. c. 1229/1813, Bushrū'ī / Boshrūyaʾī - d. 2 February 1849, Tabarsi, 1265/1849);  Muhammad `Alī, Quddūs (d. Bārfurush, 1265/1849), Fāṭimah Baraghānī, Tāhirah (d. Tehran, 1268/1852) and (among many others), Sayyid Yaḥyā Dārābī, Waḥīd (d. Nayriz, 1266/1850). Bibliography pertaining to such major Babi figures and disciples will again be very selectively listed in  this second bibliographical section below ( and in Bib. II for western languages) as will a few episodes within Babi history (I.II>). 

A further bibliographical division (III) will include books and articles pertaining to Mirza Yaḥyā Nurī (d. Famagusta, Cyprus, 1914), the half-brother of Bahā’-Allāh, a follower of the Bab from around fourteen years of age and  for some  the successor to the Bāb. It will include often polemical Azali Babi Baha'i debate as contained or reflected in diverse books, articles and other source materials. 

Among Bahā’ī writers who wrote about the Bāb and his writings one should consult the often prolific literary output of (to be selective) Mirza Abū al-Faḍl Gulpayiganī (d. Cairo, 1914); Muhammad Kázim Qazvíní, Samandar (d. 1918); Ḥajjī Mīrzā Haydar `Alī Iṣfahānī (d. Haifa, 1920); Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney (d. Paris, 1928); Mirza Asadu’llah, Fāḍil-i Mazandarānī (d. Khurramshahr, 1957); Mīrzā Ḥabīb-Allāh Afnān (d. 1951); ʿAzīz-Allāh Sulaymānī Ardakāni (b. Kelateh Yazd-Abad near Sabzivah, 1901-d. Gunbad-Kavus, Mazandaran, 1985); Muhammad `Alī Fayḍī (d. 1957); `Abd al-Ḥamid Ishraq Khavarī (d. Tehran, 1972); Malik-Khusraví, Muhammad ‘Alí (b. Tehran, 1901-d. Australia, 1982); Hasan M. Balyuzi (d. London, 1980);  Alessandro Bausani (d. Rome, 1988); Amin Banani (b. Tehran, 1926 d. 2013); Firuz Kazemzadih (d. California, 2017); Abu’l-Qasim Afnan (d. England, UK. 2004); Muhammad Afnan (d. Canada, 2017); Kamran Ekbal (d.20XX); Denis MacEoin; Vahid Rafati; Abbas Amanat; Moojan Momen; Ruhu'llah Mehrabkhani; Fereydun Vahman; Peter Smith; Sholeh Quinn; Todd Lawson; Stephen N. Lambden; Juan R. Cole; John Walbridge; Ahang Rabbani (d. 2013); Nosratollah Mohammad Hosseini; Mina Yazdani; Fariduddin Radmehr; Firūz Barāqī; Youli A. Ioannesyan; Christopher Buck; Peter Terry; Necati Alkan;  Nader Saiedi and Omid Ghaemmaghami.

Several of these abovementioned writers of earlier generations on matters Babi-Baha'i, have entries devoted to them in the now well-known and ongoing Encyclopedia Iranica  (ed. Yarshater et al.) as well as in other reference volumes, books, articles and elecronic or internet sources.


  • A`yan = A'yān al-Shi`a of  al-'Āmilī, Sayyid Muḥsin ibn ʻAbd al-Karīm al-Amīn (b. Jabal 'Āmil, 1284/1867- d.1371/1952), 10 vols. with Ḥasan al- Amīn 10 further supp. vols., Beirut: Dār al-Ta'āruf li 'l-maṭbū'āt, 1984 + 1406/1986.                         
  • Bamdad, Rijal = Mahdí Bamdad, Sharḥ-i ḥāl-i rijāl-i Īrān dar qarn-i 12, 13, 14 Hijrī / Tarikh-i rijal-i Iran, 6 vols.  Tehran: Kitābfurūshī-i Zuvvār, 1347–53 Sh./ 1968–1974.
  • BBR., 1844-1944 = Moojan Momen, The Babi and Baha'i Religions, 1844-1944, Some Contemporary Western Accounts. Oxford: George Ronald, 1981.
  • BBRAB = MacEoin, Denis. `Babi history'. The Babi and Baha'i Religions: An Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Press -  Bibliographies and Indexes in Religious Studies.
  • BCI = Moojan Momen, The Baha'i Communities of Iran, 1851-1921: The North of Iran Volume 1. Oxford: George Ronald, 2015. 
  • BE = Babi-Baha'i or Badīʻ ("New") era, commencing 1260/1844 CE.
  • BEP = Baha'i Encyclopedia Project. National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States :
  • BPT = Baha'i Publishing Trust, UK. USA, etc.
  • BSB = Baha'i Studies Bulletin (ed. Lambden et al.), Newcastle upon Tyne (UK). See :
  • Dhari`a = Āqā Buzurg Tehrānī, Muhammad Muḥsin (d. 1389/1969), al-Dharīʿa ilā tạsạ̄nīf al-Shīʿa. 25 vols. Najaf: Matbaʿat al-Gharrī; Tehran: Dānishgāh 1335–1398/ XXXX. Rep.  al-Dharī`a ilā taṣānif al-shī`a. 26 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Aḍwā’, 1403/1983.
  • EI1 EI2 EI3  = The three successive editions of the Leiden: Brill … Encyclopaedia of Islam 1st ed. M. Th. Houtsma, et al. ed. E. J. Brill & Luzac & co., 1913-1938. Rep. E. J. Brill: New York..1987. 2nd ed. H .A. R. Gibb  /P. J. Bearman et al. ed. (EI2, 1960-2009). 3rd ed. (= EI3) ed. M. Gaborieau/ Kate Fleet et. al. 2007 (now ongoing).  
  • EBTB = Balyuzi, H. M., Eminent Baháʼís in the time of Baháʼuʼlláh : with some historical background. Oxford : G. Ronald, 1985.
  • EIr. = Ehsan Yarshater et. al. , eds. Encyclopedia Iranica, London, Boston and Henley, 1985> ongoing in print and online.
  • EBTB = Hasan Balyuzi, Eminant Baha’is in the Time of Baha’u’llah with some Historical Background. Oxford: George Ronald, 1985.
  • H-Baha'i = ed. Juan Cole et al. `Arabic and Persian Texts Related to the Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Movements, Digitally republished, East Lansing, Mi.: H-Bahai.
  • Haithi Trust Digital Library :
  • INBMC [or INBAMC] = `Iran National Baha’i [Archives] Manuscript Collection’, 100 (+ index vols.), Tehran: Mūʾassasa-yi Millī Mabūʿāt Amrī, nd.  (mid. 1970s.). Bound photocopies. This often indicates volumes of bound photocopies of Arabic and Persian manuscripts mostly of the writings of the Bab and Baha’u’llah as well as some letters (alwah, `Tablets’) of Abdu'l-Baha’ and select other Islamic [Shi`i - Shaykhi] and Babi-Baha’i secondary sources. The following are among the INBMC vols. which contain writings of the Bab: INBMC 1, I4, 29, 40, 43, 50, 53, 58, 60, 64, 67, 69, 80, 82, 86, 9I and 98.
  • MH = ʻAzīz Allāh Sulaymānī Ardakānī, Maṣabīḥ-i hidāyat. Tehran: Muʾassasat-i Millī-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Amrī, 9 vols. 104-32 BE / 1947-1975. 
  • MMMA =  Tehran: Muʾassasa-yi Millī-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Amrī, (one-time, 20th cent.  "Iranian Baha'i Publishing Trust").
  • MSBR = Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion, compiled by E.G. Browne. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1918. Reprint, 1961
  • R&R. 1989. `Abbas Amanat, Resurrection and Renewal (see below).
  • Sources = Denis MacEoin, The Sources for Early Bābī Doctrine and History.  (see below).
  • Storey =  Charles. A. Storey  (1886-1968). Persian Literature, A Bio-Bibliographical Survey. [1927-39] Rep. 1/1 (1970) & 1/2 (1972). Luzac: London, 1970-72.
  • Tabaqat = Ṭabaqāt aʿlām al-Shīʿa. 2 vols. in 5 parts. Najaf: al-Matḅaʿa al-ʿIlmiyya, 1373 -1388/ 1954-1968.
  • WorldCat. = Bibliographical details derived from World Cat.
  • Yādgār یادگار ("Memorial"; Persian Periodical) = Yādgār : majallah-ʼi māhīyānah-i adabī va ʻilmī va tārīkhī. ed. `Abbas Iqbāl Āshtiyānī (1897-1956).Published 1944-49, Tehran: Khayābān khayyām.
  • Записки / Zapiski ... ( "Notes / Memoranda"). Zapiski Vostochnago otdi︠e︡lenīi︠a︡ Imperatorskago russkago archeologicheskago obshchestva ... A Russian periodical published in St. Petersburg. See Bib. II.


The Bab and the Babi Religion : Persian, Arabic, Turkish and other non-European languages.


Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab.

  • Selections from the writings of the Báb. Trans. Habib Taherzadeh; Universal House of Justice. Research Department.; Baháí World Centre. Haifa : Bahá'í World Centre, 1978, ©1976. Also Haifa : Baháʼí World Center; Southhampton [U.K.] : Camelot Press, 1982.
  • Muntakhabāt-i āyāt az āthār-i Ḥadrat-i Nuqṭah-ʼi Ūlá.  MMMA 134 BE/ Wilmette, Illinois, BPT., 1978/1984. 156 pages. Original Per. and Ar. texts of the Bab compiled in Selctions (above). 

Thousands of passages within the writings of Mirza Husayn `Ali Nuri, Baha'-Allah (b. Tehran, 1817 - d. Acre, 1892) interpret the writings of the Bab. Many have a bearing upon aspects of Babi-Baha'i history, its proponents, martyrs and scholars as well as the antagonistic position of post mid. 1860s Azali Babi adherents. These texts and issues  cannot possibly all be detailed here. It must suffice to register only a few especially Bab / Babi related writings of Baha'u'llah followed by select writings of  subsequent Baha'i leaders, his son `Abdu'l-Baha `Abbas and his grandson Shoghi Effendi Rabbani.

Mirza Husayn `Ali Nuri, Baha'-Allah (d. Acre, 1892).

  •  The Lawḥ-i kull al-ṭa`ām ("The Tablet of All Food") is an early Baghdad period (1270/1853 or early 1854) esoteric scriptural Tablet expository of  Qur'an 3:87 [93] and incorporating issues of Babi authority and religiosity. It is addressed to the Babi believer Ḥajjī Mīrzā Kamāl al-Dīn Narāqī (d. Narāq c.1298/1881). An inadequate printed text is found in Ishrāq Khavari (comp.) Mā'ida-yi āsmani IV :265-276 and a slightly better one in Rahiq-i makhtum II :416-426. A superior photocopied ms. is to be found in INBMC 36:268-277. 
  • Sūrat al-kifāya ("The Surah of the Sufficiency), c. 1853-5. For the  ḥarf al-jūd  ("the Letter of the Divine Bounty) whose precise  identity (a Babi entitled Jawad?)  is uncertain. This Arabic Surah begins:  "This is the Sūrat al-kifāya  (Sura of the Sufficiency). It was assuredly sent down on the part of the True One (min al-ḥaqq) regarding the question of knowledge  (fī jawāb al-`ilm)." It is apparently a defense of the early-mid. 1850s leadership role and Bābī authority of Mīrzā Yaḥyā Nūrī (c. 1834 - Cyprus,1912). The Arabic text of the Surat al-kifaya can be found in INBMC 36: 277-28. An annotated Lambden translation exists on  this website. For more than a decade Baha'u'llah acted as a defender of the status of Mirza Yahya Nuri.
  • Jawahir al-asrār ("The Gems of the Mysteries", Arabic c. 1861-2). There are several mss texts and printings of the original Arabic of this treatise written in reply to questions raised by Sayyid Yūsuf Sidihi (Isfahanī), a Shī`ī mujtahid and pupil of the Marjā al-Taqlīd, Shaykh Murtaḍā al-Anṣārī (1759-1864). See Jawāhir al-asrār in AQA III:4-88; INBMC 46:1ff  and INBMC 99.  An recent authorized Baha'i translation is well known.
  • Kitāb-i īqān ("The Book of Certitude", Persian, c. 1862).  There are again several mss texts and printings of the original Persian and a well-known authorized English translation by Shoghi Effendi. It was written in reply to the questions of an uncle, the Khāl-i Akbar ("Greatest Uncle") of the Bab Ḥāǰǰī Sayyid Muhammad, (1210-93/1795-1876) in demonstration of the veracity of the prophetic mission of the Bab. Refer Kitāb-i īqān, Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahā'ī-Verlag, 1980/ 136 BE (= rep. of the K. īqān, Egypt, 1934); Kitáb-i-Iqán: The Book of Certitude (tr. Shoghi Effendi). London: BPT.,1961  (See further, Quinn and Lambden. K.iqan in EIr.). 
  • Surat al-Dhikr , `The Surah of the Remembrance', an Arabic early Edirne or Adrianople period text, dating to the early-mid 1860s. It claims to be "a Book from the nuqtat al-ulya, the Primal Point", though from Baha'u'llah in  the persona of the Bab addressed to his followers, the "people of the Bayan". Arabic text in Athar-i alam-i a`la [AQA] IV: 236-244.
  • Lawh al-Nuqta (The Tablet of the Point). c. 1865-6? This fairly brief, largely Persian scriptural Tablet, opens with a Baha'/ Baha'u'llah centered basmala and continues. "This is a Book from the Primordial Point (nuqtat al-ula) and His Baha' (Glory)". It is dedicated and addressed to a Babi-Baha'i believer named Kazim (Samandar?) and (among other things) cites and interprets a few verses of the Qayyum al-asma' of the Bab. The position of Baha'u'llah as the promised one of the Bayan is celebrated and proclaimed (Haifa unpublished  ms. AO 1760, received Feb. 1987).
  • Lawh-i Mubāhalah (The Tablet(s) of the Mutual Execration). Several Tablets of Baha'-Allah have this title (cf. Qur'an 59: 61f) and date to the mid. to late 1860s. In various ways they address and challenge the claims of Mirza Yahya Nuri and his associates. They cement a division between Baha'is and Azali Babis through a planned (though never outwardly finalized) personal and theological confrontation between Baha'u'llah and Mirza Yahya, Subh-i Azal, at the mosque of Sultan Selim in Adrianople. One seminal `Lawh-i Mubahalah' dates to Jumad al-awwal 1284/Sept. 1867. It presents itself as a letter / book (kitab) from "this Youth" (Baha'u'llah) to all of the "peoples of the world" (cited Mazandarani, TZH 5: 39-46 unpublished ms.).
  • Lawh-i Nasir (The Tablet to Nasir).  This Arabic and Persian scriptural Tablet was written around 1866-7  after the Azali-Baha'i  `Most Great Separation' from Mirza Yahya and his followers. It is a reply to a question of Hajji Muhammad Nasir Qazvini (d. Rasht, 1300/1883) about the position of Mirza Yahya Nuri who had challenged the claimed theophanic claims of Baha'u'llah. Therein Baha'u'llah maintains that "The origins [genesis] of this [Babi-Baha'i] Cause (amr) were concealed (mastur) from all. No one was adequately aware thereof save two souls; one of these two being named Ahmad who suffered the martyrdom in the path of  his Lord and returned unto the ultimate abode (muqarr al-quswa), while the other was he who was named [Mirza Musa Nuri] al-Kalim "the Speaker" ("He who [like Moses] conversed", with God)  who at this moment can be found in our presence" (Majmu`a-yi Alwah-i Mubaraka, 174)". The  largely Persian text of the Lawh-i Nasir can be found in MAM (Cairo : 1333/1920. Rep. 1978: 166-202).
  • The  Kitāb-i badi` (The Novel / Regenerative/ Wondrous Book"), c. 1283/1866-7. One of the lengthiest (300 + pages) Persian, anti-Azali Babi  works of Baha'u'llah written as if by the Baha'i Aqa Muhamad `Ali Tambak-Furush (Tobacco Seller) to  Mirza Mihdi Gilani and penned by his amaneunsis Mirza Aqa Jan Kashani, Khadim-Allāh (`The Servant of God'). This lengthy apologia responds to and comments upon  issues and accusations raised in an anti-Baha'u'llah  letter of  the Babi Mirza Mihdi Gilani, an associate of Sayyid Muhamad Isfahani whom Baha'is reckon (among others) the eschatological Dajjal or Islamic Anti-Christ. Diverse issues of Babi thelogy and prophecy are found in this scriptural writing along with copious citations from diverse writings of th Bab. For the text see : Kitāb-i badī`nazil az sama'-i mashiyyat Hadrat-i Baha'-Allah. Printed from a facsimile edition/ copy of ms. in the hand of Zayn al-Muqarrabin [dated  13th of Rabi` al-Awwal, 1286 = 23rd June, 1869]. Reprint, Prague: Zero Palm Press, 148 BE/1992 and Kitab-i badi` nazil az qalam-i hadrat-i Baha'u'llah. Mu'assah-' Matbú'át-i Amrí Almān.  Hofheim-Langenheim : Bahāʼī-Verlag, 165 BE/2008.  200pp. + Index, 201-213 + 8pp. 1st. German printing of the Persian primarily based on a ms. in the hand of Zayn al-Muqarrabin (d.1903).
  • Lawh-i Sarrāj for Mullā / Mirza  `Alī Muhammad Sarrāj [incorrectly, Sirāj]. c. 1283-4/ c. 1867, the late Edirne (Adrianople) period. Thie Sarrāj or "the Saddler", "Leather-worker" had met the Bab during his stay in Isfahan (1846-7) and subsequently became a Babi then later an Azali Babi follower of Mirza Yahya. He was the brother of  Mullā Rajab `Alī ( d. [assassinated at] Karbala 185?)  entitled  Qahīr  ("Wrathful"  -- Rajab `Alī = abjad 315 as also is Qahīr) by the Bāb. His sister Fātimah Khānum (d.1335/1916) was the second wife of the Bab. A lengthy Persian work of anti-Azali Babi dialogue, the Lawḥ-i Sarrāj is a response to various questions relating especially to the titles, position or status of Mīrzā Yaḥyā, about how ḥurūf-i `aliyyīn ("elevated [sublime] letters [souls]")  can become the ḥurūf-i sijjīn ("debased letters [souls]").  For the text of the Lawḥ-i Sarrāj, the Tablet to `Alī Muhammad Sarrāj, see Ms. in  INBMC 73:198-231 and Ishraq Khavari comp., Ma'ida-yi asmani VII : 4-118.

`Abdu’l-Bahā’ `Abbs (1844-1921).

 The Letters or `scriptural Tablets' of `Abdu'l-Baha' `Abbas (d. Haifa, 1921), the son and successor of Baha'-Allah, are numerous, numbering perhaps 30,000. Many of them refer to the Bab or interpret matters pertaining to Babi-Baha'i history and doctrine. Only a few historical and other works can be mentioned at this point along with a few works of his grandson Shoghi Effendi (see below): 

Maqāla-yi shayksī-i sayyāḥ… c. 1886 CE.

  • 1891. A Traveller's Narrative written to illustrate the Episode of the Báb. [By 'Abd al-Bahā ibn Bahā'-Allāh.] Edited in the original Persian, and translated into English, with an introduction and explanatory notes, by E.G. Browne. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge Unhiversity Press, 1891. Vol.1. Persian  text, vol. 2. Trans. and Notes.
  • 1930. A traveller's narrative written to illustrate the episode of the Báb. New York, N.Y : Bahaʼi Pub. Committee, 1930. A reprint of v. 2 of the 1891 edition of E.G. Browne. liii,  447 pages. 
  • 1975. A traveller's narrative : written to illustrate the episode of the Báb ; composed A.D. 1886 by 'Abbás Effendi, son of Behá'u'lláh, being an authentic description of the Persian Bábí movement, Babism, c. 1884-1886 ; Persian text, reproduced after the manuscript and translated into English, with a critical introduction, extensive explanatory notes and other texts and documents, and an index = (Maḳála-i-shakhṣí sayyáḥ). Amsterdam : Philo Press, 1975. liii, 447, 211 pages  (2 vols. in 1).
  • Maqaliyyih Shakhsī Sayyāḥ, "A Traveller's Narrative" written to illustrate the episode of the Báb. [ed. and revised reprint vol.1 of the 1891 EGB ed.] Hofheim-Langenhain, Baha'i Verlag, 112 pages.
  • 2004. A traveller's narrative written to illustrate the episode of the Báb. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 2004. 447 pages.
  • 2012. A traveller's narrative written to illustrate the episode of the Báb. Volume 1, Persian text. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press,  2012.
  • Risala-yi `ammah (Tablet to the Aunt), a responce to the Azali half-sister of Baha'u'llah, full sister of Mirza Rida'-Quli and eldest sister of Mirza Yahya Nuri, Shah Sultan,‘Izziyyih Khanum (d. 1322/1904). See Bib. III.

  تذكرة الوفآة في ترجمة حياة قدماظ الاحبآء Tadhkirat al-vafā ... 1919.

  •   تذكرة الوفآة في ترجمة حياة قدماظ الاحبآء Tadhkirat al-vafā fī tarjamat ḥayāt qudamāʼ al-aḥibbāʼ. Haifa: Abbasiyya Press, 1342/1924.
  • تذكرة الوفآة في ترجمة حياة قدماظ الاحبآء / Tadhkirat al-wafāʼ fī tarjamat ḥayāt qudamāʼ al-aḥibbāʼ. Hūfhāym : Muʼassasah-ʼi Maṭbuʻāṭ-i Amrī-i Ālmān = Germany: Hofheim-Langen-hain, Baha'i Verlag, 2002. 232  pages.
  • Memorials of the Faithful, trans. [of the above] Marzieh Gail, Wilmette, Illinois: Baháʼí Pub. Trust, 1971. xii, 208 pages. Reprint 1975, 1997.
  • Makātīb-i Hadrat-i ʿAbd-al-Bahā'. Eight vols. consist of compilations of Persian and Arabic texts  or scriptural Tablets alwah (sing. lawh) of `Abd al-Baha' `Abbas. The first three vols. bear the title Makātīb-i Hadrat-i ʿAbd-al-Bahāʾ and were published in Cairo through Faraj-Allāh Zakī al-Kurdī between 1910/1912 and 1922 .The Baha'i  compiler and editor Faraj-Allāh Zakī al-Kurdī, was at times resident in Cairo, Egypt, during the lifetime of `Abd al-Baha' who himself approved of the  early Cairo printings. The Makātīb-i Hadrat-i ʿAbd-al-Bahā', vols. IV-VIII were published in Tehran: Mu`assa-yi Milli-yi Matbu`at-i Amri, 121-134 BE/1966-1978. A CD printing of scanned images of all of the above listed eight vols. of Makātīb appeared on a 2000 dated CD Rom with the heading, `Makatib-i-`Abdu'l-Baha'. See further woth select PDfs. `Writings of `Abd al-Bahā’, `Abbas Effendi (1844-1921 CE)' online at

Shoghi Effendi Rabbani / Shawqī Afandī Rabbānī (c. Haifa, 1896-d. London. Nov. 4th 1957).

As the Vali-yi Amr Allah (Ar. Wali Amr Allah), the `Guardian of the Cause of God', Shoghi Effendi was a prolific writer in Persian, Arabic and English. Several of his Books and letters express the authorized Baha'i view of the person, station, religion and teachings of the Bab. A few examples of his lengthier books and letters are:

Zarandī, Mullā Muhammad (Nabīl) (d. 1892) and Shoghi Effendi :

  • Tarīkh [= Dawn-Breakers] ed. and trans. (Part I) Shoghi Effendi as `The Dawn-Breakers: Nabil’s Narrative of the Early Days of the Baha’i Revelation’. Wilmette: Baha’i Pub. Trust., 1st ed. 1932. Many later, sometimes revised editions, 1974 etc.
  • God Passes By. Shoghi, Effendi; George Townshend; National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada. National Programming Committee.Wilmette, Illinois: Baha'i Publishing Trust, 1944 (numerous reprints).
  • Per. Trans. Naṣr Allāh/Nasru'llah Mavaddat کتاب قرن بدىع / Kitāb-i qarn-i badīʻ. Dundas, Ontario (Canada). : Muʼassasah-ʼi Maʻārif-i Bahāʼī bi-Lisān-i Fārsī /Persian Institute for Baha'i Studies., rev. ed., 149 BE/1992. viii, v, 860  pages.
  • توقيعات مبارکه حضرت ولى امر الله : خطاب به احباى شرق / Tawqīʻāt-i mubārakah-i Ḥadrat-i Valī Amr Allāh : khiṭāb bih aḥibbā-yi sharq. Lānginʹhāyn : Lajnah-ʼi Millī-i Nashr-i Āthār-i Amrī bih Lisān-i Fārsī va ʻArabī, 1992. 649 pages. Trans of God Passes By  published in Germany. 
  • توقىعات مبارکه حضرت ولى امر الله : شهر الجلال 102 - شهر الاسمأ 109 = آپرىل 1945 - اوگوست 1952. Tawqīʻāt-i mubārakah-i Ḥaz̈rat-i Valī Amr Allāh : shahr al-Jalāl 102 - shahr al-Asmāʹ 109 = Āprīl 1945 - Augūst 1952. Tehran: : Muʼassasah-ʹi Millī-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Amrī, 125 Badīʻ /1968 or 1969. 375 pages.
  • Tawqīʻāt-i mubārakah-i Ḥaz̈rat Valī Amr Allāh. Muʼassasah-i Millī-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Amrī,  197? 197, 49 pages. 
  • قاموس : توقيع منيع نوروز ١٠٨ بديع / Qāmūs : tawqīʻ-i manīʻ-i Nawrūz-i 108 badīʻ (Series Title: Asrār-i rabbānī, 3.) Germany, Dārmshtāt : ʻAṣr-i Jadīd, 2001.  256 pages. Commentary on Shoghi Effendi's general letter to the Baha'is of the east, dated Naw-ruz 108 BE by  ʻAbd al-Ḥamīd Ishrāq Khāvarī ; bih ihtimām-i Vaḥīd Raʼfatī.
  • دور بهائي /v Dawr-i Bahāʼī, the "Dispensation of Baha'u'llah". Per. Trans. Lajnah-ʼi Millī-i Āthār-i Amrī-i Īrān az Zabān-i Ingilīsī. Dihlī-i Jadīd/ New Delhi : Muʼassasah-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Bahāʼī, 114 Badīʻ, 1957. 80 pages. Also printed in Germany, Hofheim-Langenhain : Bahá'í-Verlag, 1988. 117 pages.


Ābādahʹī, ʻAbbās Qābil / قابل آباده‌اى، عباس . ed. Ghulām ʻAlī Dihqān

  • وقايع امرى آباده  / Vaqāyiʻ-i amrī-i Ābādah. Hūfhāym : Muʼassasah-ʼi Maṭbūʻāt-i Bahāʼī-i Ālmān/ Germany: Hofheim-Langenhain, Baha'i Verlag, 2007. 368 pages. 

ʿAbd-al-ʿAlī ʿAlāʾī (ed.)

  • Muʿassisa-yi Ayādī-i Amr-Allāh. Tehran, 130 Badīʿ/1973-4.

Ādamīyat, Farīdūn (b. Tehran 1920- 2008), فريدون آدميت  An Iranian anti-Jewish and anti-Babi-Baha'i social and Diplomatic Historian


ʻAlī Aṣghar Ḥaqdār,  فريدون آدميت و تاريخ مدرنيته در عصر مشروطيت  (= Andīshahʹhā-yi Īrānī, 1.) / Farīdūn Ādamīyat va tārīkh-i mudirnīyatah dar ʻaṣr-i mashrūṭīyat. Tehran : Kavīr, 1382/2003. 296 pages. See further World Cat. Identities:

  • امير كبير و ايران   Persian. "23 editions published between 1944 and 2010"  (World Cat. Id.). About Mīrzā Taqī Khān Amīr Kabīr. See ffurther  H. Algar, “AMĪR KABĪR, MĪRZĀ TAQĪ KHAN,” Encyclopædia Iranica, I/9, pp. 959-963, available online at (accessed on 30 December 2012).
  • Amīr Kabīr va Irān. 3 volumes in 1. Tehran: Chāp-i Pīrūz, 1955.
  • Amīr Kabīr va Irān. 4th ed. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Khwārazmī, 1354 Sh./1975. 791 pages.
  • Amīr Kabīr va Īrān. : Intishārāt-i Khvārazmī, 1977.
  • ىادنامۀ فرىدون آدمىت / ʻAlī Dihbāshī, ed. Yādnāmah-ʼi Farīdūn Ādamīyat. Tehran: Shirkat-i Nashr-i Naqd-i Afkār, 1390 / 2011 or 2012. 1081 pages.

أنديشه‌هاى ميرزا آقا خان كرماني  = Andīshahʾhā-yi Mīrzā Āqā Khān Kirmānī

  • أنديشه‌هاى ميرزا آقا خان كرماني  = Andīshahʾhā-yi Mīrzā Āqā Khān Kirmānī. Kitābkhānah-i Tehran: Ṭuhūrī,  1346 Sh./1967. xx. 292 pages.
  • Andīshahʹhā-yi Mīrzā Āqā Khān Kirmānī.  Tehran: Intishārāt-i Payām, 1357 /1978. 311 pages. 
  • `Si maktūb-i Mīrzā Fatḥ-ʿAlī, si maktūb u ṣad khaṭāba-yi Mīrzā Āqā Khan,” Yaḡmā 19, 1345 Sh./1966, pp. 362-67, 425-28.

Afnān, Mīrzā Muhammad `Alī, Ḥabīb-Allāh Afnān-i A`lā'ī (b. Shiraz, 1292/1875 - d. 1951). One of the sons of Āqā Mírzā Āqā, entitled Núr al-Dín (`the Light of Religion'), a relative of the Bab.

  • Tārīkh-i amrī-yi Fārs va Shīrāz. unpublished ms. Copy in Afnan Library (UK).
  • The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs. Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán. translated and annotated by Ahang Rabbani. Numen Book Series, Volume: 122 (= Texts and Sources in the History of Religions). Leiden: Brill, 2008. 

Afnān, Muhammad ‘Ali.

  • Khandān-i Afnān, Sidrah-’i Rahman. Tehran: MMMA, 1347/1970.

Afnān, Abu’l-Qāsim (d. England, UK., 2004).

  • Trans. of Chāhar Risāla-yi Tārikhi dar bāra-yi Tāhira Qurrat al-`Ayn. Weinacht, 1991. 
  • `Ahd-i a`lā zindigānī-yi ḥaḍrat-i Bāb. Oxford: Oneworld, 2000. 16, 654 pages.
  • لألى سياه : خدام آستان جمال ابهى و حضرت على / Laʼalī-i siyāh : khuddām-i āstān-i Jamāl-i abhá va Ḥadrat-i aʻlá. (= Black pearls : servants in the households of the Báb and Bahá'ulláh) Canada [Dundas, Ontarion?], 1992. 51 pages.
  • Black Pearls : Servants in the Household of the Bab and Baha'u'llah. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 1988. 2nd ed. 1999. 

Afnān, Muhammad (d. Canada, 2017).

  • “‘Marāḥil-i daʿwat-i Ḥaḍrat-i Nuqtạ -yi Ūlā’”. Mutāliʿa-yi Maʿārif-i Bahāʾī (Tehran) 10. 132 BE./1976.
  • Majmu`ah-yi maqālāt (“Collected Essays”) az intishārāt `Andalīb, Dundas Ontario, 129 BE/ 2013.   

Ahdieh Hussein [Husayn ʻAhdiyah, عهدىه، حسىن] & Chapman, Hillary.

  • صبح بىدارى : تارىخ دىانت بابى و بهاعى در نىرىز = Ṣubḥ-i -bīdārī : tārīkh-i diyānat-i Bābī va Bahāʻī dar nay ʹrīz ("A History of the Bábí and Bahá’í Faiths in Nayríz"). Hūfhāym : Muʼassasah-ʼi Maṭbūʻāt-i Bahāʼī-i Ālmān, 2014 = Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahā’ī-Verlag, 2014. 341 pages. Also Translated into English, French, Russian and other languages.
  • Awakening : a history of the Bábí and Bahá'í faiths in Nayríz. Wilmette, Illinois : Bahá'í Publishing, 2013. 
  • Hussein Ahdieh, "BABISM iii. Babism in Neyriz," EIr. online edition, 2015, available at (accessed on 04 September 2015).

Amanat, Abbas.

William Graham Sumner Professor of History; Director, Yale Program in Iranian Studies.

"Abbas Amanat (B.A., Tehran University, 1971; D. Phil., University of Oxford, 1981) has taught and written about early modern and modern history of Iran, Muslim world, the Middle East and the Persianate world for more than three decades..." -  see further, :

Amanat, Abbas at WorldCat :

  • 1989. Resurrection and Renewal: The Making of the Babi Movement in Iran, I844-1850 Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1989. Reprinted,  Los Angeles: Kalimat, 2005.
  • 1996 [2009] `The Nuqtavi Movement of Mahmud Pasikhani and his Persian Cycle of Mystical Materialism' in Apocalyptic Islam and Iranian Shiism, London & New York: IB Tauris, 2009, 73-89 reprinted from Essays in Mediaeval Isma'ili History and
  • Thought ed. Farhad Daftary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 281-298.
  • 1997. Pivot of the Universe: Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831-1896. Berkeley and Los Angeles : University of California Press, 1997, paperback: London and New York: I B Tauris, 2008.
  • 2002.

    with Magnus Thorkell Bernhardsson. Imagining the End: Visions of Apocalypse from Ancient Middle East to Modern America. 2002.

  • 2008. `The historical roots of the persecution of Babis and Baha’is in Iran,” in The Baha’is of Iran: Socio-Historical Studies, edited by Dominic Brookshaw and Seena B. Fazel. London: Routledge, 2008.
  • 2009. Apocalyptic Islam and Iranian Shi'ism. London: I.B. Tauris. 2009.

with Fereydun Vahman, 

  • 2016. Az Tehran Ta Akka: Babiyan Va Bahaiyan Dar Asnad Dowran-E Qajar. (From Tehran to ‘Akka: Babis and Baha’is in the Official Records of Qajar Iran, Copenhagen and New Haven: Ashkaar Publishers, 2016.

Amanat, Mousa (b. Kashan, 1915 - d. Santa Monica, CA., USA., 2002) = امانت، موسی

  • بهائیان کاشان / Bahāʼīyān-i Kāshān. ed. Noura Amanat-Samimi. Introd. Abbas Amanat and Preface Mehrdad Amanat. Foundacion Nahal [Spain], 1391 Sh./2012, 512+ pages.

Amanat, Mehrdad.

  • Negotiating identities : Iranian Jews, Muslims and Baha'is in the memoirs of Rayhan Rayhani (1859-1939). Ph. D. University of California, Los Angeles 2006. ix, 332 pages.
  • Jewish identities in Iran : resistance and conversion to Islam and the Baha'i faith. London ; New York : I.B. Tauris, 2013. xi, 279 pages.

Ardakānī, Ṣadrī Navvābʹzādah  (ed. Vaḥīd Raʼfatī)

  •    امر بهائى در اردکان / Amr-i Bahāʼī dar Ardakān ("The Babi-Baha'i  religion(s) in Ardakan"). Hūfhāym : Muʼassasah-ʼi Maṭbūʻāt-i Bahāʼī-i Ālmān, 2009. 438 pages with illustrations and genealogical tables. In Persian with some Arabic.

Āyati, ʻAbd al-Ḥusayn ( ‏آواره ، عبد الحسين ) (b. 1288/1871 - d. 1332 Sh./1953), called himself by the takhallus (`pen-name')  Āvārah ("Wanderer").

Mīrzā ʻAbd al-Ḥusayn Āwārah was the son of Mulla Muhammad-Taqī, Ākhūnd Taftī. He became a widely travelled Baha'i teacher for almost two decades during which time he closely associated with `Abdul-Baha' who highly praised his important Babi-Baha'i history in two volumes, the al-Kawākib al-durriyya. This came to be translated into Persian and was several times reprinted.  Āvārah ultimately turned against `Abdu'l-Baha' and wrote a three volume refutation of the Babi-Bahaʾi religion entitled  Kashf al-ḥiyal ("The Uncovering of Deception") which was  published in Tehran during 1307-10 Sh./1928-31 and reprinted a number of times (see below). See Iraj Afshar, EIr. Vol. III/2 ,133 :

  • الكواكب الدرية في تاريخ ظهور البابية والبهائية / al-Kawākib al-durriyya  fī ma`athir al-Bahā'iyiya. Arabic 2 vols. Cairo : al-Maṭbaʻah al-ʻArabīyah, 1343 / 1923 or 4. 462 pages. ? 
  • الكواكب الدرية في تاريخ ظهور البابية والبهائية / al-Kawākib al-durriyya  fī tārīkh ẓuhūr al-Bābiyya wa-al-Bahā'iyiya. Persian-Arabic trans. in 2 parts. Aḥmad Fāʼiq Rushd. Cairo : ʻIzzat al-ʻAṭṭār, 1343 / 1924. 462 pages. Electronic reproduction. [S.l.] : HathiTrust Digital Library, 2010. al-Maṭbaʻah al-ʻArabīyah, 1343 /1924.
  • Kitab Kashf al-hiyal (The Uncovering of Deception). 3 vols in 1 . Tehran: np.  1326/1947. Vol.1 has 156 pages, vol.2 (243 pages) and vol.3 (191 pages), total = 590 pages. Includes numerous Babi-Baha'i citations and some very rare photographic reproductions.

Bahadur, Agha Khan (trans.).

  • 1927 `Some New Notes on Babism.' JRAS vol. (1927), 443-70.

al-Baghdādī, Muhammad Muṣṭafá  (b. Baghdad, c. 1254/1838 - d. Beirut-Alexandria, 1328/1910), محمّد مصطفی بغدادی was the son of Shaykh Muhammad Shibl Baghdadi (d. Baghdad 1266/1850), a representative (wakil) of Sayyid Kazim al-Husayni al-Rashti in Baghdad and later a follower of the Bab associated with (among many others) Mulla `Ali Bastami and Fatimah Baraghani,Tahira. See further,  Kamran Ekbal, `Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh to Muhammad Mustafa Baghdadi' in Safinah-yi `Irfan, 4 (Darmstadt: Asr-i-Jadid, 2001), pages 105-128 and his  2014 article in EIr. on the "BAḠDĀDI FAMILY, designation of an Arab family of a Bābi, Shaikh Moḥammad Šebl, and his Bahai progeny", available at

  • Risāla al-Amriyya ... ("Treatise on the History of the Babi-Baha'i Cause'). Cairo: Matba`at al-Sa`adah, 1338/1919.  A chronicle of the Babi movement appended to Ahmad Suhrab [Sohrab], al-Risalah al-tis`  `ashariyyih ("The Treatise of the Nineteen"), pp.102-128. Reproduced on H-Baha'i :

Balyuzi, Ḥasan (b. Shiraz, 1908-d. London, 12 February 1980). He was the son of ʿAlī-Muhammad Khan, Muwaqqar al-Dawla and one of the kindred of the Bab or a member of the Afnān entitled family.

  • 1970. Edward Granville Browne and the Baha'i Faith. Oxford, UK: George Ronald.
  • 1973. The Bab: The Herald of the Day of Days. Oxford, UK: George Ronald.
  • 1981. Khadijih Bagum, the Wife of the Báb. Oxford, UK: George Ronald.
  • 1985. Eminant Baha’is in the Time of Baha’u’llah with some Historical Background. Oxford: George Ronald, 1985.
  • 2016 (ed. Momen). Edward Granville Browne va Diyānat-i Bahā’ī. Mu’assah-yi Maṭbū`at-i Bahā’ī  Ālman (Hoffheim, Germany). 173 BE/2016. 

 Banani, Amin (1926-2013). 

See Ehsan Yarshater, `Professor Amin Banani, 1926–2013: A Prominent Scholar of Iranian Studies' in  Iranian Studies, Volume 47/2 (2014), 347-351.

  •  The Modernization of Iran 1921-1941. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1961.

Barāqī, Firūz.

  • انسان و کيهان / Insān va kayhān. Dundas, Ontario (Canada) : Muʼassasah-ʼi Maʻārif-i Bahāʼī, 1998. 190 pages.
  • Ẓuhūr va ḥaqīqat-i insān. Dundas, Ontarion (Canada). : Muʼassasah-i Maʻārif-i Bahāʼī, 2000. 314 pages.
  • بشروىه : زادگاه جناب ملا حسىن  باب الباب  =  Bushrūyah [Bushruyeh/ Bushrū'ī ] : zādgāh-i jināb-i Mullā Ḥusayn "Bāb al-Bāb" (= Majmūʻah-i diyār-i andīshah, 16).  Madrid:  Bunyād-i Farhangī-i Niḥal, 2010. 491, 32 pages.

Bayḍá, Áqá Siyyid Abu'l-Qásim 

  • Tárík̲h̲-i-Bayḍá : raváyat-i-sh̲áhidán-i 'ayní az qatl-i 'ámm-i Bahá'íyán dar Yazd bih inḍimám-i tiligrámhá-yi dawlatí = Bayḍá's history : eyewitness accounts of the massacre of Bahá'ís in Yazd with official telegrams. ed. Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam. Hofheim, Germany : Bahá'í Verlag, 2016. 654. Bayḍá's history : eyewitness accounts of the massacre of Bahá'ís in Yazd with official telegrams

Bayda'i, Ni'mat Allāh Dhukā՝ī.

  • Tadhkirat-’i shu‘ara-yi qarn-i awwal-i Baha’i. 4 vols. Tehran: MMMA, 1964/ 127-129 BE/1970-1973.

Borjian, Habib. Assistant Professor of Persian at Hofstra University, New York

  • "A Mazandarani Account of the Babi Incident at Shaikh Tabarsi" in Iranian Studies, vol. 39, no. 3, September 2006, pp. 381-399. "This article transcribes and glosses a nineteenth-century Mazandarani document on Babi-state conflict at Shaikh Tabarsi. Collected in 1860 in the town of Barfurush, it was published five years later by Boris Andreevich Dorn in Perso-Arabic characters". See this website, Bib. II `Dorn'.

Browne, Edward, Granville (1862-1926).

  • 1889 I. “Bābīs of Persia I: Sketch of their History and Personal Experiences among Them,” JRAS  21, 1889, 485-526.
  • 1889 II. `The Bābīs of Persia II: Their Literature and Doctrines,’ JRAS 21, 1889, 881-1009.
  • 1891. `Writings of the Bāb and Ṣubḥ-i-Ezel,’ in A Traveller’s Narrative Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Bāb, 2 vols., Cambridge, 1891, I, pp. 335-47. 
  • 1892a. `A Catalogue and Description of 27 Bābī Manuscripts,’ JRAS., 24, 1892, 433-99, 637-710.
  • 1892b. `Some Remarks on the Bābī Texts Edited by Baron Victor Roseṇ…’ JRAS., 24, 1892,  259-332.
  • 1893 [1975]. E. G. Browne, ed. and tr., The Tārīkh-i-Jadīd, or New History of Mīrzā ʿAlī Moḥammed, the Bāb, Cambridge, 1893; repr. as The New History… Amsterdam : Philo Press, 1975.
  • 1909. `Bāb, Babis’. In Hastings Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, pp. 299–308. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1909.
  • 1910. Nuqṭat al-kāf (ed), Browne, Kitab-i Nuqṭatu'l-Káf.. Compiled by Hājjī Mīrzā Jānī of Kāshān. London and Leiden. 1910.
  • 1918. Materials for the Study of the Bábí Religion. Cambridge: CUP., 1918 [Rep.1961] esp. `Further Notes on Bābī Literature,’ in Materials pp. 198-208.
  • Diary.

Bushrūʼī, Ḥasan Fuʼādī,

  • 2007.تارىخ دىانت بهائى در خرسان  = Tārīkh-i diyānat-i Bahāʼī dar Khurasān. Ḥasan Fuʼādī Bushrūʼī; Mīnū Dukht Fuʼādī; Farīdūn Vahman. Dārmishtāt, Ālmān : ʻAṣr-i Jadīd, 2007.  555 pages. Introduction in English.

Chahārdihī, Mudarrisī.

  • Shaykhlgarī, Bābīgarī. 2nd. ed., Tehran, 1351/1972.

Clément Huart, M

  • 1888. ` La religion de Bab: Essai de Réforme de l'islamisme en perse au xix esiècle’, in Revue de l'histoire des religions, Vol. 18 (1888), 279-296.
  • 1889. La religion de Bab: réformateur persan du XIXe siècle.  Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1889.

Dávúdí [Dā'ūdī], 'Alî   Murād علي مراد داودى (b. Shams-Abad, Azerbaijan, 1922–d. 1979?). Professor at the University of Tehran.

  • 1963. Dala'il-i sab`ah-yi `Arabiyya [The Arabic `Seven Proofs' of the Bab], Ahang-i Badi` 10 Year 18 (1342Sh/ 1963), 354-367.
  • انسان در ائين بهائ / Insān dar āʼīn-i Bahāʼī. Los Angeles, Calif. : Kalimát Press, 1987-
  • 2002. Eng trans. Human Station in the Bahá'í Faith: Selected Sections: Philosophy and Knowledge of the Divine. ed. comp. Vahid Rafatí, Hong Kong : Juxta Publishing Co., 2002.
  • 1987. Falsafih va ‘Irfan, vol. 1: Insan dar A’in-i Baha’i. ed. Vahid Ra’fati. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 1987.
  • 1991. Falsafih va ‘Irfan, Vol. 2: Uluhiyyat va Mazhariyyat. ed. Vahid Ra'fati. Dundas, Ontario: Persian Institute for Baha'i Studies, 1991.
  •  مقالات ورسائل در مباحث متنوعه 1993  / Maqālāt va rasāʼil dar mabāḥith-i mutanavvaʻah. ed. and comp. Vahid Rafati, Dundas, Ontario : Muʼassasat-i Maʻārif-i Bahāʼī, 150 Badīʻ/ 1993.   A compilation of works of `Ali Murad Davudi. n.d.
  • 1994. Falsafih va ‘Irfan,Vol. 3: Maqalat va Rasa’il. ed. Vahid Rafati. Dundas, Ontario: Persian Institute for Baha'i Studies, 1994.
  • الوهية و مظهريت / Ulūhīyat va maẓharīyat. 2nd ed. Dundas, Ontario, Canada : Muʼassasah-ʼi Maʻārif-i Bahāʼī, 1996. Contains the two volumes: (1) Insān dar āʼīn-i Bahāʼī  and (2) Falsafah va ʻirfān.

Dihajī, Sayyid Mahdī

  • Risala, Browne Coll. of Manuscripts, Cambridge University Library, Mss no. F.57

Dehkhodā,  Ali-Akbar (1879-1955). دهخدا، على أكبر 

See  Zahra Shams-Yadolahi, "Ali Akbar Dehkhodâ: Author, Philologist and Unique Encyclopaedist" in Orientalia Suecana, 2002-2003 (51-52), 405- 414; Milani, Eminent Persians; ʻAlī Akbar Dihkhudā; Mahdī Muḥaqqiq; Umīd Qanbarī; Anjuman-i Āthār va Mafākhir-i Farhangī., Zindagīʹnāmah va khadamāt-i ʻilmī va farhangī-i zindah yād-i ʻallāmah-i ʻlī Akbar Dihkhudā. Tehran: Anjuman-i Āthār va Mafākhir-i Farhangī, 1386/ 2007.   The Luqat-nâmeh-ye Dehkhodâ contains various Shaykhi and Babi-Baha'i related entries.

لغت ‌نامه = Lughatʹ-nāmah  (Persian Encyclopedic Dictionary in 50 vols.).

  • Loghat-nama (Dictionnaire encyclopédique) + Muhammad Muʻīn. Tehran / Téhéran, Université de Téhéran, Faculté des lettres, Institut Loghat-Nama, 1946-
  • Loghat-namehʻi Dehkhoda. 50 vols. Tehran: Dānishgāh-i Tihrā / Tehran University Press, 1958-1966.  Numerous printings, e.g. 
  • لغت نامه دهخدا = Luqat-nâmeh-ye Dehkhodâ.16 vols.  ed Muhamad Muʿīn and Jaʿfar Shahīdī.  Dānishgāh-i Tihrān / Tehran : Muʼassasah-ʼi Lughat Namah-ʼi Dihkhudā, 1377 /1998. 
  • CDRom. + Online. 

Ekbal, Kamran  (d. 201X).

See above under Muhammad-Muṣṭafā Baghdādi, his forbear, and Bib. II on this website. 

  • “Taqiyya und kitmān in den Bābi und Bahā’i Religionen,” in Stefan Wild and Hartmut Schild, eds., Akten des 27. Deutschen Orientalistentages: Norm und Abweichung, (Bonn 28. September bis 2. Oktober 1998), Würzburg 2001, pp. 363-72.
  • “Notes Taken from Interviews with Ḥasan Ṣafā, 210 Grandson of Moḥammad Moṣṭafā al-Baḡdādi,” Tours, August-September 1990, private papers of Kamran Ekbal.
  • “Murur-i bar alwāḥ-i ḥadrat-i Bahāʾ-Allāh  khaṭāb bi Muhammad-Muṣṭafā Baḡdādi,” in Safína-yi ʿerfān IV, Darmstadt, 2001, pp. 192-202.
  • “Taqiya, setr wa ketmān dar diānathā-yi Bābi wa Bahāʾi,” Iran Nāmeh 28/3, 2013, pp. 170-93.

Eshraqhi, Armin.

  • 2004. Frühe Shaikhi und Babi-Thelogie: Die Beweise für Muhammads besonderes Prophetentum (ar- Risāla fī ithbāt an-nubūwa al-khaṣṣa). Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2004.
  • 2012. `Undermining the Foundations of Othodoxy: Some Notes on the Bab's Sharia (Sacred Law)’ in Lawson ed. 2012, 223-247.

Fāḍil-i Mazandarānī, Mirza Asadu’llah (d. Khurramshahr, 1957).

See Mazandarānī, KZH VIII/2 pp. 825-881; Sulaymānī MH II 69-141; MacEoin, Sources, 174-75; Momen "FĀŻEL MĀZANDARĀNĪ, MĪRZĀ ASAD-ALLĀH, Bahai scholar and missionary (b. Bābol, 1298/1881; d. Ḵorramšahr, 5 Dey 1336 Š./26 December 1957)" in EIr. Vol. IX/5, pp. 460-461. Available online at

  • Kitāb-i Ẓuhūr al-ḥaqq (The Book of the Manifestation of the Truth/True One"). 9 vols. Mostly in mss. except vols. III (194? and reprint), IV and VIII/1+2.
  • Zuhur'u'l-Haqq [sic.] Vol. 3. 2nd ed.  Germany : Baha'i Verlag. 165 BE/ 2008. 464 pages.
  • Tarikh-i Ẓuhūr al-ḥaqq, Vol. 8 in 2 parts. Tehran: Mu’assisah-‘i Milli-i Matbu‘at-i Amri,
  • Zuhur'u'l-Haqq [ sic.] Vol. 4 History of the Bahá’í Faith 1851-1867. Germany : Baha'i Verlag. 436 pages.
  • Tarikh-i Ẓuhūr al-ḥaqq. Vol. 6. East Lansing: H-Bahai Digital Publication, 1991. .
  • Amr va khalq. 4 vols. in 2. Hoffheim: Mu’assisah-‘i Milli-i Matbu‘at-i Baha’i, 1985. 2 vols., 335, 360 pp.  Repr. ed of Tehran: MMMA, 1954/1955.
  • Asrār al-āthār. 5 vols. Tehran: MMMA., 124-129 BE./1967-1973.

Farahvashī, ʻAlī Muhammad [= ʻA - F.]  فرهوشى، على محمد

  • آئين باب / Āʼīn-i Bāb.   Tehran: ? c. 1323/1944 and/or 1946? 98 pages. Incorrectly 

Fayḍī, Muhammad `Alī. فىضى، محمد على

  • Nayrīz-i mushkbīz, Tehran: Muʼassasah-i Millī-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Amrī, 129/130 Badīʿ BE/ 1325 Sh/1947 + 1352 Sh./1973 + 130BE/1975.  214 pages.

  • حضرت نقطۀ اولى / Ḥaḍrat-i nuqṭa-yi ūlá. Zindagī-nāmah-i Ḥadrat-i Nuqtah-ʼi Ulá. 1st ed. 132 BE/1976-7 CE.This book is rich in citations from original sources including facsimilies of several of the Babs letters and talismanic haykals, a letter of Sayyid Kazim Rashti to Mula Husayn Bushru'i (opposite p.52) and (allegedly) a Tablet of the Bab to Baha'u'llah (2nd ed. opposite p. 244).

  • حضرت نقطۀ اولى / Ḥaḍrat-i nuqṭa-yi ūlá. Zindagī-nāmah-i Ḥadrat-i Nuqtah-ʼi Ulá Tehran: MMMA., 1352 Sh. /1973. 392, [15] pages, 36 unnumbered leaves of plates.

  • Ḥaḍrat-i nuqṭa-yi ūlá. Rep. Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahā’ī-Verlag, 144/1987.  394 pages + Index and errata. Revised ed. of Ṭihrān, 132 BE/1976-1977 with Errata: p. [397]-[407]. Lajnah-i Millī-i Nashr-i Āthār-i Amrī bih lisān-i Fārsī va ʻArabī.

  • Kitāb-i Khāndān-i Afnān, Sidra-yi Raḥmān. Tehran: Muʾassasat-i Millī-yi Maṭbūʿāt-i Amrī, 127 BE /1971-2 CE.
  • Ḥadat Bahāʼ Allāh : 1233-1309 hijrī qamarī, 1817-1892 mīlādī. 2nd ed. Hofheim-Langenhain, Germany : Baháʼí-Verlag, 1990. 283, 27 pages. 

Fuʼādī Bushrūʼī Ḥasan (b. Bushruya, 1899; d. Tehran, 1315/1936).

See Sulaymāni MH V: 378-411; Fereydun Vahman, “Zendagi-nāma-ye … Ḥasan Foʾādi Bošruʾi wa āṯār-e u,” pub. as an Introd. in Foʾādi, 2007, pp. 21-42; Fereydun Vahman, "FOʾĀDI BOŠRUʾI, ḤASAN," in EIr. online edition, 2015, available at (accessed on 04 February 2015).

  • Manāẓir-i tārikhi-i nahżat-i amr-i Bahāʾi dar Khurāsān. Tehran, 111 BE/1955. 460 pages. The ms. was apparently completed in 1931.
  •  تارىخ دىانت بهائى در خرسان / Tārīkh-i diyānat-i Bahāʼī dar Khurasān, 1844-1926. History of the Bahāʼī faith in Khorāsān. ed. Mīnū Dukht Fuʼādī; Farīdūn Vahman. Dārmishtāt, Ālmān :  ʻAṣr-i Jadīd, 2007. 555 pages.

Fuʼādī / Foadi, Minou.

  • 2002. “Zindagi-nāma-yi Nabil-i Akbar Āqā Muhammad Fādil Qāʾini,” in Khushahā-i az ḵarman-i adab wa hunar XIII: dawra-yi Nabil-i Akbar, Darmstadt, 2002, pp. 17-44.
  • 2005 in EIr. "NABIL-E AKBAR, title of Āqā Moḥammad Qāʾeni, a prominent Bahai author and apologist (b. Now Ferest [Razmara,Farhang IX, p. 428], a village near Qāʾen, 23 Ramaḍān 1244/29 March 1829; d. Bukhara, 13 Ḏu’l-ḥejja 1309/6 July 1892)". Nabil-i Akbar was one learned in Islamic jurisprudence and philosophy, a Babi then Baha'i. The celebrated Lawḥ-i ḥikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) of Baha'-Allah was adressed to him or written in his honour.

Ghadimi, Riaz L. / دکتر رىاض قدىمى

  • سلطان رسل، حضرت رب اعلى / Sulṭān-i rasul, Ḥadrat-i Rabb Aʻlá. 2nd ed. /printing Toronto Canada, 1993. Apparently self published. 5, 83 pages

Goldziher, Ignaz Goldziher (1850-1921).

  • `Verhältnis des Bāb zu früheren Ṣūfī-Lehren' in Der Islam, Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Kulter des Islamischen Oriens 11: 252-254. Eng. trans. B. Walker and S. Lambden in BSB 6: 2-3 (Feb. 1992), 65-68.

Gulpaygānī, Muhammad ibn Muḥammad Riḍā' Gulpāygānī, Mīrzā Abū al-Faḍl / Fada'il ('Father of Excellence(s) (b. Gulpaygan, Persia, 1844 - d. Cairo, Egypt,  21st Jan. 1914).

Trained as a Muslim cleric in Karbala, Najaf (Ottoman Iraq) and Isfahan (Persian-Iran), he became a Baha'i in 1876 and wrote numerous books, treatises and epistles many of which contain materials about the Bab and Babi history. See Bibliography at :

  • Sharh-i āyāt-i muvarrikhah ("Commentary on the Chronological Proof texts"). Shanghai, 1344/1925 etc).
  • Risāla-yi `Ayyūbiyya (`The Job Related Treatise (this remains in ms.) in order to attract Jews (of Hamadan, etc) Christians and others to the Bahā’ī religion.
  • Faṣl al-Khiṭāb (The Decisive Discourse)  [Samarkand] n.d. [completed, 1893-4]. Rep. Dundas, Ontario, 1995.
  • Kitāb al-Farā'id (`Book of Incomparability). Cairo, 1315/1898. Completed 1st Shawwal 1315 = 23rd Feb. 1898. A massive work of Baha'i apologetics and defence of the Kitab-i iqan of Baha'-Allah.
  • 1315/1898. Kitāb al-farāʼid fī bayān wujūh aqsām al-dalīl wa'l-burhān wa-jawāb masāʼil intaqada bi-hā ḥaḍrat al-shaykh ʻAbd al-Salām ʻalá ahl al-Īqān. with the patronage of Hajji `Abd al-Karim Tehrani and Mirza `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, and financed by Mirza Hasan Khurasani and Faraj-Allah Zaki al-Kurdi.  Cairo: Maṭbaʻat Hindiyya bi'l-shari`a al-Mahdi bi'l-Azbakiyya, 1315/1898. 731 + xxv pages.  
  • 2001. Kitab al-fara'id : fi bayān wujūh aqsām al-dalīl wa-al-burhān wa-jawāb masāʼil intaqada bi-hā haḍrat al-Shaykh ʻAbd al-Salām ʻalʹa Ahl al-īqān. Hofheim-Langenhain : Baha'i Verlag, 2001. 489 pp. (25cm.).
  • al-Farāʼid : Urdū tarjumah. Trans. AbūlʻAbbās Ridvī Jārcavī, Karāchī: Maḥfil Rūḥānī Millī-yi Bahāʼiyān-i Pākistān, 1957. 16, 488 pages.
  • al-Farāʼid : Urdū tarjumah = Urdu translation *2nd ed.).  Rāvalpindī : Bahāʼī Pablishing Ṭrusṭ Pākistān, 2003. 440 pages.
  • Majmu`a-yi Rasa'il-i-hadrat-i-Abi'l-Fadl. Cairo in 1920.  Contains 16 letters and treatises.
  • Rasā’il wa raqā'im. ed. Ruhu'llah Mihrābkhānī, Tehran, 134 B.E./1976-77. Contains 23 treatises and 59 letters a few of which have been translated into English by Juan Cole in his Letters & Essays...
  • Tarīkh al-Bāb wa'l-Bābiyya ("The History of the Bab and the Babi religion"). A version of this historical text  was commissioned by Yaqʿūb Ṣarrūf, the editor of the Egyptian magazine المقتطف Al-Muqtaṭaf ("The Digest"; Published in Beirut and Cairo), after the assassination of Nasir al-Din Shah in 1896. Refer, Rasā’il wa raqā'im, 291-303 and Cole, trans. Letters and Essays, 95-109. 
  • Risla Iskandariyya ("The Alexandrine Tract").  Written in reply to questions raised by E. G. Browne about, among other things,  the life of Baha'u'llah and the authoriship of the Tarikh-i Jadid ("New History") of Mirza Husayn Hamadani (see below). Its title derives its name from the Russian Orientalist Aleksandr Grigor’evich Tumansky (1861-1917) with whom Gulpayigani had links and to whom it is dedicated. For the text see Rasā'il wa raqā'im, 48-89 and trans. Cole, Letters and Essays, 43-83).

  • Ḥujaj al-Baha'iyya. Ḥujajʹul-Behayyeh : The Bahaʹí proofs; and, A short sketch of the history and lives of the leaders of this religion. 2nd ed. by Mirza Abul-Fazl ; translated by Ishtael-Ebn-Kalenter. Chicago : Grier Press, 1914. 288 pages.

  • Ḥujajʹl-Bahíyyih, `The Baháʹí proofs' and, A short sketch of the history and lives of the leaders of this religion. Wilmette, Ill. : Baháʹí Pub. Trust, 1983. Reprint of the 3rd ed., namely, the New York, Baha'i Pub. Committee printing of 1929. 

  • Rasā'il wa raqā'im. ed. and comp. R. Mihrābkhānī, Tehran, 134 B.E./1976-77.

  • Kashf al-Ghiṭā `an hiyal al-a`dā' (The Uncovering of the Veil  from the Schemes of the Opponents). 2 vols. [Turkistan] Tashkent/ Ashkabad n.d. (c. 1919). An unfinished Persian work completed by  Sayyid Mahdĩ Gulpaygānī and others. In the printed edition only 132 of 438 pages seem to have been written by Gulpayigani himself. It is in part a responce  to E. G. Browne's publication in 1910  of the Kitāb-i Nuqtat al-Kāf which he attributed to the Babi Hajji Mirza Jānī Kāshāni. This latter work of Gulpaygāni and others was viewed unfavourably as an Azali Babi corruption by `Abd al-Bahā' who ultimately advised its removal. Several copies, however, survived. The printed edition contains some important works of the Bab and of such Babis as Tahira, Qurrat al-`Ayn. For some details see Balyuzi, EGB and the Baha'i Faith, 1970 index; MacEoin, Sources, 136-139.
  • Mírzá Gulpáygání, Abu'l-Faḍl; trans. Juan Ricardo Cole. Letters and Essays, 1886-1913. Kalimat Press. 1985.

Hamadānī, Ḥusayn / Ḥusain (d. 1299/1881-2)

  • 1893. ed. and trans., E.G. Browne, The Táríkh-i-jadíd, or New history of Mírzá ʻAli Muḥammad the Báb, by Mírzá Ḥuseyn of Hamadán. Translated from the Persian, with an introduction ... by Edward G. Browne, 1893. lii-459-26 pages. 
  • The Tārīkh-i-Jadīd, or New History of Mīrzā ʿAlī Muhammed, the Bāb, Cambridge : The University Press, 1893
  • 1975. The new history of Mírzá ʻAlí Muḥammed, the Báb = Táríkh-i-jadíd : being an account of the origins and growth of the Babi religion and its founder. Reprint: Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1975. This is a reprint of the 1893 ed. published by Cambridge University Press.  ii, 459 pages, 6 unnumbered leaves of plates.  It is translated from the Persian and edited with explanatory notes and appendixes containing Ṣubḥ-i-Ezel's narrative, Persian and English, Mírzá Jání's history and other documents ... [by] Edward G. Browne ; with a biographical note by Michael Browne.

See further the articles by Muḥīt Tabātabā'ī :

  • Kitābī bī nam bā nāmī tāza, in Gawhar, Year 2, parts 11-12 (1353/1974), 952-961.
  • Tārīkh-i qadīm wa jadīd, 2 part s, in Gawhar, Year 3, parts 5-6 (1354/1975), 343-8, 426-31.

Hamadānī, Mīrzā Yaḥyā ʿAmīd-al-Aṭibbāʾ

  • Wāqiʿāt-i qudhashta-yi amrīya-yi Rasht ("History of the Babi-Baha'i Cause in Rasht"), 1307-1345, Ms. in Afnān Li­brary, Sandy, Beds.

al-Ḥasanī, Sayyid  ʻAbd al-Razzāq (c. 1922-1972 or 1980). حسني، عبد الرزاق   See:

  • السيد عبد الرزاق الحسني : و آثاره الكتابية في بحر خمسين سنة من حياته، ١٩٢٢-١٩٧٢ / al-Sayyid ʻAbd al-Razzāq al-Ḥasanī : wa -āthāruhu al-kitābīyah fī baḥr khamsīn sanah min ḥayātihi, 1922-1972. Beirut: Maṭbaʻat Dār al-Kutub, 1973. 38 pages .Also Beirut:Maṭbaʻat Dār al-Kutub, 1980. Biography of this `Iraqi intellectual and wide ranging writer on, for example, the history of Iraq, the history of religions, the Shi`i community, hadith literature, the al-Ṣābiʼūn, the Sabeans, the al-Madhhab al-Yazīdī or Yezidees  and revolutionary history.
  • البابيون في التاريخ / al-Bābiyyūn fī al-tārīlkh or al-Babiyun wa'l-Baha'iyun ... Ṣaydā / Sidon : Maṭbaʻat al-ʻIrfān, 1349 /1930. 
  • al-Bābīyūn wa-al-Bahāʼīyūn fī ḥāḍirihim wa-māḍīhim Sidon, 1957/ 2nd d. 1962.
  • البابيون والبهائيون في حاضرهم وماضيهم : دراسة دقيقة في الكشفية والشيخية وكيفية ظهور البابية فالبهائية / al-Bābīyūn wa-al-Bahāʼīyūn fī ḥāḍirihim wa-māḍīhim : dirāsah daqīqah fī al-Kashfiyyah wa-al-Shaykhīyah wa-fī kayfīyat ẓuhūr al-Bābiyyah fa-al-Bahāʼīyah. Beirut : al-Dār al-ʻArabīyah lil-Mawsūʻāt, 2008. 264 pages.

Hidāyat, Riḍā Qulī Khān (Lālā-bāshī) (b. Tehran, 1215/1800–d. Tehran, 1288/1871) was a courtier, prolific historian and poet in the service of the Qājār kings (r. 1794–1925). Hidāyat is his pen-name. He resided at one time with Ḥāji Mirzā Āqāsi and later entered the service of Nāṣir-al-Din Shah. His Tārīkh-i Rawḍat al-ṣafāʼ-i Nāṣirī is an historical work comissioned by Nāṣir al-Din Shah and constituting an edition (vols. 1-7) and supplement (vols. 8-10) to Mirkhwānd's Rawḍat al-ṣafā fī sīrat al-anbiyā’ wa’l-mulūk wa’l-khulafā’ (Garden of Purity respecting the Lives of the Prophets, the Kings and
the Caliphs; 7+1 vols.) of the late Tīmūrid writer Muhammad ibn Khwāndshāh ibn Maḥmūd, Mīrkhwānd  (d. 903/1498). See further art. Losensky in  EIr. Vol. XII/ 2 (2003), pp. 119-121  (+ see also bib. here).

  • Rawḍat al-ṣafāʼ-i nāṣirī. 10 vols., Tehran, 1270-74/1853-56. Several 19th cent. Lithograph editions e.g. Bombay, 1845, 1848; Tehran, 1853-56; Lucknow, 1874; 1883 some having been translated into Turkish, Latin and other European languages.
  • Rawḍat al-ṣafāʼ-i nāṣirī. 10 vols.,Tehran : Kitābfurūshīhā-i Markazī, 1338-1351 Sh. /1959-1972.
  • Tārīkh-i Rawḍat al-ṣafāʼ-i nāṣirī. 10 vols. Mulḥaqāt, Tehran: Kitābfurūshīhā-i Markazī 1339/ 1960. 832 pages.
  • Tārīkh-i Rawḍat al-ṣafāʼ-i nāṣirī.

Hosseini, Nosratollah Mohammad  or Ḥusaynī,  Nuṣrat Allāh Muhammad / حسينى، نصرت الله محمد 

  •  حضرت باب / Ḥadrat-i Bāb ...  Dundas, Ont : Muʼassasah-ʼi Maʻārif-i Bahāʼī / Institute for Bahá'í Studies in Persian, 1995.  1038 pages.
  • ‏حضرت باب :‏ ‏شرح حيات و آثار حضرت باب و احوال اصحاب عهد اعلى، به مناسبت يکصد و پنجاهمين سال ظهور مبارک حضرت باب / Ḥadrat-i Bāb : sharḥ-i ḥayāt va āthār-i Ḥadrat-i Bāb va aḥvāl-i aṣḥāb-i ʻahd-i āʻlá, bih munāsibat-i yakṣad va panjāhumīn sāl-i ẓuhūr-i mubārak-i Ḥadrat-i Bāb = The Bab : his life, his writings and the disciples of the Báb's dispensation. 2nd ed. Australia :  Muʼassasah-i Sanchurī Pris (Century Press), 2016. 1133 pages. 
  • Yūsuf-i Bahāʼ dar Qayyūm al-Asmāʼ  /   يوسف بهاء در قيوم الاسماء . Ontario, Canada : Muʼassasah-ʼi Maʻārif-i Bahāʼī bi-Lisān-i Fārsī, 1991. 118 pages.
  • Hadarat-i  Ṭāhira. Dundas, Ontario (Canada): 2000. 
  • Hadarat-i  Ṭāhira. 2nd ed. Nehal [Spain]. 2012. 636 pages.
  • تاريخ امر بهائى در شهر قم / Tārīkh-i amr-i Bahāʼī dar shahr-i Qum
  • تاريخ امر بهائى در شهر قم / Tārīkh-i amr-i Bahāʼī dar shahr-i Qum. Dārmshtāt : ʻAṣr-i Jadīd, 2005-
  • "QODDUS, Moḥammad-ʿAli Bārforuši" in EIr. 2009. Available online at

Ibn-i Abhar, Muhammad-Taqi (1270-1337/1854-1919), son of Mirza ʿAbd-al-Raḥīm Iṣfahānī (d. 1290/1872), a Shiʿite mujtahid, crypto-Babi and Baha'i. Cf. Lambden, “Ebn Abhar,” in  Encyclopaedia Iranica VII, 661-2.  1996

  • Yádńamiy-i Ibn-i-Abhar  ("Remembrance of Ibn-i-Abhar"). ed Vahid Rafati. Hofheim, Germany : Bahá'í Verlag, 2016.  619 pages

Iʻtiḍād al-Salṭana, ʻAlī Qulī Mirzā (d. 1297/1880-81), ed. ʻAbd al-Ḥusayn Navāʼī`/ ʻAbd-al-Ḥusain Nawāʼī.  / نوائى، عبد الحسين

  • Fitna-i Bāb, Tehran: Masʻūd-i Saʻd,  1333  Sh./1954. 122 pages.
  • Muddaʻiyān-i nubuwwat : sargudasht wa aḥwāl-i mahdanī az āghāz-i tārīkh tā kunūn-i mahdawiyyat wa nubuwwat barhāsta-and. ed. Hāšim Raḍī. Tehran: Muʼassasa-i Intišār-i Āsiyā, 1343 Sh./, 1964. 279 pages.
  • al-Mutanabbi’in. ed. `Abd al-Ḥusayn Navāʼī as Fitnah-’i Bab. 2nd ed. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Bābak, 1351 Sh./1972. 313 pages.
  • Nava'i , 'Abd al-Husayn. "'Sayyid 'Ali Muh]ammad-i Bab va Kitab al-mutanabbiyin-i I'tidad al-Saltana." Yaghma (Tehran) 3 : For the Kitab al-mutabbiyin, see section x, item xx.(so MacEoin. BBRAB. No.158).
  • Fitna-yi Bāb,  ed. ʻAbd-al-Ḥusain Navāʼī.Tehran: Intishārāt-i Bābak,  1362 Sh./1983. 312 pages.
  • Fitna-yi Bāb, Tehran: : Nashr-i ʻIlm. 1377 Sh./1998-9. 218 pages.
  • Iksīr al-tawārīkh tārīkh-i Qājāriyya az āghāz tā 1259 h.q  by Iʻtiḍād al-Salṭana ʻAlī-Qulī Mīrzā; ed. Jamshīd Giyānfar (= Intišārāt-i Asāṭīr, 575). Tehran: Asāṭīr 1395  Sh. / 2016. 

Iqbāl, 'Abbās / `Abbas Iqbāl Āshtiyānī (1897-1956).

See Umīd Qanbarī, زندگى‌ نامه و خدمات علمى و فرهنگى شادروان دکتر عباس اقبال آشتىانى / Zindagīʹnāmah va khadamāt-i ʻilmī va farhangī-i shādravān Duktur ʻAbbās Iqbāl Āshtiyānī (= Majmūʻah-i zindagīʹnāmahʹhā, 60). Tehran: Anjuman-i Āthār va Mafākhir-i Farhangī, 1386Sh/2007 or 2008. 188 pages; Lida Andisheh, ʻAbbās Iqbāl Āshtīyānī (1897-1956) : a study in modern Iranian intellectual history'. Ph. D. University of Utah 1982. xii, 277 pages. 

  • 'I'tiḍād al-Salţana wa zuhūr-i Bābiyya', in Yādgār, vol. 2.

Iṣfahānī, Hajji Mirza Ḥaydar ʻAlī (b. Isfahan, ca. 1830 - d. Haifa, 7 December 1920).

حاج مىرزا حىدر على اصفهانى

  • Dala'il-i irfan (Proofs of the [Babi-Baha'i] Gnosis"). Ms. unpublished.
  • بهجت الصدور / Bihjat al-ṣudūr [or Bahjat al-ṣudūr].  Lithograph, dar bandar-i maʻmūrah-ʼi Bambaʼī : Zīvar, 1331  1913. 530 pages. min taṣānīf mawlānā al-jalīl al-fāz̤il al-nabīl al-ʻārif al-kāmil munshī al-badīʻ va al-rasāyil ḥaz̤rat al-Ḥājj Mīrzā Ḥaydar ʻAlī Iṣfahānī kih dar savāniḥi ʻumrī-i khūd tadhkirah farmūdah =  اصفهانى، حيدر على. من تصانيف مولانا الجليل الفاضل النبيل العارف الکامل منشى البديع و الرسايل حضرت الحاج ميرزا حيدر على اصفهانى که در سوانح عمرى خود تذکره فرموده اند
  • Bihjat al-Sudur repr., Hofheim-Langenhain, Baha'i Verlag. 1982. 530 pages.
  • Bahai martyrdoms in Persia in the year 1903 A.D. Trans. Mirza Youness Khan. Chicago : Bahai Publishing Society, 1904. Reprint. Chicago : Bahai Pub. Society, 1917. 28 pages.
  • Stories from the delight of hearts : the memoirs of Ḥájí Mírzá Ḥaydar-ʻAlí. Trans. A. Q. Faizi. Los Angeles, Kalimat Press, 1980. vi, 168 pages.

Ishrāq Khavārī, `Abd al-Ḥamid (d. 1972 CE) اشراق خاورى، عبد الحميد

For further details see ʻAbd al-Ḥamīd Ishrāq Khāvarī; Ṣāliḥ Mawlavīʹ (ed. comp.) and  Vaḥīd Raʼfatī (Introduction)   اشراق خاورى : زندگى، آثار و خاطرات / Ishrāq Khāvarī : zindagī, āthār va khāṭirāt. Madrid [Spain] Mādrīd : Bunyād-i Farhangī-i Niḥal, 2009. 480 pages. Also :  ىادنامۀ اشراق خاورى Yādʹnāmah-ʼi Ishrāq Khāvarī. ("Remembrance of Is̲h̲ráq Khávarí"). ed. Vahid Rafati. In series: Majmūʻah-i diyār-i andīshah, 27. Madrid : Bunyād-i Farhangī-i Niḥal, 2014.

  • Kitāb-i qāmūs-i īqān. 4 vols. Tehran: MMMA, 128 BE /1972.

  • قاموس : توقيع منيع نوروز ١٠٨ بديع /  Qāmūs : tawqīʻ-i manīʻ-i Nawrūz-i 108 badīʻ (Asrār-i rabbānī, 3).  Dārmshtāt : ʻAṣr-i Jadīd, 2001.  Commentary on Shoghi Effendi's general letter to the Baha'is of the east, dated Naw-ruz 108 BE. Introd. Vahid Rafati.  256 pages.
  • محاضرات / Muḥāḍarāt.  3 vols. in 2. Lānganhāyn : Muʼassasah-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Amrī, 1994-2009.
  • Kitāb Muḥāḍirāt, 2 vols.  rep. Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahā’ī-Verlag, 142 BE / 1987. 1128 pages.
  • Rahīq-i makhtūm. 2 vols. Tehran: MMMA., 130 BE./1973-74.
  • Taqwīm-i tãrīkh-i amr. Tehran: MMMA., 126 B.E./1969-70.
  • Ashʻar-i Janab-i Naʻim va sharh-i an mawsum bih Jannat-i Naʻim. np.nd. 229 pages.
  • قاموس : توقيع منيع نوروز ١٠٨ بديع / Qāmūs : tawqīʻ-i manīʻ-i Nawrūz-i 108 badīʻ. (ed. Vahid Rafati) Dārmshtāt [Germany] : ʻAṣr-i Jadīd, 2001. Commentary on Shoghi Effendi's general letter to the Baha'is of the east, dated Naw-ruz 108 BE. 256 pages.  
  • تاريخ امرى همدان / Tārīkh-i amrī-i Hamadān (ed. Vahid Rafati). Muʼassasah-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Bahāʼī-i Ālmān  Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahā’ī-Verlag, XXX BE / 2004. 406 pages.

Jahāngīr Mīrzā جهانگىر، مىرزا، (1852-1808 or 3) son of ʻAbbās Mīrzā Nāyib al-Salṭanah (1789-1833).

  • Tārlkh-i Naw : shāmil-i ḥavādis-i davrah-ʼi Qājārīyah az sāl-i 1240 tā 1267 qamarī. ed. ʻAbbās Iqbāl. Tehran: Kitābkhānah-i 'Alī Akhar 'Ilmī, 1327 Sh./1948.  347 pages.
  • تاريخ نو : شامل حوادث دورۀ قاجاريه از سال ١٢٤٠ تا ١٣٦٧ قمرى / Tārīkh-i naw : shāmil-i ḥavādith-i dawrah-ʼi Qājāriyyah az sāl-i 1240 tā 1267 Qamarī. Tehran : Kitābkhānah-i 'Alī Akhar ʻIlm, 1384/2005 or 6. 333 pages
  • تارىخ قاجاريه : وقاىع بىست و شش ساله از هزار و دوىست و چهل و ىک تا شصت و شش مسمى بتارىخ نو / Tārīkh-i Qājārīyah : vaqāyiʻ-i bīst va shish sālah az hizār va divīst va chihil va yik tā shiṣt va shish musammá bi-Tārīkh-i naw (History of the Qājār dynasty from 1241 to 1266 AH = 1825-1850. 196 leaves. Persian ms. dated 15 Jumādá II 1328 H / 24 June 1910 (fol. 196b) in Princeton University Library (USA). See World Cat.

Jānī Kashani, Hajji Mirza (d. 30th Dhu'l-Qadah, 1268/15th Sept. 1852 CE).

In 1847 this Kashani Babi along with his two brothers - Hajj Mirza Isma'il and Hajji Mirza Ahmad - met and accomodated the Bab for a few days at their home in Kashan. This in the course of his exile and eventual imprisonment in Maku (Adhirbayjan, NW Persia).  For further details see Browne, 1893, The New History, xivff; MacEoin, art. `Nuqṭatul-káf in EI2  (+ bib. here) and his Sources, Ch. VI pp. 134-152; Appendix VII and VIII, pp. 211-214 as well as McCants and Milani 2004, 2008, etc (see below).

  • كتاب نقطة الكاف : در تاريخ ظهور باب و وقايع هشت سال اول از تاريخ بابيه = Kitáb-i Nuqṭatul-káf, being the earliest history of the Bábís. Leyden, E.J. Brill; London, Luzac & Co., 1910. "E.J.W. Gibb memorial" series, v. 15. Allegedly compiled by Hájji Mírzá Jání of Káshán between the years A.D. 1850 and 1852. Ed. from the unique Paris ms. suppl. persan 1071, by Edward G. Browne. See also above under Browne, E.G. Contains   297, xcv pages 2 plates, 5 facsimile texts.  This volume contains the former's "Index of chief contents of the Persian Bayán": pages [liv]-xcv. See further :

Denis MacEoin, "Nuktat al-kaf" in EI(and see further the bib. here)  and his Sources, Ch. VI (pp.134-152) and index.  McCants, William, F.  and Kavian Milani. `The History and Provenance of an Early Manuscript of the Nuqtat al-Kaf Dated 1268 (1851-52).'  Iranian Studies 37:3 (September 2004), 431-449. 

 Imortant discussion of the date and authorship etc of the  Nuqtat al-Kaf can be found in William McCants and Kavian Milani,

  • “The History and Provenance of an Early Manuscript of the Noqtatol-kāf Dated (1851-52),” Iranian Studies 37/3, September 2004, pp. 431-50 (in which the 1268 and 1909 manuscripts are introduced).

See further, Kavian Milani,

  • “The Bāb’s Stay in Kāšān: A Historiographical Analysis of the Kitāb-e Noqtatol-kāf Based on the Kāšān Pericope,” Bahā’i Studies Review 12, pp. 1-14.
  • "NOQṬAT AL-KĀF (Point of the letter Kāf)" in EIr. (2008). Available online at :

Jūrābchī,  ʻAlāʼ al-Dīn Quds

  • باب، بنيان‌گزار آئين بابى  = The Báb, the founder of the Bábi religion / Bāb, bunyānʹguzār-i āʼīn-i Bābī = The Báb, the founder of the Bábi religion. Los Angeles, CA : Ketab Corp., 2015. 95 pages.

Kasravī Tabrizi, Aḥmad (b. 1890 - d. 1946 CE)

See زندگانى من : ده سال در عدليه، چرا از عدليه بىرون آمدم / Zindagānī-i man : dah sāl dar ʻAdlīyah, chirā az ʻAdlīyah bīrūn ām̄adam. Köln : Mehr, 1377/1998. 343 pages. Also Piedmont, Calif. : Shirkat-i Kitāb-i Jāhān, 1990. 343 pages.

  • Baha'igari ... Tehran 1321 sh./1942.
  • بهائيگرى شيعيگرى صوفيگرى :‏ ‏احمد كسروى ؛ با مقدمۀ عليرضا ثمرى. = Bahāʼīgarī, Shīʻīgarī, Ṣūfīgarī... Introd. ʻAlī Ridā. ThamrīIsin, Ālamān : Nashr-i Nīmā, 2003. 346 pages.

  • بهائيگرى ؛ شيعيگرى ؛ صوفيگرى / Bahāʼīgarī ; Shīʻīgarī ; Ṣūfīgarī. Kl̄n, Germany : Mihr, 1996. 297 pages.

  • شیخی‌گری، بابی‌گرایی، بهایی‌گری

Faza'i, Yusof = Yūsuf Faz̤āʼī (b. Bahar, Hamadan....)

  • بلبيگرى، بها]يگرى ... وكسروى گرايى Taḥqīq dar tārīkh va falsafah. Tehran: Mu'assat Matbu`ati-yi Farakhi. 336 pages.
  • ‏تحقيق در تاريخ وعقايد :‏ ‏شيخيگرى، بلبيگرى، بها]يگرى ... وكسروى گرايى  ‏  = Taḥqīq dar tārīkh va ʻaqāyid : Shaykhīgarī, Bābīgarī, Bahāyīgarī ... va Kasravī girāyī Tehran: : Āshiyānah-i Kitāb, 1381 /2002 or 2003. and 2013 in 292 pages.

Kāzem-Beg (1802- c.1870), Alexander (Mīrzā).

Muhammad `Ali, Hajji Ibn Qasim Olgy, Alexander Kasimovich, Kazem Beg (b. Gilan, 1802-1870) of the Department of Oriental Languages, Kazan University and, from 1855, first dean of the Faculty of Oriental Languages, St. Petersburg University.  Alexander Kazem Beg wrote on the religon of the Bab in Russian from c. 1865.

  • Бабъ и Бабиды: религіозно-политическія смуты въ Персіи въ 1844-1852 годахъ. Содержитъ: 1) Біографію Баба, 2) Историческое изложеніе о Бабидахъ и 3) Обзоръ иьъ ученія. Russian. So WordCat.

  • Bāb-i Bābidy: Religiozno-polit. Smuty v Persii v. 1844-1852, St. Petersburg: Tip. V.n. Maikova, 1865.

  • `Bāb et les Bābis, ou soulè̀̀vement politique et religieux en Perse de 1845 à 1853’’, (Paris), Journal Asiatique (Société asiatique, 6th series) vol. 7 (1866), 329-384; 457-522 + Vol. 8 (1866), 196-252; 357-400, 473-507.   

Kazembeyki, Mohammad Ali. Teaches at the Dept. of History, Azzahra University, Tehran.

  • Society, Politics and Economics in Mazandaran, Iran 1848-1914. London, New York: Routledge Curzon, 2003.

Kirmānī, Hajjī Mīrzā Muhammad Karīm Khān (d. 1288/1871). See below Supplement  II Shaykhism and Anti-Babi Polemic.

Lisān-al-Mulk, Sipihr (`Celestial Sphere'), Kāshānī,  Mirza Muhammad Tāqī ( b. Kashan, 1216 or 1217/1801-2 - d. 1297/ 1880). Siphir's ناسخ التوارىخ Nāsikh al-tawārīkh (The Supplanter of Histories)  was a major, very influential, though defective source for the life and teachings of the Bab and aspects of Babi history such as the Babi upheavals and the lives of certain of his major disciples including Tahira, Qurrat al-`Ayn. It began to be printed in lithograph editions from about 1273-6 and during later 1270s then 1280s AH, from c. 1858 through into the 1860s and beyond. These19th century lithograph printings of the Nāsikh include  Tehran 1860; 1888-9; early 1890s as well as editions in Bombay, 1892, etc. (Storey. 1:152f, 1247; Minorsky, `Sipihr’ EI2 IX:658).  The Nāsikh al-tawārīkh was known amongst Bābī-Bahā’ī leaders and writers; in part because their updated supplements contain often inaccurate and critical accounts of Bābī beginnings and historical episodes. In an unpublished letter of `Abd al-Baha' to Lotfullah Ḥakīm, the Nāsīkh al-tawārīkh is strongly criticized.

  • Tārīkh-i Qājāriyya. Nāsikh al-tawārīkh. n.p., 1273/1857.
  • Tarikh-i Qājāriyyah az mujalladat-i nasikh al-tavarikh. 3 vols. in 1 Tabriz: : Maṭbaʻat-i Āqā ʻAlī Aṣghar, 1319/1901 or 2.
  • Nāsikh al-tawārīkh: Dawra-yi kāmil-i tārīkh-i Qājāriyya. ed. Jahāngīr Qā’immaqāmī. 3 vols. Tehran: Amīr Kabīr, 1337 Sh/ 1958.
  • Nāsikh al-Tawārīkh: Dawra-yi kāmil-i tārīkh-i Qājāriyya, 4 vols. ed. Jahāngīr Qā'immaqāmī. Tehran: Amīr-Kabīr, 1344/1965-6.
  • Nāsikh al-tavārīkh : Salāṭīn-i Qājāriyyah, 4 vols.  ed. Muhammad Bāqir Bihbūdī. Tehrān : Kitābfurūshī-i Islāmiyyah,  1965-1966.
  • Nāsikh al-Tawārīkh: Salāṭīn-i Qājār. ed. Muhammad Bāqir Bihbūdī, 2 vols., Tehran: Kitābfurūshī-i Islāmīyah , 1353 Sh./1974.
  • Nāsikh al-tawārīkh. Tārīkh-i Qājāriyya. 3 vols. in 2, ed. and introduced (in over sixty pages), Jamshīd Kiyānfar. Tehran : Intishārāt-i Asāṭīr, 1377/1998 + 1386/2007-8. 924 pages. Table of Contents and vol.1 pp. 1-581-590; vol. 2 = pp. 591-925. The loose and sometimes misleading section about the Bab and his religion in this edition begins in vol. 2 (on 1260/1844), pp. 827-835 and at various other points, e.g. `On the Bab and [his interrogation before] the ulama' of Tabriz', vol. 2 pp. 909-913 cf. also 917-9, etc. 

Mahdi Khan-i Tabrizi.  Mirza Muhammad, Zā’im al-Dawlā (ed.) ,

  • Miftah-i bab al-abwab, 1st ed. Cairo: al-Manar, 1903.
  • Miftah-i Bab al-abwab ya tarikh-i Bab va Baha’i, trans. Shaykh Sasan Farid Gulpayigani, 2nd ed. Tehran: Shams, 1961.

Mālmīrī, Muhammad-Ṭāhir / محمد طاهر مالميرى

  • Tarikh-i shuhada-i Yazd = تاريخ شهداء يزد (History of th Martyrs of Yazd). 2 vols. Cairo: Farajallāh Zakī al- Kurdī, 1342/1923. 623 pages.  + 2 vols.  Cairo : Farajallāh Zakī al- Kurdī, 1928? 
  • تاريخ شهداء يزد  = Tārīkh-i shuhadā-i Yazd. Cairo : Maḥfil-i Muqaddas-i Rūḥānī-i Miṣr, 1963? or Lahore : Muʼassisah-ʼi Maṭbūʻāt-i Millī-i Pākistān, 1963.  Reprint of above?
  • تاريخ شهداء يزد  = Tārīkh-i shuhadā-i Yazd. Karachi : Muʼassasah-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Millī-i Pākistān,  1979.  11, 612 pages. Reprint of above?
  • Tarikh-i Amri-yi Yazd. Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahā’ī-Verlag, XXXX
  • Khāṭirāt-i Mālmīrī : sharḥ-i tasharruf-i ḥuz̤ūr-i Jamāl Qadam va sāyir-i vaqāyiʻ dar ʻaṣr-i rasūlī va āghāz-i ʻaṣr-i takvīn. Germany, Langenhain : Baháʼí-Verl., 1992. 336 pages.

Malik Khusravī Nuri, Muhammad 'Alī (b. Tehran, 1901-d. Australia, 1982).

  • Tārīkh-i shuhadā-yi amr ("History of Martyrs of the Cause"). 2 vols.  Vol.1 [The Shaykh Tabarsi Unheaval] Tehran: MMMA., 120/1964, 450 pages;   Vol.2. [The Babi Notables (ashab) at the Shaykh Tabarsi Upheaval]. Tehran: MMMA :130 BE / 1974. 326 pages. Both vols. digitally republished H-Baha'i. / 3 vols. Tehran, 130 BE./1973-74. 
  • Iqlim-i-Nür, Tihran: MMMA, 115 B.E./1958.
  • Iqlim-i Nur  ("The Regions of the Province of Nur"). Tehran: MMMA.,115 BE/ 1959. Digitally republished, East Lansing, Mi.: H-Bahai, 2006.
  • Manabi`-i Tarikh-i Amr. Ahang-i Badi`, Volume 29, No. 326 (1974-75/131 B.E.):11-35. H-Bahai, 1998.

McCants, William, F.

MacEoin, Denis M. - see Bib. II.

Miṣbāḥ, ʻAbd Allāh  (ed. Vahid Rafati).

  • يادنامۀ مصباح منير / Yādnāmah-ʼi miṣbāḥ-i munīr. Hūfhāym [Hoffheim. Germany]: Muʼassasah-ʼi Maṭbūʻāt-i Bahāʼī-i Ālmān 2006.

Mubāyjīyān, Sarkīs, Атрпет;  مباىجيان، سرکىس. Sarkīs/Sargis/Sarkīs Mubāyjīyān (1860-1937).    

Mubagajian Artpet [Atrpetean],

An Armenin writer and historian most famous amongst modern Baha'is for his publication of allleged portraits (drawings and photographs) of Babi notables (see Bijan Masumian ADD).  Cf. Sarkīs Mubāyjīyān.  Տժվժիկ / Tzhvzhik by Ատրպետ, 1860-1937, Erevan : Hayastan Hratarakchʻutʻyun, 1969, 1975.

  • 1906. Imamath : Patmakan hetazôtouthiun  or Imamatʻ: patmakan hetazōtutʻiwn. Alikhsandrapôl : Tparan Kultura, "Shirak", Armenia. 1906. 295 pages.
  • 1909. Imamat : strana poklonnikov imamov : persidskoe dukhovenstvo : istoricheskoe izsli︠e︡dovanie. Aleksandropolʹ : Tip.-skoropechatni︠a︡ "Shirak, ", 1909. 208 pages + illustrations. In Russian.
  • Бабизм и Бехаизм : опыт научно-религіознаго изслѣдованія / Babizm i Bekhaizm : opyt nauchno-religīoznago izsli︠e︡dovanīi︠a︡. Электропеч. Н.Г. Аганянц, Tiflis : Ėlektropech. N.G. Agani︠a︡nt︠s︡, 1910. 140 pages.
  • 1910. Babizm i Bechaizm : opyt naučno-religioznago izslědovanija. Tiflis : [Drucker] : Aganjanc, 1910. 140 pages with numerous illustrations. The importance of this volume was first noted by E. G. Browne in his XXX 
  • Babizm i Bekhaizm : opyt nauchno-religioznago izsli︠e︡dovaniia. Reprint: Tiflis : N.G. Agan︠ia︡nt︠s︡, 1910. 140 pages.
  • Babizm i Bechaizm : opyt naučno-religioznago izslědovanija. Tiflis : [Drucker] : Aganjanc, 1910. 140 pages.
  • Атрпет. ; Sarkīs Mubāyjīyān, Бабизм и Бехаизм : опыт научно-религіознаго изслѣдованія / Babizm i Bekhaizm : opyt nauchno-religīoznago izsli︠e︡dovanīi︠a︡. Электропеч. Н.Г. Аганянц, Tiflis : Ėlektropech. N.G. Agani︠a︡nt︠s︡, 1910. 140 pages. 
  • پىروزى ىک عقىده / Pīrūzī-i yak ʻaqīdah. مباىجيان، سرکىس. اثر نوىسندهء ارمنى سرکىس مباىجيان (آترپىت) ؛ ترجمۀ ادوارد مىرزاخانيان (راهب) ؛ بکوشش، ف. بهگرا = as̲ar-i nivīsandah-ʼi Armanī Sarkīs Mubāyjīyān (Ātirpīt) ; tarjumah-ʼi Idvārd Mīrzākhānīyān (Rāhib) ; bi-kūshish-i, F. Bihgarā. Dundas, Ontarion, Canada : Muʼassasah-ʼi Maʻārif-i Bahāʼī, 1994. 100 pages. Translated from the Armenian.

Momen, Moojan.

  • The Baha'i Communities of Iran, 1851-1921: The North of Iran Volume 1. Oxford: George Ronald, 2015. 592 pages.

Mudarris-Chahardihi, Murtada.

  • Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i. Tehran: `Ali Akbar `Ilmi, 1324 Sh./.
  • شیخی‌گری، بابی‌گرایی . Shaykhigari, Babigari. Tehran: Furughi, 1966.

Mudarris, Fathu'llah = فتح الله مدرس

  • تاريخ امر بهائى در نجف‌آباد / Tārīkh-i amr-i Bahāʼī dar Najafʹābād ("History of the [Babi-] Bahá'i faith in Najafábád"). ed. Vahid Rafati.  Dārmshtāt [Germany] : ʻAṣr-i Jadīd, 2004.   466 pages.

Mu`īn  al-Salṭana Tabrizi, Ḥājji Mīrzā Muhammad.

See MacEoin, Sources, 175-6. His Bab/Babi History ends at 1848/9 and exists in several incomplete mss.

  • Tārīkh-i Amr  (History of the Babi-Baha'i Cause). Unpublished ms.  Photocopy in Afnān Library UK.
  • Tarikh-i Amr. Digitally republished, East Lansing, Mi.: H-Bahai, 2000.

Murād, 'Abbās Kāzim. 

  • البابية والبهائية ومصادر دراسةهما = al-Bābiyya wa 'l-Bahā'iyya wa maṣādir  dirāsalihimā. Baghdad:  ʻA.K. Murād / Maṭbūʻat al-Irshād, 1302/1982. 185 pages.

Naʻīm Iṣfahānī/ Sidihi, Mirza Muhammad (b. Sidih c. 1272/1855-6 - d. 1915). نعيم اصفهانى  He was a poet an an author of Babi-Baha'i testimonia-istidlaliyya a few of which have been printed. See Avarih, Kawakib II:192-3; Browne, Materials, 341-358; MacEoin, `Bahaism. xii. Bahai Literature' in EIr. Vol. III/5, pp. 471-475.

  • Natijat al-Bayan fi Man yuzhiru-hu Allah (The consummation of the Bayan through [the messiaic] `Him whom God shall make manifest'). Tehran 1332 AH/ 1913-14 CE. Rep. Tehran: MMMA., 105 BE /1948-9. 
  • Kulliyāt-i Naʻīm ("The Comprehensive Collection of Na'im [Isfahani]"). Bombay: Maṭbaʻah-ʼi Muṣṭfavī [Mustawfi], 1927. 320+ 9 pages.
  • احسن التقوىم، ىا، گلزار نعىم = Aḥsan al-taqvīm, yā, Gulzār-i Naʻīm. Dehli : Shobha Printers, 1337Sh./1958. 319 pages.
  • احسن التقوىم، ىا، گلزار نعىم = Aḥsan al-taqvīm, yā, Gulzār-i Naʻīm Delhi : Muʼassasah-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Bahāʼī-i Hind /India: BPT., c. 1978.
  • Ash'ar-i Jinab-i Naʻīm va sharh-i an, mawsum bi Jannat-i Naʻīm.  2 vols. ed. and comm. 'Abdu'l-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari [The poems of his eminence Na'im (Blissful), Mirza Muhammad Sidih, with  commentary `The Paradise of Na'im'].  Tehran: MMMA 130-1 BE/ 1974-1975. Digitally republished. East Lansing, Mi.: H-Bahai, 2008. Refer :
  • Poetry in Browne A Literary History of Persia IV (Modern Times, 1500-1924), Cambridge, 1924 (several reprints), 198-221 (= an ode-qasida in 133 verses, text and full trans. EGB).

Najmī, Mahīn + Sayyid Muḥammad Vāris̲ Hamdānī.

  • Z̲ikr-i rab a'alā : sīrat Sayyid 'Alī Muḥammad Bāb. Rāvalpinḍī, Pakistan : Bahā'ī Publishing Trust, 2006.  In Urdu. 164 pages.

Nayrizi, Mirzā Muhammad-Shafiʿ Ruḥāni.

  • لمعات الانوار : (شرح وقاىع نى‌ىز شورانگىز) : عهد اعلى، عهد ابهى  = Lamaʻāt al-anvār : (sharḥ-i vaqāyiʻ-i Nayʹrīz-i shūrangīz) : ʻahd-i Aʻlá ʻahd-i Abhá. Muʼassasah-i Millī-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Amrī,  196?.

  • Lamaʿāt al-anwār: Sharḥ-i waqāyiʿ-i Nayriz, 2 vols., Tehran:    1971. + 130 BE/1973.

  • Lamʻātu al-anvār : Sharaḥ vaqāyīʻ Nī Rīz-i shūr angīz. 2 vols.  Bundoora, Victoria [near Melbourne, Australia]  : Century Press, 2003. 621 pages.

Nicolas, A. L. M.  (1864-1939)

  • 1905. Seyyèd Ali Mohammed dit le Bâb. Paris: Dujarric & Co., 1905. 458 pages.
  • مذاهب ملل متمدنه : سيد على محمد معروف بباب : تارىخ / Madhāhib-i milal-i mutimaddinah : Sayyid ʻAlī Muḥammad maʻrūf bi-Bāb : tārrīkh. Persian trans. of the above (1905 ?) Listed in World Cat. [Iṣfahān?] : [publisher not identified], 1322/1943. 487, 52, 8 pages.
  • Le Béyan Arabe, Le Livre Sacré Bábyse. Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1905.
  • Le Béyan Persan, trans. A. L. M. Nicolas, 4 vols. Paris: Librarie Paul Geuthner, 1911-14.
  • Le Livre des Sept Preuves de la mission du Bab. Paris: Maisonneuvre, 1902. 

Nicholson, R. A. (ed.),

  • A Descriptive Catalogue of the Oriental MSS. Belonging to the late E. G. Browne. Cambridge: CUP., 1932.

Nīkʹandīsh, Bahman

  • کسروى و بهائيگرى او : بخوانيد و داورى کنيد / Kasravī va bahāʼīgarī-i ū : bikhvānīd va dāvarī kunīd. Germany : Tyskland : Alborz 2007.  177 pages. + 2nd ed. Bad Homburg, Germany : Alburz, 2008. 161 pages. 

Nuqabāʼī,  Ḥusām  / حسام نقبائي

  • Ṭāhirah : Qurrat al-ʻAyn. Tehran: Muʼassasah-i Millī-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Amrī, 1971. 204 pages.
  • Ṭāhirah : Qurrat al-ʻAyn. 2nd ed. Tehran: Muʼassasah-i Millī-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Amrī, 1362/1983. 204 pages.
  • منابع تارىخ امر بهائي : ساىر توارىخ امرى / Manābiʻ-i tārīkh-i amr-i Bahāʼī : sāyir-i tavārīkh-i amrī. Tehran: Muʼassasah-i Millī-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Amrī, 133 Badīʻ /1976.  97 pages.

Nuṣrat Allāh Muḥammad Ḥusaynī or Nosratollah Mohammad Hosseini / نصرت الله محمد حسينى

  • حضرت باب :‏ ‏شرح حيات و آثار حضرت باب و احوال اصحاب عهد اعلى، به مناسبت يکصد و پنجاهمين سال ظهور مبارک حضرت باب  = Ḥaz̤rat-i Bāb : sharḥ-i ḥayāt va āthār-i Ḥadrat-i Bāb va aḥvāl-i aṣḥāb-i ʻahd-i āʻlá, bih munāsibat-i yakṣad va panjāhumīn sāl-i ẓuhūr-i mubārak-i Ḥadrat-i Bāb = The Bab : his life, his writings and the disciples of the Báb's dispensation. 2nd ed.  Australia = Asturāliyā : Muʼassasah-i Sanchurī Pris [= Century Press], 2016. 1133 pages.

Qāʾeni, Āqā Muhammad Qāʾini (b. near Qāʾin, 1244/1829 - d. Bukhara, 1309/1892), entitled Nabil-i Akar (the Greatest Nabil/ Muhammad). Learned Muslim mujtahid and Ishraqi philosopher, a pupil of Ḥājj Mullā Hādi Sabzavāri, a Babi then Baha'i.  See Sulaymāni, MH I: 425-542;  Rafʿati, “Mathnawi-i Nabil Zarandi dar bāra-yi sharh-i ḥālāt-i Aqā Muhammad Nabil-i Akbar Qāʾeni,” in Khushahā-i az kharman-i adab wa hunar XIII: dawra-yi Nabil Akbar, Darmstadt, 2002, pp. 107-19. See also the 2005 article in EIr. about Nabil-i Akbar by Minou Foadi (see above) where some details about his unpublished writings can be found.

Qazvini, Muhammad Jawad

A Babi, then Baha'i, then one aligned with Mirza Muhamad `Ali (d. 1937), the half-brother and opponent of `Abdu'l-Baha' Abbas (d.1921).

  • `An epitome of Bábí and Baháʼi history to A.D. 1898, translated from the original Arabic of Mirzá Muhammad Jawád of Qazwín', trans. Edward G. Browne, Materials for the study of the Bábí ́religion (1918/1961), Sect. I, pp.3-112 (see Browne, Introd. viii-x).  

Radmehr,  Fariduddin.

  • 2013. Samawat-i suluk. Vol.1 Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahā’ī-Verlag.  863 pages. سماوات سلوک

  • Raqs-i Vujúd ba Káf va Nún (The Dance of Existence with “B” and “E”) "commemorates the bicentenary of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh. It is a journey in the mystical world of Islam and the Bahá’í Faith, revealing how God created everything by the expression of the word “BE”." Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahā’ī-Verlag. XXXX

Rafati, Vahid (ed.)

  • ed. Sadri Nawab-Zadeh Ardikani, Amr-i Bahá'í dar Ardakán (The Bahá'í Faith in Ardakan), Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahā’ī-Verlag, XXXX   440 pages.

  • Tarikh-i-Amri yi Hamadan. Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahā’ī-Verlag, XXX BE / XXXX. 406 pages.

  • Faran-i Hubb (The [Babi-] Bahá'í-Faith in Fárán [Paran]  Ferdows-Khurasan). Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahā’ī-Verlag,  XXXX   630 pages.

Rafati, Vahid

  • 1995-. مآخذ اشعار در آثار بهائى  / Ma'ákhidh-i-Ash'ár dar Áthár-i Bahá'í : Ma'akhidh-i-ash'ar-i Farsí ("Sources of Persian poetry in the Baha'í writings"). Ontorio : Muʼassasah-i Maʻārif-i Bahāʼī, 1374/1995. 4 vols. vol 2 Alif -- Thá. vol.3. Jím --Zá ; Vol. 4 Sín -- Gáf. Dundas, Ontario: Association for Bahá'í Studies in Persian, 1995-
  •  مآخذ اشعار در آثار بهائى .2000. Maʼākhidh-i ashʻār-i ʻArabī. Vol.1. Ontario, Canada : Muʼassasah-i Maʻārif-i Bahāʼī-i bi-Lisān-i Fārsī, 1990-2000.  
  • مآخذ اشعار در آثار بهائى  Ma'akhidh-i ash'ar dar athar-i-Baha'i, Vol. 3 : Ma'akhidh-i ash'ar-i Farsi ('Sources of Persian poetry in the Baha'i writings') Jim - Za'. Dundas, Ont. : Institute for Baha'i Studies in Persian, 2000 + vol.4 2004. .
  • 2009.فتاب آمد دلىل آفتاب : استمرار مآثر کمىل بن زىاد نخعى / Āftāb āmad dalīl-i āftāb : istimrār-i ma'āthir-i Kumayl Ibn Ziyād Nakhaʻī. (In series: Intishārāt-i Majmaʻ-i ʻirfān, 1). Darmstadt, Germany : ʻAsr-i Jadīd, 2009. 172 pages.
  •  2012. بداىع معانى و تفسىر : مجموعه اي از آثار حضرت عبد البهاء در تفسىر آىات قرآنى و احادىث اسلامى / Badāyiʻ-i maʻānī va tafsīr : majmūʻahʼī az āthār-i Ḥadrat-i ʻAbd al-Bahāʼ dar tafsīr-i āyāt-i Qur'ānī va aḥādīth-i Islāmī. (= Intishārāt-i Majmaʻ-i ʻirfān, 2 ). Darmstadt, Germany : ʻAsr-i Jadīd, 2012. Persian and Arabic 274 pages.
  • Nasím-i-Saḥarí ("Breeze at Dawn" comp. on Shaykhí Concepts in the Bábí and Bahá’í Writings). Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahā’ī-Verlag. c. 2014.  272 pages. In Persian and Arabic.

Rosen, Baron Victor

  • 1877. Collections scientifiques de l’Institut des Langues Orientales du Ministère des Affaires Étrangères I: Manuscrits arabes, St. Petersburg, 1877, 179-212.
  • 1886. Collections Scientifiques de l'Institut des Langues Orientales, vol. iii Manuscrits Persans
  • 1891. Collections Scientifiques de l'Institut des Langues Orientales, vol. vi, Manuscrits Arabes, "Manuscrits Babys", pp. 141-255. St. Petersburg: Academie Imperiale de Sciences, 1891. Digitally republished, East Lansing, Mi.: H-Bahai, 2005.

Ṣahbā, Farīburz

  • Sālʹhā-yi sabz : sharḥ-i dawr-i mubārak-i ḥadrat aʻlá. n.p., 134 BE/1978. 132 pages.

Salmání, Muhammad-ʻAlíy-i Salmání

  • Zindigī-i Ustād Muhammad ʻAlī Salmānī. Ms. A biography of the one-time barber of Baha'u'llah with some poetry.

  • My memories of Baháʼuʼlláh. Trans. from the original Persian of Zindigī-i Ustād Muhammad ʻAlī Salmānī by Marzieh Gail.  Los Angeles : Kalimát Press, 1982. xi, 148 pages.

Samandar, Shaykh Muhammad Kazim Qazvini (b. Qazvin Feb 7th 1844 - d. Feb. 5th,1918).        شيخ محمد كاظم سمندر

He was the son of the Babi and Baha'i Shaykh Muhammad Qazvini entitled Nabil-i Akbar (The Greatest Nabil = abjad 92 like the name Muhammad) by Baha'u'llah he himself being known as Samandar (loosely, Phoenix). His Tarikh-i Samandar contains much about Babi-Baha'i biography. See Balyuzi, EBTB: Ch. XVI, 191-215; MacEoin, Sources, 165-6.

  • Tarikh-i Samandar va Mulaqqat. 568 pages?
  • Tarikh-i Samandar va Mulaqqat. Tehran: MMMA., 131 BE / 1974-1975.  445, 10 pages.
  • آثار قلمى جناب شيخ محمد كاظم سمندر و بعضى آثار متفرقه = Āthār-i qalamī-i jināb Shaykh Muḥammad Kāẓim Samandar va baʻdī-i athār-i mutafarriqah. Muʼassasah-ʹi Millī-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Bahāʼī-i Ālmān, / Hofheim-Langenhain (Germany): Bahā’ī-Verlag, 2011. 14, 17, 525 pages.  

Sulaymānī, `Azīzu'llāh (b. Kelateh Yazd-Abad near Sabzivah, 1901-d. Gunbad-Kavus, Mazandaran, 1985).  سلىمانى اردکانى، عزىز الله . See Adel Shafipour trans. :

  • Maṣabīḥ-i hidāyat  ("Luminaries of Guidance"). 9 [+1] vols. of Babi-Baha'i biography and related scriptural texts and materials.  Tehran: Mu`assat-i Millī-yi Maṭbū`at-i Amrī, 104-32 BE/1947-1975.  
  • Lawḥ-i mubārak-i sultān-i Īrān : bā iʻrābguz̲ārī va lughatnāmah.  لوح مبارک سلتان ايران : با اعرابگذارى و لغتنامه . Tehran: MMMA, 1975. 158 pages.
  • Rashāt-i ikmat ("Sprinklings of Wisdom") Volume 1 . : Lajnah Nashr-i Āthār-i Amrī, 104 Badīʻ/1948. 380 pages. Rep. Tehran: MMMA 126 BE/ 1970. Digitally republished, East Lansing, Mi.: H-Bahai, 2010.
  • Rashāt-i ikmat ("Sprinklings of Wisdom") Volume 3 . Tehran: Baha'i Publishing Trust, 133 BE/ 1977. Digitally republished, East Lansing, Mi.: H-Bahai, 2008.
  • Dar Bayān `Irfān ("In Exposition of Gnosis"). Published in Ahang-i Badi', No. 325, 1353 sh/ 1974. PDF Edition digitally republished, East Lansing, Mi.: H-Bahai, 2006.
  • Mantiq-i Sulaymānī (Logic of Sulaymānī). Iran, 1335/1956. Digitally republished, East Lansing, Mi.: H-Bahai, 2010.
    SEE H-Baha'i Collected works :

Tabātabā'ī, Muḥīt

  • `Kitābī bī nam bā nāmī tāza', in Gawhar, Year 2, parts 11-12 (1353/1974), 952-961.
  • `Tārīkh-i qadīm wa jadīd', (2 parts) in Gawhar, Year 3, parts 5-6 (1354/1975), 343-8 and  426-31.

Ṭabāṭabāʼī, Muṣṭafá Ḥusaynī

  • ماجراى باب و بهاء : پژوهشى نو و مستند دربارۀ بهايى‌گرى / Mājarā-yi Bāb va Bahāʼ : pizhūhishī naw va mustanad darbārah-ʼi Bahāyīʹgarī. Tehran: Tavakkulī, 1378/1999  and Rawzanah, 1380/ 2001 or 2002. Apparently previously published as: Rahbarān-i vādī-i z̤alālat (World Cat.), 241 pages.

Usku'i, Haydar `Ali.

  • Tarikh-i Amri-yi Adhirbayjan. [History of the Babi and Baha'i communities of Azerbaijan, Iran]. Ms. in private hands. Digitally republished, East Lansing, Mi.: H-Bahai, 2001

Vahman, Fereydun.

  • 1995. Bábí and Bahá'i influence on Iranian Constitutional Revolution'.
  • 2004. `Fereydun Vahman - His 70th Birthday' in Iran and the Caucasus, 8, no. 2 (2004): 367-372.
  • 2007.تارىخ دىانت بهائى در خرسان  = Tārīkh-i diyānat-i Bahāʼī dar Khurasān. Ḥasan Fuʼādī Bushrūʼī; Mīnū Dukht Fuʼādī; Farīdūn Vahman. Dārmishtāt, Ālmān : ʻAṣr-i Jadīd, 2007.  555 pages. Introduction in English.
  • 2015. Fereydun Vahman, “Zendagi-nāma-ye … Ḥasan Foʾādi Bošruʾi wa āṯār-e u,” pub. as an Introd. in Fuʾādi, 2007, pp. 21-42; also "FOʾĀDI BOŠRUʾI, ḤASAN," in EIr. online edition, 2015, available at (accessed on 04 February 2015).
  • 2009.  يکصد و شصت سال مبارزه با آئين بهائى : گوشه اى از تاريخ اجتماعى - دينى ايران در دوران معاصر = Yakṣad va shaṣt sāl mubārazah bā diyānat-i Bahāʼī : gūshah'ī az tārīkh-i ijtimāʻī-dīnī-i Īrān dar dawrān-i muʻāṣir. Darmstadt, Germany: ‘Asr-i Jadid, 2009.
  • 2010.  يکصد و شصت سال مبارزه با ديانت بهائى : گوشه‌اى از تاريخ اجتماعى-دينى ايران در دوران معاصر  = Yakṣad va shaṣt sāl mubārazah bā diyānat-i Bahāʼī : gūshah'ī az tārīkh-i ijtimāʻī-dīnī-i Īrān dar dawrān-i muʻāṣir, Spånga [Sūʼid] : Nashr-i Bārān, 2010. 687+ 4 pages.
  • 2016. with Abbas Amanat. از طهران تا عکا : بابيان و بهائيان در اسناد دوران قاجار = Az Ṭihrān tā ʻAkkā : Bābīyān va Bahāʼīyān dar asnād-i dawrān-i Qājār. From Tehran to Akka : Babis and Baha'is in the official records of Qajar Iran. Copenhagen and New Haven, Connecticut : Nashr-i Āshkār, 2016. 542 pages.
  • 2019. 175 years of persecution : a history of the Babis & Baha'is of Iran. London, England : Oneworld Publications, 2019.  xvi, 333 pages : illustrations, map. Translated from the Persian by Azita Mottahedeh (see above) and note : "An earlier, longer version of this book was first published in the Persian language as Yeksad-o shast sál mobárezeh bá á'ín-e Baha'i".

Yazdani, Mina

  • 2007. “Abu al-Faza’il Gulpaygani: An Ante Litteram Critic of Orientalism,” article presented at Society for Shaykhi, Babi, and Baha’i Studies, Meeting in Conjunction with Middle East Studies Association (MESA) Annual Meeting, Montreal. 17 Nov. 2007.
  • 2011. `Religious Contentions in Modern Iran, 1881-1941'. Phd thesis submitted in Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations, University of Toronto, 2011. 337 pages.
  • 2011. `The Confessions of Dolgoruki: Fiction and Master narrative in Twentieth-Century Iran' Iranian Studies Vol. 44, No. 1 (Jan. 2011), 25-47
  • 2012. Religious Contentions in Modern Iran, 1881-1941. Phd thesis Toronto : University of Toronto, 2012.
  • 2012a. The Islamic Revolution's Internal Other: The Case of Ayatollah Khomeini and the Baha'is of Iran 1. Journal of Religious History, v36 n4 (2012), 593-604.
  • 2012b. `Anti-Bahā'ī Polemics and Historiography' in Baha'i Studies Review, v17 n1 (2012), 87-100
  • 2012c. `The Confessions of Dolgoruki: The Crisis of Identity and the Creation of a Master Narrative',  Ch. in Pt. IV (pp. 245-266) of Abbas Amanat; Farzin Vejdani (ed.), Iran facing others : identity boundaries in a historical perspective. New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.xiii, 292 pages.

Yazdī, Hajji Fatḥ ʻAllāh Maftūn.

  • Bāb va Bahāʼ-rā bi-shināsīd. Ḥaydar Ābād, al-Dakkan = Hyderabad: Rafīq mashīn Piris [?]     1367/ 1948 + 1371/1952. 336 pages. In Persian.
  • Bāb va Bāhā rā bi-shināsīd : tarjamah, Bāb aur Bahā ko pahcān lījiʻe. Karāchī : Kitāb Khānah-i Ibrāhīmiyah, Shākh-i Pākistān, 197?-  

Yazdí, Ustád 'Alí Akbar Banná

  • Táríkh-i-'Ishqábád (History of the Bahá'í Community of 'Ishqábád). Edited and annotated by Vahid Rafati. Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahā’ī-Verlag, 2015. 713 pages.

Zarandī, Mullā Muḥammad (Nabīl) (d. 1892) and Shoghi Effendi Rabbani (b. Haifa, 1895 - d. London, 1957).

  • Tarīkh [= Dawn-Breakers] ed. and trans. (Part I) Shoghi Effendi as `The Dawn-Breakers: Nabil’s Narrative of the Early Days of the Baha’i Revelation’. Wilmette: Baha’i Pub. Trust., 1st ed. 1932. Many later, sometimes revised editions, 1974.
  • Nabīl Zarandī, Mulla Muhammad; Shoghi, Effendi. ed. and trans. The Dawn-Breakers : Nabíl's narrative of the early days of the Baháʼí revelation. 1st ed. New York: Baha'i Publishing Committee, 1932. lxiii, 685 pages.
  • Nabīl Zarandi (Nabil-i-Aʿzam), The Dawn-breakers: Nabíl’s Narrative of the Early Days of the Baháí Revelation, tr. Shoghi Effendi, Wilmette, Ill.; repr., London, 1953. 
  • Talkhīṣ-i tārīkh-i Nabīl Zarandī. Nabīl Zarandī; Shoghi, Effendi.; ʻAbd al-Ḥamīd Ishrāq Khāvarī. : Lajnah-i Millī-i Nashr-i Āthār-i Amrī, 1328/1949. 660 pages.
  •  "تلخىص تارىخ نبىل زرندى" / Maṭāliʻ al-anvār = The Dawn-Breakers : "talkhīṣ-i Tārīkh-i Nabīl Zarandī". Tehran [?] : Lajnah-i Millī-i Nashr-i āthār-i Amrī. ]Trans and abridged from the English into Persian by عبد الحمىد اشراق خاورى `Abd al-Hamid Ishraq Khavari. Introd. dated: 1339 Sh./1960. [10], 674, 100 pages, 32 unnumbered leaves of plates (see World Cat.).
  • Maṭāliʻ al-anvār = The dawn-breakers: "talkhīṣ-i Tārīkh-i Nabīl zarandī". New Dehli : Chāp va Intishārāt-i Mirʼāt, c. 1991. [16], 589, 61 pages, 19 unnumbered leaves of plates : illustrations. Rep. of above. Listed in World Cat.
  • God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois: Baha'i Publishing Trust, 1944 (numerous reprints).
  • Per. Trans. Mavaddat...


`Letters of the Living', Major Disciples of the Bab and select Persons and Episodes within Babi History. 


ملا حسين بشروئي

Mulla Muhammad Husayn (b. Bushrū'ī / Bushrūyaʾī c. 1229/1813- d.  Tabarsi, 9th Rabīʿ I 1265 /2 February 1849), son of Hajji Mullá Abd-Allah and a disciple of Sayyid Kazim al-Husayni Rashti (1259/1843). See frther MacEoin, Sources, 117-8.; Amanat R&R.

Barāqī, Firūz.

  • بشروىه : زادگاه جناب ملا حسىن  باب الباب  /  Bushrūyah : zādgāh-i jināb-i Mullā Ḥusayn "Bāb al-Bāb" (= Majmūʻah-i diyār-i andīshah, 16).  Madrid:  Bunyād-i Farhangī-i Niḥal, 2010. 491, 32 pages.

Mulla `Ali Bastami, (b. Bastam/Bistam, Khurasan, XXXX-d. Istanbul, 1846).


Mulla Muhammad `Alī Bārfurūshī, Quddūs (d. Bārfurush, 1265/ May,1849).

Mullā ʿAlī Muhammad (Quddūs),

  • “Collected writings”, available online at  

Bāstānī Pārīzī, Muḥammad Ibrāhīm. Vādī-

See MacEoin, Sources, 105-107.

Ism-A'lláh al-Asḍaq (The Name of God, the Most Veridical),  a Shaykhī, Bābī and Baha’i Mullā Ṣādiq Muqaddas-i Khurāsānī (d.1306/1889), was entitled Ism-Allāh al-Aṣdaq by the Bā Lambden “Ebn Asdaq,” in  Encyclopaedia Iranica VII, 670-1. 996.

  • Payk-i-rástán : (Messenger of the True Ones) ; Bahá'í sacred writings, biographies and works of Ismu'lláhu'l-Asḍaq and his family. ed. Vahid Rafati. Darmstadt, Germany: ʻAṣr-i-Jadíd, 2005. 550 pages.


Ṭāhira (The Pure One), Qurrat al-`Ayn (Solace of the Eyes), Fāṭima Baraghānī (b. Qazvin c. 1817 - d. Tehran 1852).

A Shaykhī sage, poetess and Bābī Martyr  of great importance in the evolution and development of the religion of the Bab. Some of her poems and writings have been published though many remain in ms. She was the eldest daughter of  Mullā Muhammad Ṣāliḥ al-Baraghānī [al-Qazvini] and Amina  (1202-1268 AH = 1787-1851 CE). A Shi`i-Shaykhi and ultimately Bābī apologist and martyr, this revolutionary Babi woman  is today internationally famous. Before coming to faith in the Bab (1819- 1850) in 1260/1844, she (like other members of her family) was a very learned and accomplished adherent of the Shi`i-Shaykhi school whose founding master Shaykh Ahmad ibn Zayn al-Din al-Ahsa'i (d. near Medina, 1241/1826) and (after 1826) and his successor, Sayyid Kazim al-Husayni al-Rashti (d. Karbala, 1259/1843) whom she greatly admired. By the 21st century there have come to exist perhaps forty to fifty or more books and papers about Tahira several of which have recently been published. Her numerous poems and prose writings in Persian and Arabic await adequte editions, studies and translations. The now numerous books and articles about Tahira often contain details about the religion and teachings of the Bab. Much of her poetry, treatises and letters, etc., is designed to expound and promote the religion of the Bab.

See further, Amanat, R&R    ; MacEoin, Sources, 107-117.

Bakhtiyari, Isfandyar.

  • Tuhfa-yi Tahirah. Delhi, India, 1933.


  • In memory of the hundredth anniversary of the martyrdom of Qurrat al-ʻAyn. 1368/ XXXX / 22nd Sept. 1949 ? "This booklet includes brief biography of Qurrat al-ʻAyn, some of her poetry, prayers, and other writings" See Harvard Univ. Library, Repository Homa Rouhi (Sarlati) :$3i

Nuqaba'i, Hussam.

Nuqabāʼī,  Ḥusām  / حسام نقبائي

  • Ṭāhirah : Qurrat al-ʻAyn. Tehran: Muʼassasah-i Millī-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Amrī, 128 BE/ 1971-2. 204 pages. "A hodge-podge of materials, many of them translated from European sources, touching on the female Babi leader, Qurrat al-'Ayn (Tahira). The historical selections are not always informative, but the last section contains a convenient collection of Tahira's poetry and prose taken from published sources" (so MacEoin, BBRAB. No. 174.).
  • Ṭāhirah : Qurrat al-ʻAyn. 2nd ed. Tehran: Muʼassasah-i Millī-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Amrī, 1362/1983. 204 pages.

Afnān, Abu’l-Qāsim (see above).

  • Chāhar Risāla-yi Tarikhi dar bāra-yi Tāhira Qurrat al-`Ayn.  Weinacht, 1991. 

Nosratollah Mohammad Hosseini,

  • Hadarat-i  Ṭāhira. Dundas, Ontario (Canada): 2000.

Soraya Adambakan

  • Qurrat al-ʻAyn eine Studie der religiösen und gesellschaftlichen Folgen ihres Wirkens. Berlin Schwarz Halle, Saale Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt 2008. German Dissertation: Univ., Diss.-- Köln, 2006. 320 pages.




The Conference at Badasht/ بدشت , Khurasan during Rajab-Sha`ban, 1264/June-July, 1848.

  • Lisān al-Mulk Nāsekh al-tawārīkh, ed. Behbūdī, 1353 Sh./1974, III: 238-39.
  • Browne, E.G.  d., Kitāb-i Nuqṭatu’l-Kāf (attributed to Ḥājī Mīrzā Jānī), 1910, pp. 144-54.
  • Zarandī, The Dawn-Breakers, trans. and ed. Shoghi Effendi, Wilmette, 1962, pp. 291-300.
  • Momen EIr. Vol. III/ 4, p. 364, art `BADAŠT' : "small village of about 1,000 inhabitants, 7 km east of the city of Šāhrūd, in the Qajar-period province of Khorasan (now in Semnān Province); it was the site of a Babi conference in late Rajab-early Šaʿbān, 1264/late June-early July, 1848, convened on the instructions of the Bāb."


The Mazandaran Upheaval at Shaykh Tabarsi  (October 1848- May1849). The shrine of Shaykh Tabarsi is situated near  near Barfurush, Mazandaran.

Refer : Nabīl Zarandi (Nabil-i-Aʿzam), The Dawn-breakers: Nabíl’s Narrative of the Early Days of the Baháí Revelation,            ; Momen SBBH 1844-1944: 91-99;

Dorn, Johannes Albrecht Bernhard / Boris Andreevich (1805-1881), the third head of the Asiatic Museum, St. Petersburg (founded 1818). See furher  Luzhetskaya, N. L. 1995 [2011] `Dorn, Johannes Albrecht Bernhard’ in EIr. vol,.VII. fasc 5 pp. 511-513.      

  •  1865. “Die vordem Chanykov’sche, jetzt der Kaiserl. Öffentlichen Bibliothek zugehorige Sammlung von Morgenländischen Handschriften welche dir Kaiserliche Offentliche Bibliothek zu St. Petersburg in Jahre 1864”. Bulletin de l'académie des sciences de St-Petersbourg, III, 1864/5, pp. 245–91. See further MacEoin, 2009, p. 715.
  • 1865. "Min kalam Shaykh-al-‘Ajam mazandaranı- (From the words of Shaykh-al-‘Ajam Mazandarani [= the poet Amir Pazvari]). For details see article below under Borjan =
  • 1865 [rep. 1968]. Morgenländische handschriften der kaiserlichen Öffentlichen bibliothek zu St. Petersburg. Nachträge zu dem Verzeichniss der im Jahre 1861 erworbenen Chanykov’schen Sammlung (St. Petersburg, 1865). Reprinted as “Nachtra¨ge zu dem Verzeichniss der von der Kaiserlichen Öffenlichen Bibliothek erworbenen Chanykov’schen Handschriften und den da mitgetheilten Nachrichten u¨ ber die Baby und deren Koran,” in Me´langes asiatiques tire´s du Bulletin de L’Acade´mie Impe´riale des sciences de St.-Pe´tersbourg V. 1864–1868 (St. Petersburg, 1968), 377–419.

Borjian, Habib. Assistant Professor of Persian at Hofstra University, New York

"A Mazandarani Account of the Babi Incident at Shaikh Tabarsi" in Iranian Studies, vol. 39, no. 3, September 2006, pp. 381-399.

"This article transcribes and glosses a nineteenth-century Mazandarani document on Babi-state conflict at Shaikh Tabarsi. Collected in 1860 in the town of Barfurush, it was published five years later by Boris Andreevich Dorn in Perso-Arabic characters, The text is the first known prose document based on natural speech in the modern Mazandarani language. The language of the text is fundamentally the same as that spoken today in the Persian province of Mazandaran, located south of the Caspian Sea. As one expects, however, there are certain extinct traits in the text, which could be identified only by comparison with other surviving Mazandarani documents of the same period. The text will contribute to the study of the largely understudied language of Mazandaran, particularly to its development since the composition of the text. It may also serve as a supplementary historical document for the historic incident it narrates"(cited from the prefaced summary note in Borjian 2006: 381),  

Amanat, Abbas.

  • History of the Babi insurrection of Mazandaran in 1848–1849. Brill Academic Publishers Inc., 2000.

Zabihi-Moghaddam,  Siyamak.

  • 2002. "The Babi-State Conflict at Shaykh Tabarsi" in  Iranian Studies Vol. 35, No. 1/3 (Winter - Summer, 2002), 87-112.
  • 2004. `The Bābī-state conflict in Māzandarān : background, analysis and review of sources’  in  Moshe Sharon (ed). Studies in modern religions, religious movements and the Bābī-Bahā'ī faiths (see above), 2004.  

Kazembeyki, Mohammad Ali.

  • 2003. "Society, Politics and Economics in Mazandaran, Iran 1848-1914". London, New York: Routledge Curzon, 2003.


The Zanjan Upheaval and Babi leadership (May 5th 1850-1851). 

"... The Bābīs, under the leadership of Mullā Muḥammad ʿAlī-i Zand̲j̲ānī surnamed Ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲at (‘the Proof’), barricaded themselves in the citadel called Ḳilʿa-i ʿAlī Mardān Ḵh̲ān. After various turns of fortune the Bābīs, who numbered more than 3,000, were cruelly massacred... (extract from Bausani art. Babis in EI2).

See Sipihr, Nasikh; Hidayat, Rawdat al-Safa-yi Nasiri;  Mazandarani, KZH II; III: 175-185;  Momen BBR 1844-1944: 114-127.

Mullā Muhammad-ʿAlī al-Zanjānī, entitled Ḥujjat, "The Proof", (1812 - 1851).

He led around 2000 Babis ... 

See MacEoin, Sources, 116-117.

Mirza Husayn-i Zanjani, He was commissioned by Bahaullah around 1880
to write a report on the siege of Zanajn.

  • Tarikh-i waqayi‘-i Zanjan 

Haydar Big, son of Din-Muhammad, Hujjat’s military commander

  • Account of the Zanjan upheaval in the London ms. of the New History of the Bab (see Hamadani, New History, 139–68).

‘Abd al-Ahad / Aqa Naqd-‘Ali (two brothers). 

  • “Personal Reminiscences, the memoir of an Azali who had been a child during the siege; the narrative of ‘Abd al-Ahad’s brother, Aqa Naqd-‘Ali, quoted in Nicolas, Ali Mohammed, 332, 338–40  (Aparently lost; so Walbridge, 1996).

Āqā 'Abdu'l-Ahad-i-Zanjānī / Edward G Browne trans.

  • "Personal Reminisences of the Bābī insurrection at Zanjān in 1850, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland,  29 (1897), 761-827.

Walbridge, John,

  • `The Babi Uprising in Zanjan' Iranian Studies 29/3–4 (Fall/Winter 1996),  339–62.

NAYRIZ, نى ر‌ىز  A town in Fars, south of Iran, 220 km SE., of Shiraz.

Leading Babis and the Nayriz, Upheavals (May 1850-1853).

"... at Nayrīz in Fārs, another heroic Bābī insurrection took place, led by one Sayyid Yaḥyā-i Dārābī, who had been converted by the Bāb at S̲h̲īrāz and who had assumed the name of Waḥīd; the Bābīs, barricaded within the old citadel of the town, defended themselves bravely, with the sympathy of the population, for several days until they were all massacred (January 1850)." (extract from Bausani, art. "Babis" in EI2).

Sayyid Yaḥyā Dārābī, Waḥīd (b. Yazd c.1226/1811- d. Nayriz, 1266/1850).

He was the son of Sayyid Ja`far Dārābī, ibn Abī Isḥāq Mūsawī Burūjirdī Kashfī (b. Eṣṭahbānāt in Fārs, 1189/1775, d. Borūjerd 1267/1851) on whom see further Andrew Newman, Sayyid Ja`far Dārābī in EIr. Vol. VII/1, 9-10. 

Moojan Momen, EIr. 1994/2011. `DĀRĀBĪ SAYYED YAḤYĀ'   :

"In 1261/1846 Waḥīd was asked by Moḥammad Shah (1250-64/1834-48) and Ḥājī Mīrzā Āqāsī (q.v.) to investigate the claims being put forth by the Bāb (Nicolas, p. 233; Nabīl, pp. 171-72)." (Momen EIr.)

Fayḍī, Muhammad `Alī.

  • Nayrīz-i mushkbīz, Tehran, 129/130 Badīʿ BE/ 1325 Sh/1947 + 1352 Sh./1973.

Ahang Rabbani,

Mirzā Muḥammad-Shafiʿ Ruḥāni Nayrizi,

  • لمعات الانوار : (شرح وقاىع نى‌ىز شورانگىز) : عهد اعلى، عهد ابهى  = Lamaʻāt al-anvār : (sharḥ-i vaqāyiʻ-i Nayʹrīz-i shūrangīz) : ʻahd-i Aʻlá ʻahd-i Abhá. Muʼassasah-i Millī-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Amrī,  196?. 

  • Lamaʿāt al-anwār: Sharḥ-i waqāyiʿ-i Nayriz, 2 vols., Tehran:    1971. + 130 BE/1973.

  • Lamʻātu al-anvār : Sharaḥ vaqāyīʻ Nī Rīz-i shūr angīz. 2 vols.  Bundoora, Victoria [near Melboure, Australia]  : Century Press, 2003. 621 pages.

Hussein Ahdieh,


Bayḍá, Áqá Siyyid Abu'l-Qásim 

  • Tárík̲h̲-i-Bayḍá : raváyat-i-sh̲áhidán-i 'ayní az qatl-i 'ámm-i Bahá'íyán dar Yazd bih inḍimám-i tiligrámhá-yi dawlatí = Bayḍá's history : eyewitness accounts of the massacre of Bahá'ís in Yazd with official telegrams. ed. Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam. Hofheim, Germany : Bahá'í Verlag, 2016. 654. Bayḍá's history : eyewitness accounts of the massacre of Bahá'ís in Yazd with official telegrams.

Mālmīrī, Muhammad-Ṭāhir / محمد طاهر مالميرى

  • Tarikh-i shuhada-i Yazd = تاريخ شهداء يزد (History of th Martyrs of Yazd). 2 vols. Cairo: Farajallāh Zakī al- Kurdī, 1342/1923. 623 pages.  + 2 vols.  Cairo : Farajallāh Zakī al- Kurdī, 1928? 
  • تاريخ شهداء يزد  = Tārīkh-i shuhadā-i Yazd. Cairo : Maḥfil-i Muqaddas-i Rūḥānī-i Miṣr, 1963? or Lahore : Muʼassisah-ʼi Maṭbūʻāt-i Millī-i Pākistān, 1963.  Reprint of above?
  • تاريخ شهداء يزد  = Tārīkh-i shuhadā-i Yazd. Karachi : Muʼassasah-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Millī-i Pākistān,  1979.  11, 612 pages. Reprint of above?
  • Tarikh-i Amri-yi Yazd. Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahā’ī-Verlag, XXXX
  • Khāṭirāt-i Mālmīrī : sharḥ-i tasharruf-i ḥuz̤ūr-i Jamāl Qadam va sāyir-i vaqāyiʻ dar ʻaṣr-i rasūlī va āghāz-i ʻaṣr-i takvīn. Germany, Langenhain : Baháʼí-Verl., 1992. 336 pages.

A further webpages on this site will include a bibliographical listing of  largely secondary writings and documents about Mirza Yaḥyā Nurī (d. Famagusta, Cyprus, 1912) and related Azali Babi developments. Further supplementary bibliographes can also be found here covering predominantly western language materials as well as Abrahamic (Jewish, Christian and other) responces to the Babi-Baha'i religions and Islamic, Sunni Shi`i-Shaykhi  anti-Babi-Baha'i polemic. See : 

  • Bibliography II: The Bab and the Babi Religion -Select Western Sources.
  • Bibliography III. Mirza Yahya Nuri and Azali Babism.
  • Bibliography Supp. I . Pre-Islamic Abrahamic religions - Jewish, Christian and other responces to the Babi-Baha'i religions.
  • Bibliography Supp. II. Islamic Anti-Babi-Baha'i Polemic - Sunni, Shi`i and Shaykhi ...