Bibliography II: The Bab and the Babi Religion - Select Western Sources

Bibliography II:

The Bab and the Babi Religion -  An Annotated Alphabetical listing of select Western Sources.

Stephen N. Lambden. UC Merced.


Last updated 19-08-2019.

 Introductory Bibliographical Note: 

There exists a massive amount of writing in mss. and in print as well as in international archival sources about the Bab, his followers and his religion. The bibliographical data is thus immence, even in western sources. It includes traveller, orientalist, missionary, diplomatic, academic analyses and other categories of writing in manuscript and published form as books and articles. It can only be selectively registered here. Bābī-Bahā’ī generated materials relating to the history and theology of the Bāb and his followers and writings, cannot be comprehensively set forth in detail. At present, there  seems to be no adequate bibliographical or other surveys of Baha’i perspectives about the Bāb and his writings as set forth by either the central figures of the Bahā’ī religion - Bahā’-Allāh (d. Acre 1892), `Abd al-Bahā’ (d. Haifa, 1921)   and Shoghi Effendi (d. London, 1957) - or by 19th-21st century  academics, Bahā’ī scholars and apologists living in Iran, the Middle East and elsewhere. The better academic bibliographies of Amanat and MacEoin, for example, are now somewhat out of date though they remain foundational.

A comprehensive carrying out of this bibliographical task would include some consideration of the writings of  such leading followers of the Bāb as Mulla Muhammad Husayn Bushru'i (b. c. 1229/1813, Bushrū'ī/ Boshrūyaʾī - d. 2 February 1849, Tabarsi, 1265/1849);  Muhammad `Alī, Quddūs (d. Bārfurush, 1265/1849), Sayyid Yaḥyā Dārābī, Waḥīd (d. Nayriz, 1266/1850); Fāṭimah Baraghānī, Tāhirah (d. Tehran, 1268/1852). Bibliography pertaining to such major Babi figures and disciples will largely be selectively listed in  a second part of this western languages bibliography, `Western sources pertaining to Major Disciples of the Bab, the Hurufat al-Hayy (Letters of the Living), and other leading Babis'. A further subdivision  of part two of this bibliography will include ` Sources pertaing to episodes within Babi History (= II. 3. 1ff) such as the `Conference at Badasht' in Khurasan during 1264/June-July, 1848 and the `Mazandaran Upheaval at Shaykh Tabarsi  (October 1848- May1849) . A third section  of Babi related bibliography (III) on a separate webpage, will include books and articles pertaining to Mirza Yaḥyā Nurī (d. Famagusta, Cyprus, 1912), the half-brother of Bahā’-Allāh, and  for some  the successor to the Bāb. It will include often polemical Azali Babi sources relating to debates as reflected in `middle eastern' (Pesian, Arabic, etc) as well as western language source materials.

    In the bibliography below, I shall include below select persons who wrote on the Babi and Baha'i or the Babi-Baha'i religions with precedence given to authors of books and papers dealing mostly directly with the the Bab and his religion. Many writers on Baha'i matters also wrote about the Bab and his teachings since the Bab came to be considered the "founder" of the Baha'i religion as expounded by its Guardian (vali-yi amr Allah) Shoghi Effendi Rabbani (d. London, 1957). A few supplementary biographical detals will be spelled out regarding authors on the Bab and his religion, as well as occasional images and/or data associated with these largely western writers (cf. also Bib I).

    Among Bahā’ī writers who wrote abouit the Bāb and his writings one should consult the often prolific literary output of (to be selective) Mirza Abū al-Faḍl Gulpayiganī (d. Cairo, 1914); Ḥajjī Mīrzā Haydar `Alī Iṣfahānī (d. Haifa, 1920); Muhammad Kázim Qazvíní, Samandar (d. 1918); Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney (d. Paris, 1928); Mirza Asadu’llah, Fāḍil-i Mazandarānī (d. Khurramshahr, 1957); Mīrzā Ḥabīb-Allāh Afnān (d. 1951); ʿAzīz-Allāh Sulaymānī Ardakāni (b. Kelateh Yazd-Abad near Sabzivah, 1901-d. Gunbad-Kavus, Mazandaran, 1985); Muhammad `Alī Fayḍī (d. 1957); `Abd al-Ḥamid Ishraq Khavarī (d. Tehran, 1972); Malik-Khusraví, Muhammad ‘Alí (b. Tehran, 1901-d. Australia, 1982); Hasan M. Balyuzi (d. London, 1980);  Alessandro Bausani (d. Rome, 1988); Amin Banani (b. Tehran, 1926 d. 2013); Firuz Kazemzadih (d. California, 2017); Davudi, `Ali Murad (b. Shams-Abad, Azerbaijan, 1922–d. 1979?); Abu’l-Qasim Afnan (d. England, UK. 2004); Muhammad Afnan (d. Canada, 2017); Denis M. MacEoin; `Abbas Amanat; Mehrdad.Amanat; Vahid Rafati; Moojan Momen; Ruhullah Mehrabkani; Fereydun Vahman; Kamran Ekbal (d.20XX); Peter Smith; Sholeh Quinn; Todd Lawson; Stephen N. Lambden; Juan R. Cole; John Walbridge; Ahang Rabbani (d. 2013); Nosratollah Mohammad Hosseini; Fariduddin Radmehr; Firūz Barāqī; Mina Yazdani; Youli A. Ioannesyan; Christopher Buck; Peter Terry; Necati Alkan;  Nader Saiedi and Omid Ghaemmaghami.

    Several of these abovementioned writers of earlier generations on matters Babi-Baha'i, have entries devoted to them in the now well-known and ongoing Encyclopedia Iranica (ed. Yarshater et al.) as well as in other reference volumes, books, articles and elecronic or internet sources.


    • BBR., 1844-1944 = Moojan Momen, The Babi and Baha'i Religions, 1844-1944, Some Contemporary Western Accounts. Oxford: George Ronald, 1981.
    • BBRAB = MacEoin, Denis. `Babi history'. The Babi and Baha'i Religions: An Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Press -  Bibliographies and Indexes in Religious Studies.
    • BCI = Moojan Momen, The Baha'i Communities of Iran, 1851-1921: The North of Iran Volume 1. Oxford: George Ronald, 2015. 592 pages.
    • BE = Babi-Baha'i or Badīʻ ("New") era, commencing 1260/1844 CE.
    • BEP = Baha'i Encyclopedia Project :
    • BITC = Shahvar; Morozov; Gilbar, Baha’is of Iran, Transcaspia and the Caucasus. 2 vols.
    • BPT = Baha'i Publishing Trust, UK. USA, etc.
    • BSB = Baha'i Studies Bulletin (ed. Lambden et al.), Newcastle upon Tyne (UK). See :
    • BSB = Baha'i Studies Bulletin (ed. Lambden et al.), Newcastle upon Tyne (UK). See :
    • BPT = Baha'i Publishing Trust, UK. USA, etc.
    • Collins Bib. =  William P. Collins, Bibliography of English-language works on the Bábí and Bahá'í faiths,1844-1985. Oxford : George Ronald, 1990. xxvii, 521pages.
    • EI1 EI2 EI3  = The three successive editions of the Leiden: Brill … Encyclopaedia of Islam 1st ed. M. Th. Houtsma, et al. ed. E. J. Brill & Luzac & co., 1913-1938. Rep. E. J. Brill: New York..1987. 2nd ed. H .A. R. Gibb / P. J. Bearman et al. ed. (EI2, 1960-2009). 3rd ed. (= EI3) ed. M. Gaborieau/ Kate Fleet et. al. 2007 (now ongoing in print and internet versions).
    • EBTB = Balyuzi, H. M., Eminent Baháʼís in the time of Baháʼuʼlláh : with some historical background. Oxford : G. Ronald, 1985.
    • EIr. = Ehsan Yarshater, ed. Encyclopedia Iranica, London, Boston and Henley, 1985>
    • H-Baha'i = ed. Juan Cole et al. `Arabic and Persian Texts Related to the Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Movements, Digitally republished, East Lansing, Mi.: H-Bahai.
    • Haithi Tr. = Haithi Trust Digital Library :
    • MSBR = Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion, compiled by E.G. Browne. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1918. Reprint, 1961
    • R&R. 1989. `Abbas Amanat, Resurrection and Renewal (see below).
    • Rieu, CPMBM I-III + Supp.  = Rieu, Charles, Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the BritishMuseum. 3 vols. London,1879-83 (Rep. 1966) and Supp. = Supplement to the Catalogue of the Persian manuscripts in the BritishMuseum. London, 1895.
    • Sources = Denis MacEoin, The Sources for Early Bābī Doctrine and History. Leiden : E. J. Brill, 1992.
    • Messiah = Denis MacEoin, The Messiah of Shiraz, Studies in Early and Middle Babism. Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2009.
    • TSBBF = `Travelers and Scholars on the Babi/Baha'i Faiths' - Bahaipedia - (Largely based on MacEoin's Bibs.; Momen, BBR., 1844-1944; Collins Bib.; Online at :
    • Voorhoeve Handlist = Petrus Voorhoeve, Handlist of Arabic manuscripts in the library of the University of Leiden and other collections in the Netherlands (= Codices manuscripti [Leiden University Press], VII). Lugduni Batavorum  Leiden, Netherlands : Bibliotheca Universitatis, 1957. xix, 540 pages.
    • World Cat. = Bibliographical details derived from World Cat.
    • Записки / Zapiski ( "Notes / Memoranda"). Zapiski Vostochnago otdi︠e︡lenīi︠a︡ Imperatorskago russkago archeologicheskago obshchestva ... A Russian periodical generated by the `Imperatorskoe russkoe arkheologicheskoe obshchestvo. Vostochnoe otdi︠e︡lenīe'. It was early on between 1849 and 1908, edited by Viktor Romanovich Rosen (1849-1908). Its subjects were varied and diverse and encompassed, for example, Archaeology; Antiquities and matters Soviet, Middle Eastern and Asian (Persian). Included were a fair number of important articles on Babi-Baha'i subjects by Rosen and others.     


    Sayyid ʻAlī Muhammad Shīrāzī, the Bab (1819-1850 CE).

    Only a few published volumes of the writings of the Bab have been printed in European languages. The largely mss. primary sources of the Bab's voluminous writings in Persian and Arabic, will only very selectively be mentioned below - see though the other appropriate webpages on this site. Among the  few compiled and translated  texts are :

    • Selections from the writings of the Báb. Trans. Habib Taherzadeh; Universal House of Justice. Research Department.; Baháí World Centre. Haifa : Bahá'í World Centre, 1978, ©1976. Also Haifa : Baháʼí World Center; Southhampton [U.K.] : Camelot Press, 1982.
    • Muntakhabāt-i āyāt az āthār-i Ḥadrat-i Nuqṭah-ʼi Ūlá  ... MMMA 134 BE/ Wilmette, Illinois, BPT., 1978/1984. 156 pages. Original Per. and Ar. texts of the Bab compiled in Selctions (above). 

    Thousands of passages within the writings of Mirza Husayn `Ali Nuri, Baha'-Allah (b. Tehran, 1817 - d. Acre, 1892) interpret the writings of the Bab. Many have a bearing upon aspects of Babi-Baha'i history, its proponents, martyrs and scholars as well as the antagonistic position of post mid. 1860s Azali Babi adherents. These texts and issues  cannot possibly all be detailed here. It must suffice to register only a few especially Bab / Babi related writings of Baha'u'llah followed by select writings of  subsequent Baha'i leaders, his son `Abdu'l-Baha `Abbas and his grandson Shoghi Effendi Rabbani.

    Select Writings of Baha'-Allah (b. Tehran, 1817 - d. Acre, 1892) pertaining to the Bab and the Babi religion.

    Select writings having a close relationship with

    • Lawh-i kull al-ta`ām (The Tablet of All-Food).
    • Sūrat al-kifāya ("The Surah of the Sufficiency). Arabic c. 1853-5.
    • Jawahir al-asrār ("The Gems of the Mysteries", Arabic c. 1861-2).
    • Kitāb-i īqān ("The Book of Certitude", Persian, c. 1862). 
    • Surat al-Dhikr , `The Surah of the Remembrance', Arabic, early-mid 1860s.
    • Lawh al-Nuqta (The Tablet of the Point). c. 1865-6?
    • Lawh-i Mubāhalah (The Tablet(s) of the Mutual Execration). c.1867.
    • Lawh-i Nasir (The Tablet to Nasir).  This Arabic and Persian scriptural Tablet was written around 1866-7.
    • The  Kitāb-i badi` (The Novel / Regenerative/ Wondrous Book"), c. 1283/1866-7.
    • Lawh-i Sarrāj for Mirza  `Alī Muhammad Sarrāj [incorrectly, Sirāj]. c. 1283-4/ c. 1867,

    See further Bib. 1 (URL above) for dates, mss. and printed details regarding the above listed writings of Baha'-Allah.  

     `Abdu’l-Bahā’ `Abbās (1844-1921).

     The Letters or `scriptural Tablets' of `Abdu'l-Baha' `Abbas (d. Haifa, 1921), the son and successor of Baha'-Allah, are numerous, numbering perhaps 30, 000. Many of them refer to the Bab or interpret matters pertaining to Babi-Baha'i history and doctrine. Only a few historical and other works can be mentioned at this point along with a few works of his grandson Shoghi Effendi (see below): 

    • c. 1886. Maqālah-ʼi shakhṣī-i sayyāḥ kih dar qaz̤īyah-ʼi Bāb nivishtah ast.  Persian text and English trans. Edward Granvile Browne (d. Cambridge, 1926). 
    • 1891. 1st ed. A Traveller's Narrative written to illustrate the Episode of the Báb. [By 'Abd al-Bahā ibn Bahā Allāh.] Edited in the original Persian, and translated into English, with an introduction and explanatory notes, by E.G. Browne. 2 vols. Cambridge : University Press: Cambridge, 1891.

    • 1930. A traveller's narrative written to illustrate the episode of the Báb. New York, : Bahaʼi Pub. Committee, 1930. Reprint of v. 2 of the 1891 edition, v. 1 being the Persian text, v. 2 being its translation into English. 447 pages. Contains: "Persian and European accounts of the Bāb and his religion": pages [173]-211. (World Cat.).
    • 1975.  A traveller's narrative : written to illustrate the episode of the Bāb : composed a.d. 1886 by 'Abbās Efendi, son of Behā'u'llāh, being an authentic description of the Persian Bābī movement, Babism, c. 1844-1886. Amsterdam : Philo Press, 1975.

    "Contents : "Inhalt: v. I: Persian text (211 p.) -- v. II: English translation and notes (liii, 447 p.). - Contens of v. II: English translation (p. [1] - 170), Notes (p. [171] - 425), Index (S. [427] - 447). - Contents of the "Notes": Note A: Persian and European accounts of the Báb and his religion (p. [173] - 199). Note B: The matyrdom of Mírzá Seyyid ʻAlí the Báb's maternal uncle amongst the 'Seven Martyrs". Note C: Texts from the Persian Beyán giving the Báb's age at the commencement of his mission, and the date thereof (p. 218 - 226). Note D: The meaning of the little 'Báb' (p. 226 - 234). Note E: The Sheykhís, and their doctrine concerning the 'fourth support' (p. 234 - 244). Note F: Additional information concerning some of the persons mentioned on p. 5 (p. 245 - 249). Note G: The Bábs pilgrimage to Mecca and return to Shíráz (p. 249 - 253). Note H: Áḳá Seyyid Yaḥyá of Dáráb and the Níríz insurrection (p. 253 - 261). Note I: The Báb's escape from Shíráz to Isfahán (p. 262 - 264). Note J: The conference at Isfahán (p. 264 - 268). Note K: Mulláh Ṣadrá and his philosophy (p. 268 - 271). Note L: The Báb at Mákú and Chihríḳ (p. 271 - 277). Note M: The first examination of the Báb at Tabríz (p. 277-290). Note N: The Báb's claim to be the Imám Mahdí (p. 290 - 295). Note O: On certain points of Shiʻite doctrine referred to in the text (p. 296 - 306). Note P: The execution of Mulláh Muḥammad ʻAlí of Barfurúsh (S. 306 - 309). Note Q: Ḳurratu'l-ʻAyn (S. 309 316). Note R: On the Bábí system of forming derivatives (p. 317 - 319). Note S: The Bábs last night on earth (p. 319 322). Note T: The attempt on the Sháhs life and the massacre of Teherán (p. 323 334). Note U: Writings of the Báb and Ṣubḥ-i Ezel (p. 335 347). Note V: Texts from the Persian Beyán illustrating the Bábs view of his relation to "Him whom God shall manifest" (p. 347-349).
    "First published Cambridge 1891, 2 volumes reprinted 1975, in one volume, with a biographical note by Michael Browne, by arrangement with Cambridge University Press, London."
    Note W: Mírzá Yaḥyá "Ṣubḥ-i Ezel" (p. 349-389). Note X: Translation of the superscription and exordium of the epistle to the king of Persia (p. 390-400). Note Y: The martyrs of Isfahán, the martyrdom of Mírzá Ashraf of Ábádé, and the persecution of Si-dih (p. 400 412). Note Z: Zeynul-Muḳarrabín, his colophons, and the light thrown by these on the Bábí method of reckoning time (p. 412-425)." LIII, 447, 211 pages (so World Cat.).

    • 2004. A traveller's narrative : written to illustrate the episode of the Báb. Los Angeles : Kalimat Press, 2004., liii, 447 pages. Reprint of v. 2 of the 1891 edition.
    • 2011 + 2012. . A traveller's narrative written to illustrate the episode of the Báb. 2 vols. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. 1st. PBk edition,  In this 1891 publication, Edward Granville Browne (1862-1926) offered a translation of The Episode of the Bab into English. Volume one is the original Persian text, and volume two the English translation, complete with notes and a substantial appendix. Parallel Persian text and English translation. 

    Ármin / Arminius Vambery (see below).

    • 1892 `Review of Browne’s edition and translation of Abdu'l-Baha’s Traveller’s Narrative (Maqāli-yi shakhs-i sayyāḥ), in `The Academy'. March 12, 1929 (no.1036), 215-6.

    Shoghi Effendi Rabbani / Shawqī Afandī Rabbānī (c. Acre / Haifa, 1896 - d. London. Nov. 4th 1957), the son of Mirza Hadi Shirazi and Diya'iyyah Khanum and hence a descendent of both the Bab and Baha'u'llah. As the Vali-yi Amr Allah (Ar. Wali Amr Allah), the `Guardian of the Cause of God', Shoghi Effendi was a prolific writer in Persian, Arabic and English. Several of his books and letters express the authorized Baha'i view of the person, station, religion and teachings of the Bab. A few examples of his lengthier translations, works or books, and compilations of his expository letters are:

    Zarandī, Mullā Muhammad (Nabīl) (d. 1892) and Shoghi Effendi :

    • Nabīl Zarandī, Mulla Muhammad; Shoghi, Effendi. ed. and trans. The Dawn-Breakers : Nabíl's narrative of the early days of the Baháʼí revelation. 1st ed. New York: Baha'i Publishing Committee, 1st ed. 1932. lxiii, 685 pages. Many reprints.
    • Talkhīṣ-i tārīkh-i Nabīl Zarandī. Nabīl Zarandī; Shoghi, Effendi.; ʻAbd al-Ḥamīd Ishrāq Khāvarī. : Lajnah-i Millī-i Nashr-i Āthār-i Amrī, 1328/1949. 660 pages.

    •  "تلخىص تارىخ نبىل زرندى" / Maṭāliʻ al-anvār = The Dawn-Breakers : "talkhīṣ-i Tārīkh-i Nabīl Zarandī". Tehran [?] : Lajnah-i Millī-i Nashr-i āthār-i Amrī. [Trans and abridged from the English into Persian by عبد الحمىد اشراق خاورى `Abd al-Hamid Ishraq Khavari. Introd. dated: 1339 Sh./1960. [10], 674, 100 pages, 32 unnumbered leaves of plates (see World Cat.). Apparently published earlier : Tehran: Lajnah-i Millī-i Nashr-i Āthār-i Amrī, 1328/ 1949, 680 pages. This edition sems to have been reprinted in New Dehli : Chāp va Intishārāt-i Mirʼāt, c.1991. having 16], 589, 61 pages. 

    • Maṭāliʻ al-anvār = The dawn-breakers: "talkhīṣ-i Tārīkh-i Nabīl zarandī". New Dehli : Chāp va Intishārāt-i Mirʼāt, c. 1991. [16], 589, 61 pages, 19 unnumbered leaves of plates : illustrations. Rep. of above. Listed in World Cat.

    • God Passes By. Shoghi, Effendi; George Townshend; National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada. National Programming Committee.Wilmette, Illinois: Baha'i Publishing Trust, 1944 (numerous reprints).

    • Mavaddat, Naṣr Allāh (Per. Trans. of the bove), کتاب قرن بدىع / Kitāb-i qarn-i badīʻ. Dundas, Ontario (Canada). : Muʼassasah-ʼi Maʻārif-i Bahāʼī bi-Lisān-i Fārsī., 1992.

    • Translation of French footnotes of The dawn-breakers. Emily McBride Périgord; Nabīl Zarandī. Wilmette, Ill. : Bahá'í Pub. Trust, 1939. 83 pages.

    • The Dispensation of Baháʼuʼlláh. London : Bahá'í Publishing Trust,  1947. Rep. 1981.

    • Dawr-i Baháʼí = (The dispensation of Baháʼuʼlláh). Hofheim-Langenhain : Baháʼí-Verl., 1988. 117 pages.
    • Messages to America. Selected Letters and Cablegrams Addressed to the Bahá'í's of North America 1932-1946. Wilmette, Illinois : Baha'i Publishing Committee, 1947.
    • Dawn of a New Day : Messages to India, 1923-1957. New Delhi : Baha'i Publishing Trust,  1978.  pages xiii. 233.
    • Directives from the guardian. Comp. Gertrude Garrida; National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India. New Delhi : Baha'i Publishing Trust, 1973. xii, 92 pages.

    The Bab and the Babi Religion: 

     An Annotated, Alphabetical listing of select Western Sources. 

    Afnān, Mīrzā Muhammad `Ali, Ḥabīb-Allāh Afnān-i A`lā‟í (b. Shiraz, 1292/1875 - d. 1951). One of the sons of Āqā Mírzā Āqā, entitled Núr al-Dín (`the Light of Religion'), a relative of the Bab.

    • The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs. Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán. translated and annotated by Ahang Rabbani. Numen Book Series, Volume: 122 (= Texts and Sources in the History of Religions). Leiden: Brill, 2008. 

    Afnān, Abu’l-Qasim (d. England, UK., 2004).

    • عهد اعلى : زندگانى حضرت باب  / ʻAhd-i Aʻlá : zindagānī-i ḥaḍrat-i Bāb. Oxford: Oneworld, 2000. 16, 654 pages.
    • Black Pearls : Servants in the Household of the Bab and Baha'u'llah. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 1988. 2nd ed. 1999. 

    Afnān, Muhammad (d. Canada, 2017).

    • Majmu`ah-yi maqālāt (“Collected Essays”) az intishārāt `Andalīb, Dundas Ontario, 129 BE/ 2013.   

    Afnán, Ruhi Muhsen.

    • Bahaullah and the Bab confront modern thinkers. Book II - Spinoza : concerning God. New York, Philosophical Library, 1977.

    Alkan, Necati̇.

    • “Süleyman Nazif’s Nasiruddin Shah ve Babiler: an Ottoman Source on
      Babi-Bahaʾi History. [With a Translation of Passages on Tahirih]”. Research Notes in
      Shaykhi, Babi and Bahaʾi Studies, Vol. 4, no. 2 (November 2000). Available online
    • Dissent and heterodoxy in the late Ottoman Empire : reformers, Babis and Bahai'is. Piscataway, N J., Gorgias Press, 2009. 268 pages.  Abstract:

    "This monograph of the religious life of the late Ottoman Empire covers several significant features of the Turkish religious landscape. Beginning with the westernizing reforms at the turn of the nineteenth century, Alkan notes the role of the ulema in this reform before considering Sultan Abdülmecid and the Tanzimat Period. He then traces the early growth of the Babis from the rule of Necib Pasha in Iraq and the opposition to the Babis. The role of Iran in the growth of the Babi faith, focusing on the activities of Baha'u'llah characterizes the Ottoman Reform Elite. The development of Baha'i in the context of the Young Ottomans and other"fathers" of Ottoman constitutionalism is explored and Alkan considers the Iranian reformers as well as the Young Turks in relation to the Babis in nineteenth-century Istanbul, 'Abdu'I-Baha in the Ottoman context of the turn of the century and the Kemalist reform round out the discussion. Indispensable for historians of Islamic breakaway religions, Alkan's monograph fills a gap in many accounts of emergent religions."--Page 4 of cover.

    `Ali, U.

    • Babism and Bahaism examined. New Kotwali, Agra [India] : S.R. & Bros., 1956. 69 pages.

    Amanat, Abbas.

    William Graham Sumner Professor of History; Director, Yale Program in Iranian Studies.

    "Abbas Amanat (B.A., Tehran University, 1971; D. Phil., University of Oxford, 1981) has taught and written about early modern and modern history of Iran, Muslim world, the Middle East and the Persianate world for more than three decades..." -  see further,

    • :
    • Amanat, Abbas at WorldCat : _____
    • 1981. “The Early Years of the Babi Movement: Background and Development.” D.
      Phil., Oxford, 1981, vi, 472 pp.
    • 1989. Resurrection and Renewal: The Making of the Babi Movement in Iran, I844-1850 Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1989. Reprinted,  Los Angeles: Kalimat, 2005.
    • 1996 [2009] `The Nuqtavi Movement of Mahmud Pasikhani and his Persian Cycle of Mystical Materialism' in Apocalyptic Islam and Iranian Shiism, London & New York: IB Tauris, 2009, 73-89 reprinted from Essays in Mediaeval Isma'ili History and Thought ed. Farhad Daftary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 281-298.
    • 1997. Pivot of the Universe: Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831-1896. Berkeley and Los Angeles : University of California Press, 1997, paperback: London and New York: I B Tauris, 2008.
    • 2000. History of the Babi insurrection of Mazandaran in 1848–1849. Brill Academic
      Publishers Inc., 2000
    • 2002.

      Magnus Thorkell Bernhardsson. Imagining the End: Visions of Apocalypse from Ancient Middle East to Modern America. 2002.

    • 2008. `The historical roots of the persecution of Babis and Baha’is in Iran,” in The Baha’is of Iran: Socio-Historical Studies, edited by Dominic Brookshaw and Seena B. Fazel. London: Routledge, 2008.
    • 2009. Apocalyptic Islam and Iranian Shi'ism. London: I.B. Tauris. 2009.
    • 2016. with Fereydun Vahman,  Az Tehran Ta Akka: Babiyan Va Bahaiyan Dar Asnad Dowran-E Qajar. (From Tehran to ‘Akka: Babis and Baha’is in the Official Records of Qajar Iran, Copenhagen and New Haven: Ashkaar Publishers, 2016.

    Amanat Mehrdad.

    • Negotiating identities : Iranian Jews, Muslims and Baha'is in the memoirs of Rayhan Rayhani (1859-1939). Ph. D. University of California, Los Angeles 2006. ix, 332 pages.
    • Jewish identities in Iran : resistance and conversion to Islam and the Baha'i faith. London ; New York : I.B. Tauris, 2013. xi, 279 pages.

    Andreas, Friedrich Carl (b. born in Batavia, Java, 1846- d. Göttingen, Germany,  1930).  German Iranologist.

    From 1903 until 1930 Andreas was professor of western Asiatic philology at Göttingen. See further  W. Lentz, D. N. MacKenzie, B. Schlerath, “ANDREAS, FRIEDRICH CARL,” Encyclopædia Iranica, II/1, pp. 27-30, available online at (accessed on 30 December 2012). cf. See MacEoin, Nos. 32-34.

    • Die Babi's in Persien : ihre Geschichte und Lehre quellenmässig und nach eigener Anschauung dargestellt. Leipzig: Verlag der Akademischen Buchhandlung (W. Faber),  1896. 68 pages.

    Aṛakʻelian / Arakélian /Arakelyan, Hambardzum (b. Shusha, Russia, c. 1855 -d. 1918). A prominent  pro-Russian Armenian writer, journalist and activist who lived or studied in Baku, Moscow and Tiflis (now Tbilisi). The Armenian surname Առաքելյան (Aṛakʻelian, meaning `sent’, like an apostle), has been variously transliterated (as indicated above). Cf. MacEoin, BBRAB; Shahvar et al, BITC vol. II: 154,167, 219.

    • Babizm. Tʻiflis :
    • "`Le Babisme en Perse'". Actes du ler Congre's international d'histoire des religions 2e'me partie (` First International Congress of the History of Religions' Paris,1900), 93- 104. Also printed in :
    •  "'Le babisme en Perse'".  in Revue de l'Histoire des Religions (Paris) 43 (1901): 333-344.

    Arbuthnot, Robert H. ( xxx)

    • "'The Bab and Babeeism'." Contemporary Review (London), 11 (12 Aug. 1869, Oct. 1869) : 581-601; 245-66. 

    Arsharuni, A. M. = Аршаруни, А. М., (1896-1985).

    • Babizm : istoricheskiĭ ocherk. Moskva : OGIZ Moskovskiĭ rabochiĭ, 1931. 78 pages. In Russian
    • Bekhaizm. Moscow:  "Bezbozhnik"/ T︠S︡entralʹnyĭ sovet Soi︠u︡za voinstvui︠u︡shchikh bezbozhnikov SSSR, 1930. 54 Pages.  In Russian.

    Artpet, See below  Mubāyjīyān, Sarkīs (1860-1937).

    • Babizm i Bechaizm : opyt naučno-religioznago izslědovanija. Tiflis : [Drucker] : Aganjanc, 1910. 140 pages.

    Bahadur, Agha Mirza Muhammed Khan (trans.).

    • 1927 `Some New Notes on Babism.' Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, n. 3 (1927): 443-470. 

     Balyuzi, Ḥasan (b. Shiraz, 1908-d. London, 12 February 1980), the son of ʿAlī-Muhammad Khan, Muwaqqar-al-Dawla and a member of the Afnān entitled family or kindred of the Bab. He was a "Bahai author and administrator. See further, M. Momen EIr. (Dec.15, 1988) :

    • 1970. Edward Granville Browne and the Baha'i Faith. Oxford, UK: George Ronald.
    • 1973. The Bab: The Herald of the Day of Days. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. See also Elwell-Sutton, L. P. “Review of H. M. Balyuzi, The Báb.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic
      Society 1 (1975), 67.
    • 1981. Khadijih Bagum, the Wife of the Báb. Oxford, UK: George Ronald.
    • 1985. Eminant Baha’is in the Time of Baha’u’llah with some Historical Background. Oxford: George Ronald, 1985.
    • 2016. Edward Granville Browne va Diyānat-I Bahā’ī. Hoffheim, Germany, 173 BE / 2016 CE.

     Banani, Amin (1926-2013). 

    See Ehsan Yarshater, `Professor Amin Banani, 1926–2013: A Prominent Scholar of Iranian Studies' in  Iranian Studies, Volume 47/2 (2014), 347-351.

    •  The Modernization of Iran 1921-1941. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1961.

    Barbier de Maynard, Charles Adrien Casimir (1826-1908). French historian, translator and Orientalist. See Ch. Pellat art., "`Barbier de Maynard...'" in  EIr., Vol. III/7 (1988) pp. 760-761. Online at

    • “Review of Gobineau, Les Religions et les philosophies 3rd. ed.” Journal Asiatique
    • “Review of Browne, A Traveller’s Narrative.” Journal Asiatique (Paris) 20 (8ème serie 1892): 297–302.

    Batjuškov, Georgij [Batyushkov. G]  (xx).

    • Babidy: Persidskaya Sekta (`The Babis: a Persian Sect'). St. Petersburg : Stasjulevič 1897. 28 pages.

    Bausani, Alessandro (b. Rome, Italy, 29 May 1921; d. Rome, 11 March 1988).

    Prolific  and polymathic Italian Orientalist and Baha'i. See for further biographical and other details Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti. 


    • 1959. Persia Religiosa: Da Zaratustra a Bahā’u’llāh (Italian), Milan : Il Saggiatore.
    • 2000. Religion in Iran: From Zoroaster to Baha'u'llah (trans. J. M. Marchesi ), New York :  Bibliotheca Persica Press, 2000. 
    • Entries:  Bāb, Bābis, Bahāʾ-Allāh, Bahāʾīs in the Leiden: Brill, EI2.

    Bayat-Philip, Mangol

    • Mysticism and Dissent: Socioreligious Thought in Qajar Iran. Syracuse, New York, 1983.
    •  2nd ed.  See further below Pt. II. sect. III. 

    Bernasovskii, N. (??)

    • Babizm: Istoriia Vozniknoveniia. Tiflis, 1909. Russian. (? see MacEoin, 2009:713).

    Boissel,  Jean (1920-2005), one time Professeur de littérature générale et comparée à l'Université Paul-Valéry de Montpellier III (1969-1985).  See further,

    • Gobineau, l'Orient et l'Iran 1 1816 - 1860 : prolégomènes et essai d'analyse. Paris:  Klincksieck, 1974.
    • Gobineau (1816-1882) : un Don Quichotte tragique. Paris : Hachette, 1981. 377 pages.
    • Gobineau biographie : mythes et réalité. Paris : Berg International, 1993. 360 pages.

    Brookshaw, Dominic Parviz & Seena B. Fazel, ed.

    • The Baha’is of Iran: Socio-historical Studies. London: Routledge, 2008.

    Browne, Edward, Granville (b. Uley, Gloucestershire, England, 1862- d. Cambridge, 1926). Cambridge based Persianist and pioneer of Babi-Baha'i Studies in Europe and elsewhere.

    See G. Michael Wickens, Juan Cole, Kamran Ekbal, “BROWNE, EDWARD GRANVILLE,”  EIr., IV/5, pp. 483-488, available online at (accessed on 30 December 2012). Incorporates G. Michael Wickens, i. "Browne’s life and academic career"; Juan Cole, "ii. Browne on Babism and Bahaism" and Kamran Ekbal, "iii. "Browne and the Persian Constitutional movement".

    • 1887-8. Diary available on CDRom from Cambridge University.
    • 1889 I. “The Bábís of Persia I: Sketch of their History and Personal Experiences among Them,” JRAS  21, 1889, 485-526. Rep. in Momen, ed., Selections (1987), 145-315.
    • 1889 II. "`The Bábís of Persia II: Their Literature and Doctrines,’" JRAS 21, 1889, 881-1009. Rep. in Momen, ed., Selections (1987), 145-315.
    • 1891 (2nd ed., [not in 1st ed. 1889), " `Babism'" in Religious Systems of the World, A Contribution to The Study of Comparative Religion (London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co. Ltd. 8th ed. 1905 pp. 332-353. (Later in many subsequent editions, e.g. 3rd ed. 1893). See also the reprint in Momen, ed. Selections (1897),  407-427.
    • 1891 (ed. and trans.)  A Traveller's Narrative written to illustrate the Episode of the Bāb. 2 vols. Cambridge 1891. Reprinted in one vol. Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1975
    • 1891. `Writings of the Bāb and Ṣubḥ-i-Ezel,’ in A Traveller’s Narrative Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Bāb, 2 vols., Cambridge, 1891, I, pp. 335-47. 
    • 1892. `A Catalogue and Description of 27 Bābī Manuscripts,’ JRAS., 24, 1892, 433-99, 637-710.
    • 1892. “Some Remarks on the Babi Texts Edited by Baron Victor Rosen in Vols. I and
    • VI of the Collections Scientifiques de l’Institut des Langues Orientales de Saint Petersbourg.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (London), vol. 24 (1892), pp. 259–332.
    • 1893. E. G. Browne, ed. and trans., The Tārīkh-i-Jadīd, or New History of Mīrzā ʿAlī Moḥammed, the Bāb, Cambridge, 1893; repr. as The New History… Amsterdam : Philo Press, 1975.
    • 1893. A Year Amongst the Persians. London, 1893. New ed., London, New York, and Toronto, 1984. Many reprints  including, London, New York and Toronto, 1984.
    • 1909. "`Bāb, Babis’". In Hastings Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, pp. 299–308. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1909.
    • 1910. Browne (ed), Hājjī Mīrzā Jānī of Kāshān (attrib.), Kitab-i Nuqṭatu'l-Káf. London and Leiden. 1910.
    • 1918. Materials for the Study of the Bábí Religion. Cambridge: CUP., 1918 . Rep.1961 +  Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2013. xxiv, 380 pages : illustrations. See esp. `Further Notes on Bābī Literature,’ in Materials pp. 198-208.

    See further :

    • 1932 and R. A. Nicholson. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Oriental MSS. belonging to the late E. G. Browne. Cambridge, 1932.
    • 1987 ed. Moojan Momen. Selections from the Writings of E. G. Browne on the Bābī and Bahā'ī Religions. Oxford: George Ronald, 1987.
    • 1988. Denis MacEoin, Review of M. Momen (ed.) Selections from the Writings of E. G. Browne on the Bābī and Bahā'ī Religions, in Iranian Studies 3:4 (1988), 168 70.

    Cadwalader, R.

    • "Persia" : An Early Mention of the Bab' in Word Order (Magazine) 11/2  (1976-7), 30-34.

    Cheyne, Thomas K.  (1841-1915). An Anglican minister and Oxford Univ. Professor. Between 1885 and 1908 he was Oxford University's prestigious `Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture'.

    • The Reconciliation of Races and Religions, London: Adam & Charles Black, 1914.

    Christensen, Prof. Arthur Emanuel  (b. 1875, d. Copenhagen 1945).

    Danish Orientalist with a particular interest in Iranian studies. Among other things he "studied Persian and Arabic with A. F. van Mehren, Avestan with Edvard Lehmann, Sanskrit with V. Fausbøll, and Turkish with Johannes Østrup" . During his travels in the Near East Christensen acquired a large number Arabic and Persian manuscripts.


      Cole, Juan R. I    -  Richard P. Mitchell Collegiate Professor of History at the University of Michigan.

      • Personal Website =
      • Publications :
      • 1982. `The Concept of Manifestation in the Baha’i Writings,'  Baha’i Studies monograph 9 (1982), 1-38.
      • 1984. Cole, Juan Ricardo; Moojan Momen (eds.). From Iran East and West (= Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í history, v. 2.)  Los Angeles : Kalimát Press, 1984.  xiii, 205 pages.  
      • 1985. Gulpaygani, Mirza Abu'l-Fadl. Letters & Essays 1886-1913. Trans. Juan R. Cole. Los Angeles, 1985.
      • 1993 [+2011]. `CONVERSION v. To Babism and the Bahai faith' EIr.Vol. VI,/3, pp. 236-238.
      • 1997- Cole, Juan Ricardo et al. (ed.). Occasional papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i studies. Lansing, Mich. (USA) : H-Bahai, 1997-
      • Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Baha’i Faith in the Nineteenth-Century Middle East. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.
      • 1990. "'Čahrīq`  ii. Place of Imprisonment of the Bāb'", in EIr. Vol. IV/6 (1990), pp. 644-645. 
      • 1998. “Nuqtat al-Kaf and the Babi Chronicle Traditions”, Research in Shaykhi,
        Babi and Baha’I Studies, 2:6 (August 1998),
      • 2004. `The Azālī-Bahāʼī Faith crisis of September 1867’ in  Moshe Sharon (ed). Studies in modern religions, 2004 (see below)

      Collins, William P.

      • 'Library and Archival Resources at the Bahā'ī World Centre'. Newcastle upon Tyne : Bahai Studies Bulletin 3:4 (December, 1985): 65-83.
      • Bibliography of English-language Works on the Bābī and Bahā'ī Faiths. Oxford: George Ronald, 1990.

      Curzon, George Nathaniel (1859-1925).

      • Persia and the Persian Question, by the hon. George N. Curzon... 2 vols. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1892. Reprinted by Frank Cass & Co., 1966.
      • Persia and the Persian question. 2 vols. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2015. xxiv, 639, 653 pages.
      • Concise descriptive catalogue of the Persian manuscripts in the Curzon Collection (= Bibliotheca indica. New series, 1486. Work no. 241), Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta, Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1926. xxviii, 582 pages.

      Day, Michael, V.

      • Journey to the mountain : the story of the Shrine of the Báb, Volume I, 1850-1921. Oxford : George Ronald, 2017. xvi, 239 pages.

      Davudi, `Ali Murad (b. Shams-Abad, Azerbaijan, 1922–d. 1979?). Baha'i and Professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran.

      • Falsafih va ‘Irfan, vol. 1: Insan dar A’in-i Baha’i. ed. Vahid Ra’fati. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 1987.
      • Falsafih va ‘Irfan, Vol. 2: Uluhiyyat va Mazhariyyat. ed. Vahid Ra'fati. Dundas, Ontario:
        Persian Institute for Baha'i Studies, 1991.
      • Falsafih va ‘Irfan,Vol. 3: Maqalat va Rasa’il. ed. Vahid Rafati. Dundas, Ontario: Persian Institute for Baha'i Studies, 1994.
      • Dala'il-i sab`ah-yi `Arabiyya [The Arabic `Seven Proofs' of the Bab], Ahang-i Badi` 10 Year 18 (1342Sh/ 1963), 354-367.
      • 2013. Human Station in the Bahá'í Faith: Selected Sections: Philosophy and Knowledge of the Divine. ed. comp. Vahid Rafatí Eng trans. Riaz Masrour, Hong Kong : Juxta Publishing Co. 

      Denison Ross, Sir. Edward  (6 June 1871 – 20 September 1940). Orientalist. Pupil of E. G. Browne.

      • `Babism'  in The North American Review, v 172 n. 533 (1901 ?) pp. 606-622.
      • E.G. Browne, A year amongst the Persians : Impressions as to the life, character and thought of the people of Persia : received during twelve months' residence in that country in the years 1887-1888 : With a memoir by E. Denison Ross. Cambridge : CUP., 1926. 650 pages.
      • The Persians. Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1931. 142 pages.
      • Both ends of the candle : the autobiography of Sir E. Denison Ross. With a forew. by Laurence Binyon. London : Faber and Faber, 1944. 345 pages.

      Dolgorouki or Dolgorukov, Dimitri Ivanovich , (1797-d. 1867).

      Russian Minister in Tehran 1846-1856. See below section and bib. 1 and World Cat:

      Dorn, Johannes Albrecht Bernhard / Boris Andreevich (1805-1881), the third head of the Asiatic Museum, St. Petersburg (founded 1818). See furher  Luzhetskaya, N. L. 1995 [2011] `Dorn, Johannes Albrecht Bernhard’ in EIr. vol,.VII. fasc 5 pp. 511-513.      

      •  1865. “Die vordem Chanykov’sche, jetzt der Kaiserl. Öffentlichen Bibliothek zugehorige Sammlung von Morgenländischen Handschriften welche dir Kaiserliche Offentliche Bibliothek zu St. Petersburg in Jahre 1864”. Bulletin de l'académie des sciences de St-Petersbourg, III, 1864/5, pp. 245–91. See further MacEoin, 2009, p. 715.
      • 1872. 'Die Wissenschaftlichen Sammlungen des Grafen de Gobineau'. Mélanges Asiatiques, 4 (1872), 401-408.

      Dreyfus, Hippolyte (1873-1928) and Laura Dreyfus-Barney (1879-1974).

      Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney (b. Paris 1873, d. Paris, 20th Dec. 1928) and Laura Clifford Dreyfus-Barney (1879-1974).


      Ekbal, Kamran (d. 201X).  See above under Muhammad-Muṣṭafā Baghdādi, his forbear. 

      • “Taqiyya und kitmān in den Bābi und Bahā’i Religionen,” in Stefan Wild and Hartmut Schild, eds., Akten des 27. Deutschen Orientalistentages: Norm und Abweichung, (Bonn 28. September bis 2. Oktober 1998), Würzburg 2001, pp. 363-72.
      • “Notes Taken from Interviews with Ḥasan Ṣafā, 210 Grandson of Moḥammad Moṣṭafā al-Baḡdādi,” Tours, August-September 1990, private papers of Kamran Ekbal.
      • “Murur-i bar alwāḥ-i ḥadrat-i Bahāʾ-Allāh  khaṭāb bi Muhammad-Muṣṭafā Baḡdādi,” in Safína-yi ʿerfān IV, Darmstadt, 2001, pp. 192-202.
      • “Taqiya, setr wa ketmān dar diānathā-yi Bābi wa Bahāʾi,” Iran Nāmeh 28/3, 2013, pp. 170-93.

      Eshraqhi, Armin.

      • 2004. Frühe Shaikhi und Babi-Thelogie: Die Beweise für Muhammads besonderes Prophetentum (ar- Risāla fī ithbāt an-nubūwa al-khaṣṣa). Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2004.
      • 2012. `Undermining the Foundations of Othodoxy: Some Notes on the Bab's Sharia (Sacred Law)’ in Lawson ed. 2012, pp. 223-247.

      Esposito, John L.  (Georgetown University)

      • `Babism' in The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press,

      Ethé, Hermann.

      • “Ein moderner Prophet des Morgenlandes.” In Essays und Studien. Berlin: F. Nicolai, 1872.
      • “Review of Browne, A Traveller’s Narrative.” Deutsche Literaturzeitung (Berlin) 13 (30 July 1892), pp.1014–15.

      Fayḍī, Muhamad `Alī.

      • Ḥaḍrat-i nuqṭa-yi ūlā. Tehran: MMMA., 1352 Sh. /1973. Rep. Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahā’ī-Verlag, 144/1987.

      Fāḍil-i Māzandarāni, Mirza Asadallah (d. Khurramshahr, 1957).

      See Bib.1 and Momen "FĀŻEL MĀZANDARĀNĪ, MĪRZĀ ASAD-ALLĀH, Bahai scholar and missionary (b. Bābol, 1298/1881; d. Ḵorramšahr, 5 Dey 1336 Š./26 December 1957)" in EIr. Vol. IX/5, pp. 460-461.

      • Kitāb-i Ẓuhūr al-ḥaqq. 9 vols. Mostly in mss. in Persian except vols. 3 and 8/1+2.

      Fuad, Ahmad Nur.

      • The Bābī movement in Iran : from religious dissent to political revolt, 1844-1853. M.A. Thesis McGill University 1998  vii, 130 pages.

      Gobineau, Joseph Arthur, Comte de Gobineau (b near Paris.1816 – d. Turin,1882) 

      He was a "French man of letters, artist, polemist, Orientalist, and diplomat" (Jean Calmard in EIr.). His Paris 1865 Religions et philosophies dans l'Asie centrale  brought the religion of the Bab to international attention. From 1865 many, such as the British Persianist Edward G Browne (d.1926) were moved to enquire further about the Bab and his revolutionary religion. On Gobineau see also entries here under Boissel,  Jean (1920-2005); Momen BBR 1844-1944, : 17-26; Geoffrey Nash and Daniel O'Donoghuem 2008 (see below).

      • EIr.
      • Religiones et Philosophies dans l’Asie Centrale. Paris: Didier [Aaron] & Cie., 1865 + many subsequent Paris printings and editions - examples below.
      • Les Religiones et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale. 2nd ed. Paris : Librarie Académique, Didier et Libraires-Éditeurs qual des Grands-Augustins, 1866.
      • Les Religiones et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale. 3rd ed. Ludwig. Schemann. Paris : Ernest Leroux, 1900. 
      • Les Religiones et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale.  Paris : Crès, 1928
      • Les Religiones et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale. 10th ed. Paris: Gallimard, 1957.

      Select Reviews :

      Franck, Adolphe (1810 - d. Paris, 1893), French spiritual thinker and philosopher.

      • “Review of Gobineau, Les Religions et les philosophies 1st. ed.” Journal des Savants (Paris) (1865): 665–81, 767–87. Reissued as “Une Nouvelle Religion en Perse” in the author’s Philosophie et Religion, Paris, 1867, pp. 281–340 (so MacEoin, Messiah, 2009 bib.)
      • “‘Die Babis in Persien’ [Review of Gobineau, Religions et philosophies]” Allgemeine Zeitung (Tubingen) (March 1866). (listed MacEoin, 2009:714.

      Goldziher, Ignaz (1850-1921).

      • "`Verhältnis des Bāb zu früheren Ṣūfī-Lehren'" in Der Islam, Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Kulter des Islamischen Oriens (Berlin) 11: 252-254. Eng. trans. B. Walker and S. Lambden in BSB 6: 2-3 (Feb. 1992), 65-68.

      Goeje, Michael Jan de (b. Dronrijp, Friesland, 1836- d. Leiden, Netherlands, 1909). Durch Islamicist and orientalist. Professor of Arabic at Leiden, Netherlands. Specialized in Islamic geography and historiography as was the chief editor of the world history of al-Ṭabarī’s, Taʾrī kh al-rusul wa’l-mulūk (Annales, 15 vols., Leiden, 1879-1901; repr. Leiden, 1964). See further, A. J. M. Vrolijk, "De Goeje, Michael Jan'"EIr. Vol. VII/2, (1994/2011) 174-175. 

      • De Bâbî's [De B'abi's], Amsterdam/ Utrecht, Netherlands [in Dutch]. 1893, 20 pp. Reprinted from the journal/magazine, De Gids orgaan van het christelijk nationaal vakverbond in Nederland. no. 10, 1893. With Andreas, Friedrich Carl. Die Babis in Persien. Leipzig: Verlag der Akademischen Buchhandlung (W. Taber), 1896. 

      Gulpayagānī, Muhammad ibn Muḥammad Riḍā' Gulpāygānī, Mīrzā Abū al-Faḍl / Fada'il ('Father of Excellence(s) (b. Gulpayagan, Persia, 1844- d. Cairo, Egypt,  21st Jan. 1914). Trained as a Muslim cleric in Karbala, Najaf (Ottoman Iraq) and Isfahan (Persian-Iran), he became a Baha'i in 1876 and wrote numerous books, treatises and epistles many of which contain materials about the Bab and Babi history. See Bibliography at :

      • Sharh-i āyāt-i muvarrikhah (Commentary on the Chronological Proof texts). Shanghai, 1344/1925 etc).
      • Risāla-yi `Ayyūbiyya (`Jobite Treatise (this remains in ms.) in order to attract Jews (of Hamadan, etc) Christians and others to the Bahā’ī religion.
      • Faṣl al-Khiṭāb (`The Decisive Discourse' [Samarkand] n.d. [completed, 1893-4]. Rep. Dundas, Ontario, 1995.
      • Kitāb al-Farā'id (`Book of Incomparability'). Cairo, 1315/1898. Completed 1st Shawwal 1315 = 23rd Feb. 1898. A massive work of Baha'i apologetics and defence of the c. 1861 (CE) Kitāb-i iqān (The Book of Certitude) of Bahā'-Allāh.
      • 1315/1898. Kitāb al-farāʼid fī bayān wujūh aqsām al-dalīl wa'l-burhān wa-jawāb masāʼil intaqada bi-hā ḥaḍrat al-shaykh ʻAbd al-Salām ʻalá ahl al-Īqān. with the patronage of Hajji `Abd al-Karim Tehrani and Mirza `Ali Muhammad Shirazi and financed by Mirza Hasan Khurasani and Faraj-Allah Zaki al-Kurdi.  Cairo: Maṭbaʻat Hindiyya bi'l-shari`a al-Mahdi bi'l-Azbakiyya,   1315/1897-8. 731+ xxv pages.  
      • 2001. Kitāb al-Farā'id : fi bayān wujūh aqsām al-dalīl wa-al-burhān wa-jawāb masāʼil intaqada bi-hā haḍrat al-Shaykh ʻAbd al-Salām ʻalʹa Ahl al-īqān. Hofheim-Langenhain : Baha'i Verlag, 2001. 489 pages.
      • Kitāb al-Farā'id : Urdū tarjumah. Trans. AbūlʻAbbās Ridvī Jārcavī, Karāchī: Maḥfil Rūḥānī Millī-yi Bahāʼiyān-i Pākistān, 1957. 16, 488 pages.
      • Kitāb al-Farā'id : Urdū tarjumah = Urdu translation *2nd ed.).  Rāvalpindī : Bahāʼī Pablishing Ṭrusṭ Pākistān, 2003. 440 pages.
      • The Bahäʹí proofs : (Ḥujajʹul-Behäyyeh) ; and, A short sketch of the history and lives of the leaders of this religion. 2nd ed. by Mirza Abul-Fazl ; translated by Ishtael-Ebn-Kalenter. Chicago : Grier Press, 1914. 288 pages.
      • The Baháʹí proofs : (Ḥujajʹl-Bahíyyih); and, A short sketch of the history and lives of the leaders of this religion. Wilmette, Ill. : Baháʹí Pub. Trust, 1983. Reprint of the 3rd ed., the 1929 New York, Baha'i Pub. Committee printing. 
      • Majmu`a-yi Rasa'il-i-hadrat-i-Abi'l-Fadl. Cairo in 1920.  Contains 16 letters and treatises.
      • Rasa'il wa Raqa'im: ed. Ruhu'llah Mihrābkhānī. Tehran 1977 Contains 23 treatises and 59 letters a few of which have been translated into English by Juan Cole in his Letters & Essays...
      • Tarikh /Tarīkh al-Bāb wa'l-Bābiyya ("The History of the Bab and the Babi religion"). A version of this historical text was commissioned by Yaqʿūb Ṣarrūf, the editor of the Egyptian magazine المقتطف Al-Muqtaṭaf ("The Digest"; published in Beirut and Cairo), after the assassination of Nasir al-Din Shah in 1896. See al-Muqṭataf 20 (1 July 1896).    Refer, Rasā’il wa raqā'im, 291-303 and Cole, trans. Letters and Essays, 95-109.
      • Risāla Iskandariyya ("The Alexander Dedicated Treatise"). Written in reply to questions raised by E. G. Browne about, among other things, the life of Baha'u'llah and the authoriship of the Tarikh-i Jadid ("New History") now known to be by Mirza Husayn Hamadani (see below). Its title derives its name from the Russian Orientalist Aleksandr Grigor’evich Tumansky (1861-1917) with whom Gulpayigani had links and to whom it is dedicated. For the text see Rasā'il wa raqā'im, 48-89 and trans. Cole, Letters and Essays, 43-83).
      • Kashf al-Ghiṭā `an hiyal al-a`dā' (The Uncovering of the Veil  from the Schemes of the Opponents). 2 vols. [Turkistan] Tashkent/ Ashkabad n.d. c. 1334/1919. An unfinished Persian work completed by  Sayyid Mahdĩ Gulpaygānī and others. In the printed edition only 132 of its 438 pages seem to have been written by Gulpayigani himself. It is in part a responce  to E. G. Browne's publication in 1910  of the Kitāb-i Nuqtat al-Kāf which he attributed to the Babi Hajji Mirza Jānī Kāshāni. This latter work of Gulpaygāni and others was viewed unfavourably as an Azali Babi corruption by `Abd al-Bahā' who ultimately advised its removal. Several copies, however, survived. The printed edition contains some important works of the Bab and of such Babis as Tahira, Qurrat al-`Ayn. For some details see Balyuzi, EGB and the Baha'i Faith, 1970 index; MacEoin, Sources, 136-139.
      • Gulpaygani, Mrrza Abu'l-Fadl. Trans. Juan R. Cole. Letters & Essays 1886-1913. Los Angeles, 1985.

      Hamadānī, Mirza Ḥusayn  (d. 1299/1881-2)

      • Tārīkh-i jadīd. Manuscript in CUL., E. G. Browne Collection and British Library ms. Or. 2942 (partially translated by Browne, see below). Sometimes also known as the Tārīkh-i Mānekjī (= Līmjī Hūshang Hātaryā Mānekjī, the first Zoroastrian agent in Qajar Persia).

      • 1893. ed. and tr., E.G. Browne, The Tārīkh-i-Jadīd, or New History of Mīrzā ʿAlī Muḥammed, the Bāb, Cambridge, 1893; repr. as The New History.

      • 1975. The new history of Mírzá ʻAlí Muḥammed, the Báb = Táríkh-i-jadíd : being an account of the origins and growth of the Babi religion and its founder. Reprint: Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1975. This is a reprint of the 1893 ed. published by Cambridge University Press.  ii, 459 pages, 6 unnumbered leaves of plates.  It is translated from the Persian and edited with explanatory notes and appendixes containing Ṣubḥ-i-Ezel's narrative, Persian and English, Mírzá Jání's history and other documents ... [by] Edward G. Browne ; with a biographical note by Michael Browne.

      Charles Rieu,  in the Supplement to the Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the British Museum (Printed by order of the trustees. London, 1895) has a useful summary entry on a ms. of the Tarikh-i Jadid: "The “New History" is based upon a contemporary account due to Ḥāji Mirza Jānī of Kāshhān (who died as a martyr A.H. 1268), a copy of which was brought home by Comte de Gobineau, and is now in the Paris Library. The present work, which differs from the original by excisions, alterations, and considerable additions, bears no author's name.  It is known, however, to have been written, at the request of the Pārsi Manakji, son of Limji Hūshang, who died about A.D. 1890, by Mirza Ḥusain Hamadāni, who submitted it for correction to one of the earliest disciples of the Bāb, Sayyid Jawād Karbalā'I (d. about A.H. 1301), Mirza Abu'l-Fazl  Muḥammad, of Gulpāigān, wrote the preface, and Mānakji several additions. An English translation, under the title "The Ta’ríkh-i-Jadíd, or New History of Mirza 'Ali Muḥammad the Bāb," was published by Dr. Edward G. Browne, Cambridge, 1893. A full account of the composition of the work will be found in the preface, pp. xxxv.-xliii., and in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1892, pp. 440-44. The present [British Library] MS., on which Dr. Browne's translation is principally based, was described by him in "A Traveller's Narrative,'' vol. ii., pp. 192-97. Another copy is noticed by Baron v. Rosen, Collections Scientifiques, 1901. vi., p. 244. On the first page is written : "Tarikh i Jedid. Henry L. Chuchill. 1882." (Rieu, 1893 p. 9 col. a). For further details and corrections to the above see MacEoin, Sources, index.

      See also : Goldsmid, F. J. “Review of Hamadani, The Tarikh-i-Jadid [Trans. and ed. E. G. Browne.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1894), 640–46 (listed MacEoin, 1909: 716).

      Huart, M., Clément (b. Paris, 1854 – 30 December d. Paris,1926), French Orientalist accomplished in Arabic, Persian, and Turkish. See Jean Calmard, HUART, CLÉMENT  in EIr. Vol. XII / 5, pp. 550-551. 

      • 1887. 'Notes sur trois ouvrages Bâbis'. Journal Asiatique. 8th ser. 10 (1887), pp. 133-44. See below Bib. III. On three writings of Mirza Yahya Nuri (d. 1912).
      • 1888. ` La religion de Bab: Essai de Réforme de l'islamisme en perse au xix esiècle’, in Revue de l'histoire des religions, Vol. 18 (1888), pp. 279-296.
      • 1889. La religion de Bab: réformateur persan du XIXe siècle.  Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1889. 64 pages.
      • 1906. “Review of Nicolas’ translation of Le Beyan arabe.” Revue de l’Histoire des Religions (Paris) 53 (1906), pp. 384–92.
      • 1906. “Reviews of Nicolas, Séyyèd Ali Mohammed dit le Bâb and Nicolas’ translation
        of Le Beyan arabe” in  Revue de l’Histoire des Religions 53 (1906), 384–92.
      • 1913. “Review of Nicolas’ translation of Le Beyan persan, vol. 1” in Journal Asiatique
        (Paris) 2 (11ème serie 1913), pp. 697–99.
      • 1915. “Review of Nicolas’ translation of Le Beyan persan, vols. 2–4”. Revue de l’Histoire
      • des Religions (Paris) 71 (1915), pp. 275–277.
      • “Babis” in EI. vol. I.  and French trans.  (Paris, A. Picard, C. Klincksieck, 1913–38).
      • 1918. “Review of Edward G. Browne. Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion”.
        Journal Asiatique (Paris) 12 (11ème serie 1918), pp. 465–68.
      • 1918. “Le Babisme et le Behaisme—Edward G. Browne, Materials for the Study of the
        Babi Religion”. Journal des Savants (Paris) (1918), pp. 312–20.

      Ioannesyan, Youli A.

      • 2006`The St. Petersburg 19th Century Orientalist Collection of Materials on the Babi and
        Baha’i Faiths: Primary and Other Sources.” Lights of ‘Irfan: Paprers Presented at the ‘Irfan Colloquia and Seminars, vol. 7( 2006), 75-100.
      • 2007. `Baron Rosen's Archive Collection of Bábí and Bahá'í Materials’ in Lights of Irfan’ . Wilmette, IL: Irfan Colloquia, 2007, vol. 8:11-34.
      • 2013. The development of the Babi, Bahaʼi communities : exploring Baron Rosen's archives (Series: Iranian studies, 17) . London : Routledge, 2013. x, 208 pages.

      Abstract :

      "Introduction 1 From A.G. Tumanski's Correspondence with V. R. Rosen 2 Report by the Russian Charge d'Affaire in Tehran Mr. Zinovyev to Duke Gorchakov 3 Babis in Adrianople: Reportof Chief of the Consulate Staff in Adrianople 4 Information about the Babis Presented by Persians living in Adrianople 5 Information about the Babis by Yunus Mehdi Effendi, the Qadi in Adrianople 6 Report of the Russian Consul General in Adharbayjan Bezobrazov 7 Anonymous Diplomatic Dispatch Concerning an Episode in Isfahan 8 From G. Batyunshkov's Correspondence with V.R. Rosen 9 From V.I. Ignatyev's Correspondence with V.R. Rosen 10 Sebastian Voirot's Correspondence with V.R. Rosen 11 Some Separate Transcripts in V.R. Rosen's Archive 12 From E.G. Browne's Correspondence with Rosen 13 I. Khayru'llah's letter to V.R. Rosen 14 Abu'l-Fazl Gulpaygani's Transcript"

      Isfahani, Hajji Mirza Haydar ‘Ali (b. Isfahan, ca. 1830 - d. Haifa, 7 December 1920).

      حاج مىرزا حىدر على اصفهانى

      • Dala'il-i irfan (Proofs of the [Babi-Baha'i] Gnosis"). Ms. unpublished.
      • بهجت الصدور / Bihjat al-ṣudūr.  Lithograph, Bombay, 1913.
      • Bihjat al-Sudur repr., Hofheim-Langenhain, Baha'i Verlag. 1982. 530 pages.
      • Stories from the Delight of Hearts. Trans. A. Q. Faizi. Los Angeles, Kalimat Press, 1980.

      Ivanov, Mikhail Sergeevich (XXXX). Russian Orientalist.

      • Бабидские восстания в Иране (1848-1852), Издат. Акад. Наук СССР, 1939. 73 pages. This is the 1939 thesis submitted to the University of Lenningrad for the Phd type dissertation `Candidate in Historical Science'. This thesis sets out to " describe the Babi movement  in terms of economic influences and Marxist-Leninist philosophy" (Momen, BBR 1844-1944, 56).  It includes substantial citations from select dispatches regarding the Babi religion written by  Dimitri Ivanovitch Dolgorukov (1797-1867), the diplomat and one-time Russian minister in Tehran (c.1846 -1854) (see Momen, EIr., `Dolgorukov Memoirs' Vol. VII, Fasc. 5, 477-478 [1995+2011]. 
      • Babidskie vosstaniya v Irane (1848-1852) (Series Trudy Instituta vostokovedenii︠a︡, 30). Moscow: Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, 1939. 173 pages. In Russian.
      • Reviewed by V. Minorsky in BSOAS 11, 1946, pp. 878-80.
      • تاريخ نوين ايران /Tārīkh-i nuvīn-i Īrān = Noveĭshai︠a︡ istorii︠a︡ Irana = L'histoire contemporaine de l'Iran = Die neue Geschichte Irans = La storia contemporanea dell'Iran = The new history of Iran / M.S. Īvānuf prūfisūr-i tārīkh dar dānishgāh-i Muskū ; tarjumah az: rafīq-i shahīd Hūshang Tīzābī, Ḥasan Qāʼimʹpanāh. Stockholm : Intishārāt-i Ḥizb-i Tūdah-ʼi Īrān, 1356/ 1977 or 8. 315 pages. Six editions published between 1965 and 1977 in Persian and Russian (World Cat. Ident.).
      • Iranskai︠a︡ revoli︠u︡t︠s︡ii︠a︡ 1905-1911 godov. Moscow:  1957  In Russian 559 pages.

      Ivanow, Vladimir Alekseevich (b. St. Petersburg, Russia, 1886 -d. Tehran, 1970).

      See the 2007 art. by Farhad Daftary in EIr. Vol. XIV/3, pp. 298-300; Sabine Schmidtke, ed., Correspondance Corbin-Ivanow: lettres échangée entre Henry Corbin et Vladimir Ivanow de 1947 à 1966, Paris, 1999.

      Johnson, Vernon Elvin.

      • “An Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahaʾi World Faith,” Ph.D. diss., Baylor University (Waco, Texas), 1974.

      Kashani, Hajji Mirza Jānī (d. 30th Dhu'l-Qadah, 1268/15th Sept. 1852 CE).

      In 1847 this Kashani Babi along with his two brothers - Hajj Mirza Isma'il and Hajji Mirza Ahmad - met and accomodated the Bab for a few days at their home in Kashan. This in the course of his exile and eventual imprisonment in Maku (Adhirbayjan, NW Persia).  For further details see Browne, 1893, The New History, xivff; MacEoin, art. `Nuqṭatul-káf in EI(+ bib. here) and his Sources, Ch. VI pp. 134-152; Appendix VII and VIII, pp. 211-214 as well as McCants and Milani 2004 (see below).

      •  كتاب نقطة الكاف : در تاريخ ظهور باب و وقايع هشت سال اول از تاريخ بابيه = Kitáb-i Nuqṭatul-káf, being the earliest history of the Bábís. Leyden, E.J. Brill; London, Luzac & Co., 1910 ("E. J. W. Gibb memorial" series, v. 15). Allegedly compiled by Hájji Mírzá Jání of Káshán between the years A.D. 1850 and 1852. Ed. from the unique Paris ms. suppl. persan 1071, by Edward G. Browne. See also above under the E.G. Browne entry. This 1910 volume contains   297, xcv pages 2 plates, 5 facsimile texts.  It also contains  Browne's useful  "Index of chief contents of the Persian Bayán": pages [liv]-xcv.

      Imortant discussion of the date and authorship etc of the  Nuqtat al-Kaf can be found in William McCants and Kavian Milani,

      • “The History and Provenance of an Early Manuscript of the Noqtatol-kāf Dated (1851-52),” Iranian Studies 37/3, September 2004, pp. 431-50 (in which the 1268 and 1909 manuscripts are introduced).

      See further, Kavian Milani,

      • “The Bāb’s Stay in Kāšān: A Historiographical Analysis of the Kitāb-e Noqtatol-kāf Based on the Kāšān Pericope,” Bahā’i Studies Review 12, pp. 1-14.
      • "NOQṬAT AL-KĀF (Point of the letter Kāf)" in EIr. (2008). Available online at :

      Kāzem-Beg (b. Derbent or Rasht 1802 - d. St. Petersberg 1870), Alexander (Mīrzā) / Aleksandr Kazem-Bek Russ. Казем-Бек, Александр.

      Muhammad `Ali, Hajji Ibn Qasim Olgy, Alexander Kasimovich, Kazem Beg (b. Gilan 1802-1870) of the Department of Oriental Languages, Kazan University and, from 1855, first dean of the Faculty of Oriental Languages, St. Petersburg University.  Alexander Kazem Beg wrote on the religon of the Bab from c. 1865. See also Kāzem-Beg, "A brief memoir of the life and conversion of Mahomed Ali Bey, a learned Persian of Derbent". American Sunday School Union: Philadelphia, 1827.

      • Бабъ и Бабиды: религіозно-политическія смуты въ Персіи въ 1844-1852 годахъ. Содержитъ: 1) Біографію Баба, 2) Историческое изложеніе о Бабидахъ и 3) Обзоръ иьъ ученія. So WorldCat.

      • Bab i Babidy : Religiozno-političeskija smuty v Persii v 1844-1852 godach : Sočinenie Mirzy-Kazem-Beka. S.-Peterburg, 1865. Russian.

      • "Bāb-i Bābidy: religiozno-politicheskiya smuti v Persy v. 1844-1852", St. Petersburg: Тип. Майкова / Tip. V.n. Maikova, 1865. xi, 212 pages.

      • "`Bāb et les Bābis, ou soulè̀̀vement politique et religieux en Perse, de 1845, 1853'", Paris: Journal Asiatique (Société asiatique, 6th series), vol. 7 (1866), 329-84, 457-522; and vol. 8 (1866), 196-252; 357-400; 473-507. 

       Kazembeyki, Mohammad Ali. Teaches at the Dept. of History, Azzahra University, Tehran.

      • Society, Politics and Economics in Mazandaran, Iran 1848-1914. London, New York: Routledge Curzon, 2003.

      Kazemi, Farhad. Professor of Politics and Middle Eastern Studies at New York University. He has served as NYU’s Vice Provost for Global Affairs, Dean of Graduate School of Arts and Science, Chair of the Politics Department, and Director of the Kevorkian Center for Near Eastern Studies.

      • 'Some Preliminary Observations on the Early Development of Babism'. Muslim World, 1973, 119-31.

      Kazemzadeh, Firuz  فیروز کاظم‌زاده‎; (b. Moscow, October 27, 1924 –d. California, May 17, 2017). Professor emeritus of history at Yale University (USA). He obtained a Ph.D. in Russian history from Harvard University where he taught between 1954 and 1956. At Yale he also served as Master of Davenport College. Being a Baha'i he was a member of the USA NSA between 1963 and 2000 and was occasionally active in Baha'i  scholarship. He edited the Baha’i quarterly entitled World Order between 1966 and 2000.

      • 1968. Russia and Britain in Persia, 1864-1914: A Study in Imperialism. Yale Russian and East European studies. Volume 6. Yale University Press, 1968.
      • 1971. "'Two Incidents in the Life of the Bāb'". World Order 5:3 (1971), pp. 21-24.
      • 1991. "Iranian relations with Russia and the Soviet Union, to 1921". In Avery, P.; Hambly, G. R. G.; Melville, C. (eds.). From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. The Cambridge History of Iran. vol. 7 Cambridge University Press, pp. 314–349.

      Khan Bahadur, Agha Mirza Muhammad (c. 1870-c.1930?).

      • 'Some New Notes on Babiism'. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1927), 443-70.

      Khanykov, Nikolaï  Vladimirovich  (1819-1878). Russian Orientalist, Persianist, Diplomat, geographer and ethnographer... He early on played a role in the transmission to the west of writings of the Bab. See Volkov, Denis V. `Khanykov, Nikolai’ in EIr. vol.XVI/4 (2018), 419-424. Khalfin, N.A., N.V. Khanykov--vostokoved i diplomat. Moscow : Nauka, 1977 (in Russian).

      Kusnetsova, Nina Alekseevna (1923-2006).

      • “Istorii Izuchenia Babizma i Behaizma v Rossii” (Notes on the History of the Babi and Baha'i Studies in Russia), Ocherki po Istorii Russkogo Vostokovedeniya (Essays on the History of Russian Oriental Studies) Vol. VI. (1963), 89-133.

      Krymskij, Agafangel Efimovič 

      • Vachchabity. Babizm i bechaitstvo. In series Istorija musul'manstva : Očerki religioznoj žizni / A. Krymskij, Čast' 3-ja.; Trudy po vostokověděniju, izdav. Lazarevskim Institutom Vostočnych jazykov, 12. Moscow 1912. 25 pages. Russian.

      Kreyenbroek, Philip G.

      Lambden, Stephen, N.

      • [1980s] 2002. Lambden Pd.D = `Some Aspects of Isrā’īliyyāt and the Emergence of the Bābī-Bahā’’ī Interpretation of the Bible’ (Unpublished, 1980s / 2002 Ph.D thesis, University of Newcastle upon Tyne).
      • Hurqalya Publications – Personal Website hosted at the University of California, Merced. See especially `Haykal -The Writings of the Bāb’ :
      • Haykal : `Towards a Complete Translation of Qayyūm al-asmā' of the Bab (I-CXI)’.
      • 1986. ‘An Episode in the Childhood of the Báb.’ In Peter Smith (ed.), Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History Vol. 3 Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 1986, 1- 31.
      • 1988. ‘The Sinaitic Mysteries: Notes on Moses/Sinai Motifs in Bābī and Bahā'ī Scripture,’ In Moojan Momen (ed.), Studies in the Bábí & Bahá'í Religions Vol.5 [= Studies in Honour of the Late Hasan M. Balyuzi. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 1988, 64-183.
      • 1992 Review (with Moojan Momen) of Denis MacEoin, The Sources for Early Babi Doctrine and History:  A Survey (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992).  Published in Iranian Studies 28 (1995):  263-265.
      • 1997.  `The Background and Centrality of Apophatic Theology in Bābī and Bahā’ī Scripture.’ In Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahā’ī Theology. ed. Jack McLean, 37-78. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press.
      • 1998 “Eschatology. IV Babi-Baha’i ,” in EIr. VIII, 581-2. 
      • 2004 “The Babi and Baha’i Religions,” in The Encyclopedia of Religion and War, ed. Gabriel Palmer-Fernandez (Routledge: New York and London, 2004), 33-36.
      • 2004 “The Babi and Baha'i Religions,” in The Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History, ed. William H. McNeill.  Berkshire Publishing Group: Great Barrington, Mass., 2004.
      • 2005. `The Messianic Roots of Babi-Baha’i Globalism,’ in Baha'i and Globalisation, eds. Margit Warburg, Annika Hvithamar, and Morten Warmind (Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2005), 17-34.
      • 2008. Review of Nader Saiedi, Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb (Waterloo, Ont.:  Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2008).  Published in Journal of the American Oriental Society 130.2 (2010): 301-304.
      • “Kitab-e iqan.”  (with Sholeh Quinn), in Encyclopaedia Iranica. 2010.
      • 2011. `The Khaṣā'il-i sab`a (The Treatise of the Seven Directives) of Sayyid `Alī Muhammad Shīrāzī, the Bāb  (d. 1850)”. Paper presented at The Third International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements and the Bábí-Bahá’í Faiths, March 21-23, 2011. Hebrew University, Jerusalem (forthcoming).
      • 2011. Revew of Denis MacEoin, The Messiah of Shiraz: Studies in Early and Middle Babism (Iran Studies), Leiden : Brill Academic Pub, 2009. Published in Religion 41/3 (2011): 514-518.
      • 2012. `The Khuṭba al-Jidda (The Literary Sermon at Jeddah) of the Bāb’ in Lawson and Ghaemmaghani ed. `A Most Noble Pattern’, pp. 146-159.
      • `From Cosmic Firmament to Celestial Interworld: Some notes on the Biblical Hebrew, Aramaic-Syriac or Mandaic roots and Shī`ī-Shaykhī developments of the realm commonly designated هورقليا Hūrqalyā’ (forthcoming).

      Lawson, B. Todd.

      • 1987 The Qur`ān Commentary of the Bāb. Ph.D dissertation. McGill Univ.
      • 1988 `Interpretation as Revelation: The Qur'ān Commentary of Sayyid `Alī Muhammad Shīrāzī, the Bāb (1819-1850)', in A. Rippin, ed., Approaches to the History of the Interpretation of the Qur'ān (Oxford, 1988), 223-253.
      • 1989. “The Terms Remembrance (dhikr) and Gate (báb) in the Bāb’s Commentary
        on the Sura of Joseph,” Bábi and Bahá’í Studies in Honour of H. M. Balyuzi, ed.
        M. Momen, Kalimat Press, Los Angeles, 1989, pp. 1–63.
      • "Coincidentia Oppositorum in the Qayyum al-Asrna: The Terms 'Point' (nuqta), 'Pole' (qutb), 'Center' (markaz), and the Khutbat al-Tatanjiya"  http://www2.h-n et.msu. edu/ - bahai/bhpa pers/vol5/ tatanj/tatanj.htm>.
      • 1988. "Interpretation as Revelation: The Qur'an Commentary of Sayyid 'Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab (1819-1850)." Approaches to the History of the Interpretation of the Qur'an. Ed. Andrew Rippin. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988. 223-53.
      • 1988a. "The Term 'Remembrance' (dhikr) and 'Gate' (bab) in the Bab's Commentary on the Sura of Joseph." Studies in Honor of the Late Hasan M. Balyuzi. Ed. Moojan Momen. Studies in the Babi and Baha'I Religions, vol. 5. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 1988. 1-64.
      • See further :
      • 1992. “The Structure of Existence in the Bāb’s Tafsir and the Perfect Man Motif ” in
        Studia Iranica: Cahiers 11: Recurrent Patterns in Iranian Religions from Mazdaism to
         Sufism. Proceedings of the Round Table held in Bamberg (30th September–4th October
        1991). Association pour l’avancement des Études iraniennes, 1992, pp. 81–99.
      • 1992. `The Dawning Places of the Lights of Certainty in the Divine Secrets Connected with the Commander of the Faithful by Rajab Bursī’ in Lewisohn, ed. The Legacy of Mediaeval Persian Sufism. 261-276. London: Khaniqahi Nimatullahi Publications.
      • 1992. “Qayyúm al-asmá,” Encyclopédie philosophique universelle: Les Oeuvres philosophiques. Volume III, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1992.
      • 1993 `Akhbārī Shī`ī Approaches to Tafsīr.’ In Approaches to the Qur’ān. Ed. Hawting and Shareef. 173-210. London and New York: Routledge.
      • 1997. "The Dangers of Reading: Inlibration, Comrnunion, and Transference in the Qur'an Commentary of the Bab." Scripture and Revelation: Papers presented at the First Irfan Colloquium, Newcastle-upon Tyne, England, December 1993, and the Second hfan Colloquium, Wilmette, USA, March 1994· Ed. Moojan Momen. Baha'i Studies Series, vol. 3. Oxford: George Ronald, 1997- 111-255.
      • 1998. “Qurʾān Commentary as Sacred Performance,” in Der Iran um 19 Jahrhundert
        und die Enstehung der Bahaʾi Religion. Johann-Christoph Burgel & Isabel
        Schayani eds. Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim, 1998, pp. 145–58.
      • 2001. “Coincidentia Oppositorum in the Qayyum al-Asma: the terms ‘Point’ (nuqta),
        ‘Pole’ (qutb), ‘Center’ (markaz) and the Khutbat al-tatanjiya“. Occasional Papers in
        Shaykhi, Babi and Bahaʾi Studies, vol. 5, no. 1 (January, 2001). Available online at:
      • 2002. "The Bab's Epistle on the Spiritual Journey towards God." In  Lights of `Irfān:  vol. 3. Wilmette, IL: 'Irfān Colloquia, 49-57.
      • 2005. “The Bāb’s Epistle on the Spiritual Journey towards God: provisional translation,
        commentary and preliminary edition of the Arabic text of the Risalatus’suluk”
        in The Bahaʾi Faith and the World Religions, ed. Moojan Momen, Oxford: George
        Ronald, 2005, pp. 231–47.
      •  2005. "Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy in Twelver Shi'ism: Ahmad al-Ahsa'l Fayd Kashani (the  Risalat al-'Ilmiyya),"  in  Religion and Society in Qajar Iran  ed,  Robert Gleave, London & New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2005, pp. 127-54.
      • 2005.  `Ahmad al-Ahsa'i on Fayḍ Kashani (the Risalat `Ilmiyya)' Ch.7  (pp. 137-154) in Robert Gleave ed. Religion and Society in Qajar Iran, 2005.
      • 2009. Gnostic Apocalypse in Islam: The Qur’ân and the Babi Movement. London and
        New York: Routledge, 2009.
      • 2012  Lawson and Ghaemmaghani, ed. `A Most Noble Pattern, Collected Essays on the Writings bof the Bab, `Ali Muhammad Shirazi. Oxford : George Ronald.
      • 2014. Gnostic apocalypse and Islam : Qur'an, exegesis, messianism, and the literary origins of the Babi religion. London and New York: Routledge, 2012. Contents: "Introduction 1. Commentary and Imitation 2. Voices of the Text 3. Center of Existence 4. The Metaleptic Joseph. Conclusion: A Hermeneutic Spiral" 230 pages.
      • 2019. Tafsir as mystical experience : intimacy and ecstasy in Quran commentary : Tafsīr Sūrat al-Baqara by Sayyid ʻAlī Muḥammad Shīrāzī, the Báb (1819-1850). Leiden: Brill, 2019. xiv, 210 pages. Abstract :

      "In Tafsir as Mystical Experience, Todd Lawson shows how the Quran may be engaged with for meaning and understanding, the usual goal of mystical exegesis, and also how it may be engaged with through tafsir in a quest for spiritual or mystical experience. In this earliest of the Bab's extended works, written before his public claim to be the return of the hidden Imam, the act of reading is shown to be something akin to holy communion in which the sacred text is both entrance upon and destination of the mystic quest. The Quran here is a door to an "abode of glory" and an abiding spiritual encounter with the divine through the prophet, his daughter Fatima and the twelve Imams of Ithna-'ashari Shi'ism who inhabit the letters, words, verses and suras of the Book".

      Lee, Anthony A.

      • "MOBĀRAK, HĀJI (حاجی‌ مبارک) (b. Africa, 1823; d. Karbala, ca. 1863), African slave of Sayyed ʿAli-Moḥammad Širāzi, the Bāb, and participant in the founding events of the Babi movement" in  EIr. online edition, 2016, available at (accessed on 26 January 2016).

      Lessona, Michele (d.1894)

      • 1980 [1881] I Babi. Turin: Ermanno Loescher, 1881. Rep. Rome: Casa Editrice, 1980.

        Lloyd Ivan; Minu Sabel

      • Mullá Husayn : unfurling the black standard. Chattanooga, TN : Images International, 2001. 75 pages. 

      McCants, William, F.

      MacEoin, Denis, M. (UK)

      • 1979. “From Shaykhism to Babism: A Study in Charismatic Renewal in Shiʿi Islam.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge, 1979.
      • 1982a. 'The Babi Concept of Holy War'. Religion 12 (1982), 93-129.
      • 1982b. "Early Shaykhí Reactions to the Báb and His Claims," in Moojan Momen (ed.), Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History, (Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 1982) volume 1 pp. 1-47.
      • 1982c. `Some Bahá'í and Shaykhí interpretations of `the Mystery of Reversal.' BSB 1/1 (June 1982): 11-23.
      • 1982d. Review of M. Momen, `The Bābī and Bahā'ī Religions', in Religion 12 (1982): 405-408.
      • 1982. Review of M. Momen (ed. ) Selections From the Writings of E.G. Browne on the Babi and Baha'i Religions', in Iranian Studies 3/4 (1988), 168-170.
      • 1983a.. 'Changes in Charismatic Authority in Qajar Shi'ism'. In E.  Bosworth and C. Hillenbrand (eds.), Qajar Iran: Political, Social and Cultural Change. Edinburgh, 1983, 148-76.
      • 1983. “Babism”, in L. P. Elwell-Sutton (ed.), Bibliographical Guide to Brighton and Totowa, Harvester Press, 1983.
      •  1983. 'From Babism to Baha'ism: problems of militancy, quietism and conflation in the construction of a religion'. Religion 13 (1983), 219-55.
      • 1983 . `Early Shaykhí Reactions to the Báb and his Claims.’ In M. Momen (ed.), SBBH 1 Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 1-47.
      • 1983 . 'Babism'. In L. P. Elwell-Sutton (éd.), A Bibliographical Guide to Iran. Brighton and Totowa, 1983.
      • “A Note on the Numbers of Babi and Bahaʾi Martyrs”, Bahaʾi Studies Bulletin, 2:2 (1983), pp. 84–88.
      • 1983. “The Identity of the Bāb’s “Lawḥ-i ḥurūfāt’”, Bahā'ī Studies Bulletin 2:1 (1983): 78-79.
      • 1983. "The Fate of Mullā 'Alî Bastāmī", Baha'i Studies Bulletin, 2:1 (1983), 77.
      • 1983. "From Babism to Baha'ism: problems of militancy, quietism and conflation in the construction of a religion", Religion 13 (1983): 219-255.
      • 1983 . 'A Note on the Numbers of Bābī and Bahā'ī Martyrs'. Bahā'ī Studies Bulletin 2:2 (1983): 84-88.
      • 1984 . 'Baha'ism'. In J. R. Hinnells (ed.), A Handbook of Living Religions. New York , 1984. 475-498.
      • 1984 . 'Aspects of Militancy and Quietism in Shī'i Islam'. British Society for Middle East Studies Bulletin 11:1 (1984), 18-27.
      • 1984. Introduction to A Year Amongst the Persians, by E. G. Browne, new ed., London,
        Century, 1984.
        1985 ‘Nineteenth-century Bābī talismans,’ Studia Iranica 14/1: 77-98.
      • 1986 . "Bahâ՝! Fundamentalism and the Academic Study of the Bābī Movement". Religion 16 (1986), 57-84.
      • 1986 . "Afnan, Hatcher, and an Old Bone". Religion 16 (1986): 195.
      • 1986 "Hierarchy, Authority and Eschatology in Early Bābī Thought," in P. Smith (ed.), In Iran, Studies in Bābi and Bahā'ī History, vol. 3. Los Angeles: Kalimāt Press, 95-155.
      • 1988. Review of M. Momen (ed.) Selections from the Writings of E. G. Browne on the Bābī and Bahā'ī Religions, in Iranian Studies 3:4 (1988): 168-70.
      • 1989. "Divisions and Authority Claims in Babism (1850-1866)". Studia Iranica 18:1 (1989), 93-129.
      • 1990. "The Crisis in Bābī and Baha'ì Studies: Part of a Wider Crisis in Academic Freedom?". British Society for Middle Eastern Studies Bulletin 17:1 (1990), 55-61
      • 1990. "Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy in Nineteenth-Century Shi`ism: The Cases of Shaykhism and Babism". Journal of the American Oriental Society 110:2 (1990), 323-3֊29.
      • 1991. "Review of Abbas Amanat Resurrection and Renewal in Journal of th Royal Asiatic Society
      • 1991. "Ali Muhammad Shirazi the Bāb", in J.R. Hinnells (ed.) Who's Who of Religions, MacMillan, London, 1991. 
      • 1991. Ritual and Semi-Ritual Practices in Babism and Baha'ism. Cambridge, Pembroke Papers, 1991.
      • 1992. The Sources for Early Bābī Doctrine and History. Leiden : E. J. Brill, 1992.
      • 1994 Rituals in Babism and Baha’ism (Pembroke Persian Papers 2). London: British Academic Press.
      • 1997. "Questions of Sayyid Muhammad Shīrāzī, Uncle of the Bāb." Translations of Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Texts vol. 1, no. 2 (June, 1997). Available online at: www.h-net .org/~bahai/trans/iqanques.htm.
      • 1997.  "The Persian Bayan of Sayyid 'Alî Muhammad Shīrāzī, the Bāb." [A partial translation.] Translations of Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Texts vol. 1, no. 4 (July, 1997). Available online at:
      • 1998. "Babis", in Jack Goldstone (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Political Revolutions, Washington D.C., 1998.
      • 2000.  "The Trial of the Bāb: Shi'ite orthodoxy confronts its mirror image", in Carole Hillenbrand (ed.) Studies in Honour of Clifford Edmund Bosworth 2 The Sultan's Turret (Brill, 2000), 272-317.
      • 2009.The Messiah of Shiraz, Studies in Early and Middle Babism. Leiden: Brill, 2009. Essential for the study of Shaykhism and Babism this weighty tome includes most of MacEoin's writings relating to Shaykhism including his 1979 Ph.D thesis with some updating and most of his EI2 and EIr. articles.

      Select Shaykhi and other Babi related articles in EI2,  EIr. and other sources.

      •  "Some Baha'i and Shaykhi Interpretations of 'The mystery of reversal' ", Baha'i Studies Bulletin 1:1 (1982), pp. 11-23.
      • "Balasari" EIr. III/3 (1988), 583-585.
      • "Abd al-Rezā Khan Ebrāhmi", EIr 
      • "Abū'l-Qāsem Khān Ebrāhīmī", EIr 
      • "Mollā Mohammad Taqi Baraghānī", EIr 
      • "Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsā'ī", in J.R. Hinnells (ed.) Who's Who of Religions, Mac- Millan, London, 1991.

      Select MacEoin Shaykhi, Babi-Baha'i related entries in EI2

      • "Mazhar", EI2 
      • "Sābikūn", in EI
      • "Muhammad Husayn Bushrū'ī", in EI2 
      • "Muhammad 'Alī Bārfurūshī", in EI
      • "Muhammad 'Ali Zanjānī", in EI
      • "Nuktat al-kaf", in EI

      On the Bab, his Religion and his Disciples, etc in EIr.

      Other short MacEoin articles :

      • "Qurrat al-'Ayn", in J.R. Hinnells (ed.) Who's Who of Religions, MacMillan, London, 1991.
      • "Şubh-i Azal", in J.R. Hinnells (ed.) Who's Who of Religions, MacMillan, London, 1991.
      • "Qurrat al-'Ayn", in The Encyclopaedia of Censorship (2001).

      Manuchehri, Sepehr.

      Martyrdom of the Báb : a compilation. Los Angeles : Kalimát Press, 1992. xii, 110 pages.

      Mehrabkhani, Ruhullah

      • 1984. `Some Notes on Fundamental Principles: Western Scholarship and the Religion of the Bāb' Newcastle upon Tyne: Baha'i Studies Bulletin vol. 2 No.4 (1984). p.22-43f. PDf. RM-Notes.pdf
      • 1987. Mullá Husayn: Disciple at Dawn. Los Angeles : Kalimát Press. 

      Milani, Kavian  S.

      • “The Bāb’s Stay in Kāšān: A Historiographical Analysis of the Kitāb-e Noqtatol-kāf Based on the Kāšān Pericope,” Bahā’i Studies Review 12, pp. 1-14.
      • "NOQṬAT AL-KĀF (Point of the letter Kāf)" in EIr. (2008). Available online at :

      Minorsky, Vladimir Fyodorovich (b. Korcheva near Moscow, 1877- d. Cambridge, England, 1966). Russ. Владимир Фёдорович Минорский. Russian orientalist. See Bosworth, C. E., ed. (1971). Iran and Islam: in memory of the late Vladimir Minorsky. Edinburgh University Press;  C. E. Bosworth, art. "MINORSKY, Vladimir Fed’orovich..." in EIr. 2004 (electronic version), available online at :  

      • “Review of M. S. Ivanov, Babidskie Vosstaniia v Irane.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (London) 11 (1947), pp. 878–80.
      • Oriental studies in the U.S.S.R.  London: Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, vol. 30, Jan. 1943, pp. 81-101.  

      Momen, Moojan.

      • 1981. The Bābī and Bahā'ī Religions, 1844-1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts. Oxford: George Ronald, 1981.
      • BSBM1 (BSB Monograph 1, ed. S. Lambden), Moojan Momen.`The works of Shaykh Aḥmad al-Aḥsā’ī’. Newcastle upon Tyne: Hurqalya Publications, 1982.
      • 1982. “The Trial of Mullā ʿAli Basṭāmi: A Combined Sunni-Shiʿi fatwā against the Bāb,” Iran 20, 1982, pp. 113-143. 
      • 1982 (ed.) Studies in Bābī and Bahā'ī History I. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 1982.
      • 1983. "The Social Basis of the Bābī Upheavals" in Iran (1848-53)', International Journal of Middle East Studies 15 (1983), pp.157-183.
      • 1985. "The Social  Location of the Bābī Movement: a Preliminary Note". Bahā'ī Studies Bulletin 3:3 (1985), pp. 8-22.
      • 1986. + Peter  Smith (eds.). "The Bābī Movement: A Resource Mobilization Perspective". In P. Smith (ed.), In Iran (Studies in Bābī and Bahaì History, XX), Los Angeles , 1986, pp. 33-93.
      • 1987 (ed) Selections from the Writings of E. G. Browne on the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions. Oxford: George Ronald, 1987.
      • 1988. Studies in honor of the late Hasan M. Balyuzi (= Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í religions, v. 5.). Los Angeles : Kalimát Press, 1988. xx, 293 pages.
      • 1995. Momen. Moojan and Stephen Lambden, "Some Sources for Early Bābī Doctrine and History: A Survey by Denis MacEoin". Review in Iranian Studies, Vol. 28, No. 3/4 (Summer - Autumn, 1995), 263-265.

      • 2003. “Usuli, Akhbari, Shaykhi, Babi: The Tribulations of a Qazvin Family,” Iranian Studies 36/3, 2003, pp. 317-37. `Dārābī, Sayyid Yaḥyā’, EIr. VII:10-11.

      • 2015.  The Baha'i Communities of Iran, 1851-1921: The North of Iran Volume 1. Oxford: George Ronald, 2015. 592 pages.

      • 2016 (ed. trans.). Edward Granville Browne va Diyanat-i Bahā’ī. Mu’assah-yi Maṭbū`at-i Bahā’ī  Ālman (Germany). 173 BE/2016.

      Select Encyclopedia Iranica (= EIr.) articles

      Mottahedeh, Negar.

      • “The Mutilated Body of the Modern Nation: Qurrat al-‘Ayn Tahirah’s Unveiling and the Iranian Massacre of the Babis.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Vol. XVIII no.2 (1998):38-47.
      • Representing the Unrepresentable: Historical Images of National Reform: from Qajars to the Islamic Republic of Iran. New York: Syracuse University Press, 2008. xiii, 264 pages.

      Mubāyjīyān, Sarkīs / Атрпет; Sarkīs Mubāyjīyān, (1860-1937).    

      Mubagajian Artpet [Atrpetean], Sargis / مباىجيان، سرکىس. Sarkīs Mubāyjīyān.

      An Armenin writer and historian most famous amongst modern Baha'is for his publication of allleged portraits (drawings and photographs) of Babi notables (see Bijan Masumian ADD).  Cf. Sarkīs Mubāyjīyān.  Տժվժիկ / Tzhvzhik by Ատրպետ, 1860-1937, Erevan : Hayastan Hratarakchʻutʻyun, 1969, 1975.

      • 1906. Imamath : Patmakan hetazôtouthiun  or Imamatʻ: patmakan hetazōtutʻiwn. Alikhsandrapôl : Tparan Kultura, "Shirak", Armenia. 1906. 295 pages.
      • 1909. Imamat : strana poklonnikov imamov : persidskoe dukhovenstvo : istoricheskoe izsli︠e︡dovanie. Aleksandropolʹ : Tip.-skoropechatni︠a︡ "Shirak, ", 1909. 208 pages + illustrations. In Russian.
      • Бабизм и Бехаизм : опыт научно-религіознаго изслѣдованія / Babizm i Bekhaizm : opyt nauchno-religīoznago izsli︠e︡dovanīi︠a︡. Электропеч. Н.Г. Аганянц, Tiflis : Ėlektropech. N.G. Agani︠a︡nt︠s︡, 1910. 140 pages.
      • 1910. Babizm i Bechaizm : opyt naučno-religioznago izslědovanija. Tiflis : [Drucker] : Aganjanc, 1910. 140 pages with numerous illustrations. The importance of this volume was first noted by E. G. Browne in his XXX 
      • Babizm i Bekhaizm : opyt nauchno-religioznago izsli︠e︡dovaniia. Reprint: Tiflis : N.G. Agan︠ia︡nt︠s︡, 1910. 140 pages.
      • Babizm i Bechaizm : opyt naučno-religioznago izslědovanija. Tiflis : [Drucker] : Aganjanc, 1910. 140 pages.
      • Атрпет. ; Sarkīs Mubāyjīyān, Бабизм и Бехаизм : опыт научно-религіознаго изслѣдованія / Babizm i Bekhaizm : opyt nauchno-religīoznago izsli︠e︡dovanīi︠a︡. Электропеч. Н.Г. Аганянц, Tiflis : Ėlektropech. N.G. Agani︠a︡nt︠s︡, 1910. 140 pages. 
      • پىروزى ىک عقىده / Pīrūzī-i yak ʻaqīdah. مباىجيان، سرکىس. اثر نوىسندهء ارمنى سرکىس مباىجيان (آترپىت) ؛ ترجمۀ ادوارد مىرزاخانيان (راهب) ؛ بکوشش، ف. بهگرا = as̲ar-i nivīsandah-ʼi Armanī Sarkīs Mubāyjīyān (Ātirpīt) ; tarjumah-ʼi Idvārd Mīrzākhānīyān (Rāhib) ; bi-kūshish-i, F. Bihgarā. Dundas, Ontarion, Canada : Muʼassasah-ʼi Maʻārif-i Bahāʼī, 1994. 100 pages. Translated from the Armenian.

      Naqavi, Sayyid Ali Raza.

      • "Babism and Baha'ism - A Study of thir History and Doctrines" in Islamic Studies (Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad), vol. 14/3 (Autumn 1975), 185-217. 

       Nash, Geoffrey .

      • 2008. ed. and trans. Daniel O'Donoghue, Comte de Gobineau and Orientalism, Selected Eastern Writings. Routledge, 2008. Contains sizeable extracts from Gobineau's `Three Years in Asia' and `Religions and Philosophies of Central Asia' " [Les Religiones] "Geoffrey Nash’s comprehensive introduction and notes contextualise Gobineau’s work in the light of contemporary scholarship, as well as assessing its impact on nineteenth century Orientalists and modern Iranians, and its relevance to debates around Islam and modernity that are still alive today".

      Nicolas, A. L. M. / Louis-Alphonse-Daniel (1864-1939).

      • 1902. Le Livre des Sept Preuves de la mission du Bab. Paris: Maisonneuvre, 1902.
      • 1903. 'A propos de deux manuscrits "Babis" de la Bibliothèque Nationale'. Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, 47 (1903), pp. 58-73. 
      • 1905. Sèyyèd Ali Mohammed dit le Bâb. Paris: Dujarric & Co., 1905. 458 pages.
      • مذاهب ملل متمدنه : سيد على محمد معروف بباب : تارىخ / Madhāhib-i milal-i mutimaddinah : Sayyid ʻAlī Muhammad maʻrūf bi-Bāb : tārrīkh. Persian trans. of the above (1905 ?) Listed in World Cat. [Iṣfahān?] : [publisher not identified], 1322/1943. 487, 52, 8 pages.
      • 1905. Le Béyan Arabe, Le Livre Sacré Bábyse. Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1905.
      • 1907. "'Sur la Volonté Primitive et l'Essence Divine d'après Ie Bab'". Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, 55 (1907), pp. 208-212.
      • 1911. "'Le Dossier russo-anglais de Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Báb'". Revue du Monde Musulman, 14 (1911), pp. 357-63.
      • 1911-14. Le Béyan Persan, trans. A. L. M. Nicolas, 4 vols. Paris: Librarie Paul Geuthner, 1911-14. See  Samuel M. Zwemer, “Review of A. L. M. Nicolas (trans.), Le Beyan Persan.”  in The Moslem World (Hartford, Conn.) 2 (2 Apr. 1912): 202ff; Loisy, Alfred. “Review of Nicolas’ translation of Le Beyan persan, vol. 1.” Revue d’Histoire et de Littérature Religieuses (Paris) 3 (1912): 484.
      • 1933. "Les Béhahis et le Bâb". Journal Asiatique, 222 (1933), 257-64.
      • 1933. "Qui est le successeur du Bab?". Librairie d'Amérique et d'Orient. Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve, 1933. 16 pages.
      • 1934. "Quleques Documents relatifs au Babisme". Journal Asiatique, 224 (1934), pp. 107-42.
      • 1936. "Le Bâb astronome". Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, 114 (1936), pp. 99-101.
      • 1936. "Massacres de Babis : en Perse", Paris : Librairie d'Amérique et d'Orient Adrien Maisonneuve, 1936. ii.42 pages. 

      Nicholson, R. A. (ed.),

      • A Descriptive Catalogue of the Oriental MSS. Belonging to the late E. G. Browne. Cambridge: CUP., 1932.

      Nöldeke, Theodor (1836-1930).

      • `Orientalischer Socialismus’ in Deutsce Rundschau,  xviii (1879), pp. 284-291.
      •  Sketches From Eastern History. Trans. J. Sutherland Black. London and Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black, 1892.

      Nur Fuad, Ahmad.

      • 1998. The Babi movement in Iran : from religious dissent to political revolt, 1844-1853. Dissertation: M.A. McGill University 1998.  Ottawa : National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada, [2000]

      Rabbani, Ahang (1956 - d. 2013).

      O'Donoghue, Daniel (trans.) and (ed.) Geoffrey Nash.

      • Comte De Gobineau and Orientalism : Selected Eastern Writings. London, New York: Routledge, 2008.

      Römer, Prof. Dr. Hermann Andreas (b. Pfrondorf, 8th July 1880 -d. Markgröningen,  26. December 1958). He was a Christian theologian who studied 'Higher Philosophy' at the German universities of Tübingen und Halle.

      • Die Bābī-Behā'ī, die jüngste mohammedanische Sekte. Potsdam : Deutsche Orient-Mission, 1912. xii, 192 pages. Phd. Thesis/ Dissertation, Universität Tübingen, 1911. See Browne, MSBR: No. 32 p.184. where this work is referred to as "an excellent, critical and comprehensive account of the Babi-Baha'i movement from the beginning of the Bab's mission down to the date of composition". 

      Rozen, Viktor Romanovich (1849-1908) or Baron Victor Rosen.

      • 1877. Collections scientifiques de l’Institut des Langues Orientales du Ministère des Affaires Étrangères vol. I: Manuscrits arabes, St. Petersburg, 1877, 179-212.
      • 1886. Collections Scientifiques de l'Institut des Langues Orientales, vol. III Manuscrits Persans. St. Petersburg, 1886, 1-51.
      • 1889. 'Novuiya Babidskiya rukopsi'. Zapiski Vostochnago  Otdeleniya  Imperatorskago Russkago Archeologicheskago Obshestva 4 (1889), 112-14.
      • 1891. "Manuscrits Babys", Collections Scientifiques de l'Institut des Langues Orientales, vol. VI, Manuscrits Arabes, pp. 141-255. St. Petersburg: Academie Imperiale de Sciences, 1891. 
      • 1892. 'Babidsky antikholernuy talisman'. Zapiski.... 7 (1892), 317-18.

      Fagnan, M. E.

      • 1887. The Revue Critique d' Histoire et de Littérature for April 18th pp. 297-298  A review of Baron Rosen's Manuscrits Persans of 1886. “Special notice is taken of the Babf M~. described by Baron Rosen, and some valuable information is given concerning the five Babi MSS. brought by Gobineau from Persia, which, on the death of their owner, were bought by the Bibliotheque Nationale”  (EGB. Trav Narr., Note A p. 209).

      Youli Ioannesyan [Ioannesjan, Julij A ]

      • The development of the Babi, Bahaʼi communities : exploring Baron Rosen's archives (Series: Iranian studies, 17) . London : Routledge, 2013. x, 208 pages.

      Abstract :

      "Introduction 1 From A.G. Tumanski's Correspondence with V. R. Rosen 2 Report by the Russian Charge d'Affaire in Tehran Mr. Zinovyev to Duke Gorchakov 3 Babis in Adrianople: Reportof Chief of the Consulate Staff in Adrianople 4 Information about the Babis Presented by Persians living in Adrianople 5 Information about the Babis by Yunus Mehdi Effendi, the Qadi in Adrianople 6 Report of the Russian Consul General in Adharbayjan Bezobrazov 7 Anonymous Diplomatic Dispatch Concerning an Episode in Isfahan 8 From G. Batyunshkov's Correspondence with V.R. Rosen 9 From V.I. Ignatyev's Correspondence with V.R. Rosen 10 Sebastian Voirot's Correspondence with V.R. Rosen 11 Some Separate Transcripts in V.R. Rosen's Archive 12 From E.G. Browne's Correspondence with Rosen 13 I. Khayru'llah's letter to V.R. Rosen 14 Abu'l-Fazl Gulpaygani's Transcript"

      Ruhe, David S 

      • Robe of light : the Persian years of the Supreme Prophet Bahaullah, 1817-1853. Oxford : George Ronald, 1997, xx. 230 pages.

      Saiedi, Nader.

      • Gate of the Heart. Understanding the Writings of the Bab. Canada: Wilfred Laurier Univ. Press, 2008.

      Щеглов, Н /  Shcheglov, N . ??

      • Бабизм и ранний бахаизм в трудах российских исследователей  ... Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Издательский Дом "Академия Естествознания" Россия, Пенза 201. Russian.

      "In the article considered activity of Russian researches on research of history and dogma of Babi and early Bahai, and the personnel connected with movement and events. The historiography and the bibliography of activity of the scientist in the given direction reveals." (W-Cat abstract).

      Schemann, Ludwig (1852-1938).  Anti-Semitic, German anthropologist, racial theorist, librarian, translator and writer.  See the article on him by Elizabeth A. Drummond in Richard S. Levy (ed.), Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution Volume 1: 640 (Santa Barbara, CA; Oxford, England, 2005). See also,

      • Graf Arthur Gobineau; ein Erinnerungsbild aus Wahnfried. Stuttgart, Frommanns Verlag (Hauff), 1916. 24 pages.
      • Quellen und Untersuchungen 2um Leben Gobineaus. 2 vols. Berlin & Leipzig: Vereinigung wissenschaftlicher Verleger Walter de Gruyter & Co.,1914, 1919.
      • Gobineau : Eine Biographie. 2 vols. (= vol. 1 Bis zum zweiten aufenthalte in Persien. --vol. 2,  Vom jahre 1864 bis ans ende). Strassburg : K. Trübner, 1913-16 + Leipzig : E. Matthes, 1923.  Rep. New York : Arno Press, 1979. 13 editions in 3 languages were published between 1913 and 2017 (so World Cat Identities). 

      Shahvar, Soli ed. with Boris Morozov, Gad Gilbar.

      • The Baha’is of Iran, Transcaspia and the Caucasus, Vol, 1, London: I.B. Tauris, 2011. 

      Sharon, Moshe.

      Contains:  "New religions and religious movements -- the common heritage / Moshe Sharon --
      On prophecy and early Hasidism / Moshe idel -- Rabbi Kook and his sources : from Kabbalistic historiosophy to national mysticism / Yoni Garb -- Millennialist dreams and apocalyptic nightmares / Moojan Momen -- Millenarianism and nineteenth-century new religions : the Mormon example / Grant Underwood -- Critique of pure gematry / Meir Buzaglo -- The eschatology of globalization : the multiple-messiahship of Bahāʼuʼllāh revisited / Christopher Buck -- The Bābī-state conflict in Māzandarān : background, analysis and review of sources / Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam -- The Azālī-Bahāʼī Faith crisis of September 1867 / Juan R.I. Cole --Ottoman reform movements and the Bahāʼī Faith, 1860s-1920s / Necati Alkan -- "I never understood any of this from 'Abbās Effendi" : Muḥammad ʻAbduh's knowledge of the Bahāʼī teachings and his friendship with ʻAbdu'l-Bahāʼ ʻAbbās / William McCants -- Bahāʼī and the Holy Land : religiogenesis and Shoghi Effendi's The faith of Bahāʼuʼllah : a world religion / Zaid Lundberg." (from World Cat.)

      Shoghi Effendi Rabbani (b. Haifa, 1895 - d. London, 1957). See above.

      Smith, Peter.

      • 1984. `A Note on Babi and Baha’i Numbers in Iran’, Iranian Studies 17/2-3, , 295-301.

      • 1986 (ed) In Iran: Studies in Bábí and Bahá'i History, v. 3. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press.
      • 1987. The Babi and Bahá’í Religions: From Messianic Shi’ism to a World Religion Cambridge : CUP., 1987 
      • 2005 (with Moojan Momen), `Bābi Martyrs’ in the Encyclopedia Iranica.
      • Further Publications :

      Tag, Abd el-Rahman

      • Le Babisme et l'Islam : (recherches sur les origines du Babisme et ses rapports avec l'Islam). Paris : Librairie Generale de Droit et de Jurisprudence R. Pichon et R. Durand-Auzias, 1942. Thesis, Univ. de Paris, 1942. iv, 519, [1] pages.

      Terry, Peter ed. and trans.

      Tumanskii, Alexander G. (1861-1920).

      Vahman, Fereydun, 

      • 1995. Bábí and Bahá'i influence on Iranian Constitutional Revolution'.
      • 2004. `Fereydun Vahman - His 70th Birthday' in Iran and the Caucasus, 8, no. 2 (2004): 367-372
      • صد و شصت سال مبارزه با آئين بهائى : گوشه اى از تاريخ اجتماعى - دينى ايران در دوران معاصر
      • 2007. Fereydun Vahman & Claus V. Pedersen:  Religious texts in Iranian languages : symposium held in Copenhagen May 2002 (= Historisk-filosofiske meddelelser, 98.). København : Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab / Copenhagen : The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 2007,  416 pages.
      • 2007.تارىخ دىانت بهائى در خرسان  = Tārīkh-i diyānat-i Bahāʼī dar Khurasān. Ḥasan Fuʼādī Bushrūʼī; Mīnū Dukht Fuʼādī; Farīdūn Vahman. Dārmishtāt, Ālmān : ʻAṣr-i Jadīd, 2007.  555 pages. Introduction in English.
      • 2010.  يکصد و شصت سال مبارزه با ديانت بهائى : گوشه‌اى از تاريخ اجتماعى-دينى ايران در دوران معاصر  = Yakṣad va shaṣt sāl mubārazah bā diyānat-i Bahāʼī : gūshah'ī az tārīkh-i ijtimāʻī-dīnī-i Īrān dar dawrān-i muʻāṣir, Spånga [Sūʼid] : Nashr-i Bārān, 2010. 687+4 pages.
      • Yakṣad va shaṣt sāl mubārazah bā diyānat-i Bahāʼī : gūshah'ī az tārīkh-i ijtimāʻī-dīnī-i Īrān dar dawrān-i muʻāṣir. Darmstadt, Germany: ‘Asr-i Jadid, 2009.
      • 2016. از طهران تا عکا : بابيان و بهائيان در اسناد دوران قاجار = Az Ṭihrān tā ʻAkkā : Bābīyān va Bahāʼīyān dar asnād-i dawrān-i Qājār. From Tehran to Akka : Babis and Baha'is in the official records of Qajar Iran. Copenhagen and New Haven, Connecticut : Nashr-i Āshkār, 2016. 542 pages.
      • 2019. 175 years of persecution : a history of the Babis & Baha'is of Iran. London, England : Oneworld Publications, 2019.  xvi, 333 pages : illustrations, map. Translated from the Persian by Azita Mottahedeh (see above) and note : "An earlier, longer version of this book was first published in the Persian language as Yeksad-o shast sál mobárezeh bá á'ín-e Baha'i".

      Vambery / Ármin Vámbéry, Ármin / Arminius Hermann Bamberger  ( b.  Dunajská Streda, Slovakia, 1832 d. Budapest, Hungary, Sept. 15th 1913).

      • 1892 `Review of Browne’s edition and translation of Abdu'l-Baha’s Traveller’s Narrative (Maqāli-yi shakhs-i sayyāḥ), in The Academy. March 12, 1929 (no.1036), 215-6.

      Volkov, Denis V.

      • `Khanykov, Nikolai’ in EIr. vol.XVI/4 (2018), 419-424.

      Walbridge, John.

      • 1993. Review of MacEoin, Sources for Early Babi Doctrine and History ... in Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1993.
      • 1996. Sacred Acts, Sacred Space, Sacred Time: Baha'i Studies volume 1 Oxford: George Ronald, 1996.
      • 1998. “The Bāb’s Panj Shaʾn (Five Modes)”: Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahaʾi Studies, Vol. 2, no. 3 (April, 1998). Available online at: www.h-net
      • 1998. “Document and Narrative Sources for the History of the Battle of Zanjan.”
        Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahaʾi Studies, vol. 2, no. 4 (May, 1998).
      • 2002. Essays and Notes on Babi and Baha’i History, A publication of the H-Bahai Digital Library an official site of the H-Net Consortium Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 2002. Special Monograph Edition. Available online at:
      • 2012. `Kitab-i-Panj Sha'n' in Lawson et al. ed. A Most Noble Pattern: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb. 2012.

      Warburg, Margit (ed.) + Annika Hvithamar; Morten Warmind; Juan R I Cole; Lynn Echevarria

      • “Babisme”. In Den Store Danske Encycklopaedi, 229. 2. Copenhagen: Nationalleksikon, 1995.

      • Baha'i and Globalisation. Århus : Aarhus University Press, 2006. 309 pages.

      Weinberg, Robert. Comp.

      • The primal point : a selection of testimonials and tributes to the Báb and His followers. Oxford: George Ronald, 2019. 149 pages. ContainsIntroduction -- From the writings of Baháʼuʼlláh -- From the writings and talks of 'Abdu'l-Bahá -- From the writings of Shoghi Effendi -- Extracts from Bábí and Bahá'í authors -- Essays -- Other voices.

      Wilson, Samuel Graham.

      • “‘The Bayān of the Bāb’.” Princeton Theological Review (Princeton, N. J.) 13 (4 Oct. 1915), pp. 633–54.11.1102

      Winters, Jonah.

      • Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Shii and Babi religions. Thesis (M.A.) - University of Toronto (Ont. Canada), 1997.

      Wright. Rev. Dr.  Austin H. (b. Hartford, Vermont, 1811- d. Urumiyya, 1865). American Missionary to the Nestorians in Persia.

      • 1832. Bab und seine Secte in Persien
      • 1851  `A Short Chapter in the History of Babeeism in Persia'. This presentation then paper was read around May 1851 and subsequently  published in The Literary World, June 14, 1851. See Momen, BBR: 10; TSBBF/ Bahaipedia... It constitutes one of the earliest mentions of the religion of the Bab in the west and concludes with some interesting details as to the transmission of the writings of the Bab: "I sent you a specimen of the· papers  which Bāb wrote·during his confinement at Charee [= Chihriq, Adhirbayjan], It is said that several horseloads of sucb papers were found after his removal from that place. The British Consul, resident at Tabreez, having obtained a number of them, gave to me [Dr. Wright]  those I now forward. They have been shown to a Mollah here, who is a good Arabic  scholar; but he is unable to decipher tbem; or to extract any meaning from them." 

      Yazdani, Mina.

      • 2007. “Abu al-Faza’il Gulpaygani: An Ante Litteram Critic of Orientalism,” article presented at Society for Shaykhi, Babi, and Baha’i Studies, Meeting in Conjunction with Middle East Studies Association (MESA) Annual Meeting, Montreal. 17 Nov. 2007.
      • 2011. `Religious Contentions in Modern Iran, 1881-1941'. Phd thesis submitted in Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations, University of Toronto, 2011. 337 pages.
      • 2011. `The Confessions of Dolgoruki: Fiction and Master narrative in Twentieth-Century Iran' Iranian Studies Vol. 44, No. 1 (Jan. 2011), 25-47
      • 2012. Religious Contentions in Modern Iran, 1881-1941. Phd thesis Toronto : University of Toronto, 2012.

      • 2012a. The Islamic Revolution's Internal Other: The Case of Ayatollah Khomeini and the Baha'is of Iran 1. Journal of Religious History, v36 n4 (2012), 593-604.

      • 2012b. `Anti-Bahā'ī Polemics and Historiography' in Baha'i Studies Review, v17 n1 (2012), 87-100

      • 2012c. `The Confessions of Dolgoruki: The Crisis of Identity and the Creation of a Master Narrative',  Ch. in Pt. IV (pp. 245-266) of Abbas Amanat; Farzin Vejdani (ed.), Iran facing others : identity boundaries in a historical perspective. New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.xiii, 292 pages. 

      Yeroushalmi, David 

      • The Jews of Iran in the nineteenth century : aspects of history, community, and culture (Brill's series in Jewish studies, v. 40). Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2008.  lvi, 437.   "Dealing with some of the main aspects of general history among the Jews of nineteenth-century Iran, this book provides the reader with over 40 selected archival and published sources. Analyzed and annotated in detail, the sources shed light on the general history, community, culture, and religion among Iran's widely scattered Jewish communities." Contains material important for Babi-Baha'i Studies, e.g. "Source 9. The Jews of Yazd Being Forced to Dispose of the Charred Bodies of the Followers of Bab, Massacred in 1891".

      Zabihi-Moghaddam, Siyamak

      • "The Babi-State Conflict at Shaykh Tabarsi'" in  Iranian Studies Vol. 35, No. 1/3 (Winter - Summer, 2002), 87-112.

      Zarandī, Mullā Muḥammad (Nabīl) (d. 1892),

      • Tarīkh [= Dawn-Breakers] ed. and trans. (Part I) Shoghi Effendi as `The Dawn-Breakers: Nabil’s Narrative of the Early Days of the Baha’i Revelation’. Wilmette: Baha’i Pub. Trust., 1st ed. 1932 ? Many later editions, 1974.
      • Contains: `PART I: PRE-REVELATION DAYS. The mission of Sh̲ayk̲h̲ Aḥmad-i-Aḥsá'í -- The mission of Siyyid Káẓim-i-Ras̲h̲tí
      • PART II: THE REVELATION OF THE BÁB. The declaration of the Báb's mission -- Mullá Ḥusayn's journey to Ṭihrán [Tehran] --Bahá'u'lláh's journey to Mázindarán -- Mullá Ḥusayn's journey to K̲h̲urásán -- The Báb's pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina -- The Báb's stay in S̲h̲íráz after the pilgrimage -- The Bás sojourn in Iṣfáhán -- The Báb's stay in Kás̲h̲an -- The Báb's journey from Kás̲h̲an to Tabríz -- The Báb's incarceration in the castle of Máh-kú [= Maku] -- Mullá Ḥusayn's journey to Mázindarán -- Ṭahirih's journey from Karbilạ [that is, Karbala, or Kerbala] to K̲h̲urásán -- The conference of Badas̲h̲t -- The Báb's incarceration in the castle of C̲h̲ihíq -- Examination of the Báb at Tabríz -- The Mázindarán upheaval -- The seven martyrs of Ṭihrán -- The Nayríz upheaval -- Martyrdom of the Báb -- The Zanján upheaval -- Bahá'u'lláh's journey to Karbilá -- Attempt on the s̲h̲áh's life, and its consequences" (slightly edited from World Cat.)

      Zhukovskiĭ, Valentin Alekseevich (1858-1918), pupil of Carl Gustav Hermann Salemann (Russ.) Karl Germanovich,(1849-1916) who was a pupil of V. Rosen. see further, Abdullaeva, Firuza.  `Zhukovskiĭ, Valentin Alekseevich’ in EIr., 2009.

      • “Russkiy konsul F. A. Bakulin v istorii izucheniya babizma (Russian consul F. A. Bakulin in the history of the studying of Babism)”, ZVORAO, v. 24, 1917, pp. 33-90.
      • `Russkiy imperatorski konsul F. A. Bakulin v istorii izucheniya babizma (Russian consul F. A. Bakulin in the history of the studying of Babism)’ in  Zapiski… (Zapiski Vostochnogo otdeleniya (Imperatorskogo) Rossiĭskogo arkheologicheskogo obshchestva / ZVORAO = `Proceedings of the Oriental Department of the [Imperial] Russian Archeological Society’) 20 v. 24, 1-4 (1917), pp. 33-90.
      • Rossiiskii i konsul F.A. Bakulin v istorii izuchenii  ︠a ︡ babizma  (Petrograd: Tip. Akademii nauk, 1917). Published in the periodical “Zapiski Vostochnogo otdeleniya (Imperatorskogo) Rossiĭskogo arkheologicheskogo obshchestva” 24, 1-4, 33-90. (Proceedings of the Oriental Department of the [Imperial] Russian Archeological Society).



      Western sources pertaining to Major Disciples of the Bab, the Hurufat al-Hayy (Letters of the Living), and other leading Babis'. 

      The Bab appointed eighteen early disciples to the rank of the hurufat al-hayy, the abjad value of Hayy ("the Living One" an attribute of God") being 18 (h = 8 + y = 10).

      ملا حسين بشروئي

      II.2.1 Mulla Muhammad Husayn (b. Bushrū'ī / Bushrūyaʾī c. 1229/1813- d.  Tabarsi, 9th Rabīʿ I 1265 /2 February 1849), son of Hajji Mullá Abd-Allah and a disciple of Sayyid Kazim al-Husayni Rashti (1259/1843). He was  the first of the Ḥurúf al-ḥayy ("Letters of the Living")  who came to faith (2 hours and 11 miutes after sunset) on the evening of 5th of Jumādā I 1260 or May 22nd 1844. Important Persian language materials can be found in Fāżel Māzandarānī, Mīrzā Asad-Allāh, Kitāb-i ẓuhūr al-ḥaqq III : 112-42; Malek Khusravī, Muhammad `Ali, Tārīkh-i Shuhadā-yi amr I, Tehran, 130 Badīʿ/1973-74, pp. 19-58. Also, See further, Amanat. `Abbas, 1989. Resurrection and Renewal. pp. 153-66. 

      MacEoin, Denis.

      Mehrabkhani, Ruhuʼllah 1987.

      • Mullá Husayn: Disciple at Dawn. Los Angeles : Kalimát Press. 

      Lloyd Ivan; Minu Sabel

      • Mullá Husayn : unfurling the black standard. Chattanooga, TN : Images International, 2001. 75 pages.

      II. 2.2 Mulla `Ali Bastami,  (c.18XX- d. Istanbul, late December, 1846).

      Amanat, Abbas.

      • Resurrection and Renewal... 2nd  ed. 2005, 175–80, 211–19.

      Moojan Momen,

      • 1981. The Bábí and Bahá’í Religions, 1844–1944: pp. 83–90.

      • 1982. "The Trial of Mullá ‘Alí Bastámí: A Combined Sunní-Shí‘í Fatwá against the Báb," Iran: Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies 20 (1982), 113–43.

      • 2009. ‘Alí Bastámí, Mullá (d. 1846), Second disciple to recognize the Báb; first Bábí martyr. BEP = Baha'i Encyclopedia Project,

      MacEoin, Denis.

      II. 2.3 Muhammad `Alī, Quddūs (d. Bārfurush, 1265/1849).

      This learned and leading 18th `Letter of the Living' was very highly esteemed by the Bab as well as by Baha'-Allah and subsequent Baha';is and others. A proportion of his Arabic writings are extent; some being located in the British Museum or (now) British Library.

      MacEoin, Denis.

      • "Muhammad `Ali Barfurush'i", EI2
      • `Molla Mohammad `Ali Quddus Barforushi' EIr. III/8 (1988), 794.
      • XX

      II.2.4 Sayyid Yaḥyā Dārābī, Waḥīd (b. Yazd c.1226/1811- d. Nayriz, 1266/1850).

      Moojan Momen, EIr. 1994/2011. `DĀRĀBĪ SAYYED YAḤYĀ'   :

      "In 1261/1846 Waḥīd was asked by Moḥammad Shah (1250-64/1834-48) and Ḥājī Mīrzā Āqāsī (q.v.) to investigate the claims being put forth by the Bāb (Nicolas, p. 233; Nabīl, pp. 171-72)." (Momen EIr.)

      II.2.5 Mulla `Abd a'l-Karim Qazvini, Mirza Ahmad Katib (b. Qazvin, c. XXXX/ 18XX-d. 18XX). 

      "Mirza Ahmad Katib was the intermediary for Bahá'u'lláh's communications with the Bab and was under Bahá'u'lláh's protection in Tehran after the Bab's death. He was also, in effect, Nabil Zarandi's teacher, who was also a hanger-on of Bahá'u'lláh at this time. Therefore, Nabil's account of him and of his role in the question of succession should be given serious weight. (For whatever it is worth, I think that Kalim was Nabil's other major source for Bahá'u'lláh's early Babi activities). - John Walbridge, October 9 1997". See further, John Walbridge :

      Amanuensis or secretery of the Bab, "the teacher of Nabil-i-Zarandi, the historian, and a friend of Bahá'u'lláh". For some details see Zarandi, Dawn-Breakers,  xxxvii, lxiii, 52, 159-69, 176, 189, 192, 212, 214, 227-28, 331, 439, 504-6, 587-88, 592, 654 (so Walbridge, 1997).
      John Walbridge,

      • `Mulla `Abdu'l-Karim Qazvini, Mirza Ahmad Katib' in EIr.   1997.

      Juan R.I. Cole,

      • `A Letter from `Abdu'l-Karim Qazvini to Sayyid Javad Karbala'i concerning Bahá'u'lláh in Iraq, dated August, 1851: Text, Translation, Commentary,' [H-Baha'i] Translations of Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Texts no. 8 (October, 1997).


       Fāṭima Baraghānī (b. Qazvin c. 1817 - d. Tehran 1852) entitled Ṭāhirah (The Pure One), Qurrat al-`Ayn (Solace of the Eyes).

      See further, Amanat, R&R:    ; MacEoin, Sources, 107-117.

      A Shaykhī sage, poetess and Bābī Martyr  and great importance in the evolution and development of the religion of the Bab. Some of her poems and writings have been published though many remain in ms. She was the eldest daughter of  Mullā Muhammad Ṣāliḥ al-Baraghānī [al-Qazvini] and Amina  (1202-1268 AH = 1787-1851 CE). A Shi`i-Shaykhi and ultimately Bābī apologist and martyr this revolutionary Babi woman  is today internationally famous. Before coming to faith in the Bab (1819- 1850) in 1260/1844 she (like other members of her family) was a very learned and accomplished adherent of the Shaykhi school whose founding master Shaykh Ahmad and (after 1826) and his successor, Sayyid Kazim Rashti (d.1259/1843) whom she greatly admired. By the 21st century there have come to exist perhaps forty to fifty or more books and papers about Tahira several of which have recently been published. Her numerous poems and prose writings in Persian and Arabic await adequte editions, studies and translations. The now numerous books and articles about Tahira contain much about the religion and teachings of the Bab. Much of her poetry, treatises and letters, etc is designed to expound and promote the religion of the Bab. Only a few western language sources can be cited here:

      • “‘How They Punish Treason in Persia’.” The Times (London) (13 October 1852b): 4, col. 4. [An account of the executions of two Babis, Ḥājī Sulaymān Khān Tabrīzī and Qurrat al-ʿAyn, following the attempt on the life of Nāsị r al-Dīn Shāh in 1852.] Reprinted: Allen’s Indian Mail (London), 16 October 1852, p. 588; New York Times, 28 October 1852, p. 6; Southern Cross (Auckland, New Zealand), 22 February 1853, p. 3; Momen, BBR 1844-1944, p. 132." (adapted from MacEoin, 2009: 717)

      Najmájer, Marie Von, (b. Budapest, 1844-d. Bad Aussee, Austria,1904) - Hungarian born Austrian novelist and poet.

      • Gurret-ül-Eyn. A picture from the Persian in 6 Songs about. Wien: XXXX, 1874

      Martha L. Root,  [Marzieh Gail, et al.]

      • Tahirih The Pure, 1st ed. Karachi, 1938. Rep. Los Angeles : Kalimat Press, 19XX. 
      • Tahirih the Pure, 2000.

      Bakhtiyari, Isfandyar.

      • Tuhfa-yi Tahirah. Delhi, India, 1933.


      • In memory of the hundredth anniversary of the martyrdom of Qurrat al-ʻAyn. 1368/ XXXX / 22nd Sept. 1949 ? "This booklet includes brief biography of Qurrat al-ʻAyn, some of her poetry, prayers, and other writings" See Harvard Univ. Library, Repository Homa Rouhi (Sarlati) :$3i

      Clara A. Edge 

      • Tahirih,  1964.

      Denis  MacEoin

      • "Molla Mohammad Taqī' Baraghānī", EI2 vol.  III (1995), XXX.
      • "Baraghānī, Molla Mohammad Taqī" EIr. III/7 (1988), 740.
      • `Kurrat al-'Ayn' (with L. P. Elwell Sutton), EI2 X: ADD..
      • "Qurrat al-'Ayn", in J.R. Hinnells (ed.) Who's Who of Religions, MacMillan, London, 1991.
      • "Qurrat al-'Ayn", in The Encyclopaedia of Censorship (2001).

      Nosratollah Mohammad Hosseini,

      • Hadarat-i  Ṭāhira. Dundas, Ontario: 2000.

      Lowell Johnson; Mary Firman

      • Three golden crowns : the stories of Táhirih, Mullá Husayn and Quddús. Johannesburg : Bahá'í Pub. Trust, 2002. 106 pages.

      Mottahedeh, Negar.

      • “The Mutilated Body of the Modern Nation: Qurrat al-‘Ayn Tahirah’s Unveiling and the Iranian Massacre of the Babis.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Vol. XVIII no.2 (1998), 38-47.
      • Representing the Unrepresentable: Historical Images of National Reform: from Qajars to the Islamic Republic of Iran. New York: Syracuse University Press, 2008.

      Amin Banani (ed. and trans.), Jascha Kessler, et al.

      • Tahirih, A Portrait in Poetry-- Selected Poems of Qurratu'l-`Ayn (= Studies in the Babi and Baha' religion vol. 17). Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 2004.

      Sabir Afaqi (comp.)

      • Tahirih in History :  Perspectives on Qurratu'l-'Ayn from East and West Edited by Sabir Afaqi The volume brings together materials about Tahirih Qurratu'l-'Ayn. Included is history from: 'Abdu'l-Baha and Shoghi Effendi; the work of scholars in India and Pakistan; and essays by Western scholars, such as E. G. Browne, A.-L.-M. Nicolas (translated from French), Abbas Amanat, Farzaneh Milani, and others. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 2004.

      Hatcher, John S. & Amrollah Hemmat.

      • Adam's Wish: Unknown Poetry of Tahirih. Wilmette, Illinois: Baha'i Publishing Trust, 2008. 275 pages.

      • The Poetry of Tahirih. 2002.

      • The Quickening: Unknown Poetry of Tahirih, 2011.

      Soraya Adambakan

      • Qurrat al-ʻAyn eine Studie der religiösen und gesellschaftlichen Folgen ihres Wirkens. Berlin Schwarz Halle, Saale Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt 2008. German Dissertation: Univ., Diss.-- Köln, 2006. 320 pages.

      Hussein Ahdieh & Hillary Chapman

      • The calling : Tahirih of Persia and her American contemporaries. Bethesda, Maryland : Ibex Publishers, 2017. 321 pages. "Ahdieh and Chapman relate the story of Tahirih, the nineteenth century revolutionary Iranian woman poet and compare her life with American women who led and created religious movements at about the same time in America." (World-Cat.).



      The Babi Conference at Badasht, بدشت , Khurasan during Rajab-Sha`ban, 1264/June-July, 1848.

      • Lisān al-Mulk Nāseḵ al-tawārīkh, ed. Behbūdī, 1353 Sh./1974, III: 238-39.
      • Browne, E.G.  d., Kitāb-i Nuqṭatu’l-Kāf (attributed to Ḥājī Mīrzā Jānī), 1910, pp. 144-54.
      • Zarandī, The Dawn-Breakers, trans. and ed. Shoghi Effendi, Wilmette, 1962, pp. 291-300.
      • Momen EIr. Vol. III/ 4, p. 364, art `BADAŠT' : "small village of about 1,000 inhabitants, 7 km east of the city of Šāhrūd, in the Qajar-period province of Khorasan (now in Semnān Province); it was the site of a Babi conference in late Rajab-early Šaʿbān, 1264/late June-early July, 1848, convened on the instructions of the Bāb."


      The Mazandaran Upheaval at Shaykh Tabarsi  (October 1848- May1849). The shrine of Shaykh Tabarsi is situated near  near Barfurush, Mazandaran.

      Refer : Nabīl Zarandi (Nabil-i-Aʿzam), The Dawn-breakers: Nabíl’s Narrative of the Early Days of the Baháí Revelation,            ; Momen SBBH 1844-1944: 91-99;

      Zabihi-Moghaddam,  Siyamak.

      • `The Bābī-state conflict in Māzandarān : background, analysis and review of sources’  in  Moshe Sharon (ed). Studies in modern religions, religious movements and the Bābī-Bahā'ī faiths (see above), 2004.  

      Kazembeyki, Mohammad Ali.

      • Society, Politics and Economics in Mazandaran, Iran 1848-1914. London, New York: Routledge Curzon, 2003.

      Zabihi-Moghaddam, Siyamak

      • The Babi-State Conflict at Shaykh Tabarsi' in  Iranian Studies Vol. 35, No. 1/3 (Winter - Summer, 2002), 87-112.


      he Zanjan Upheaval and Babi leadership (May 5th 1850-XXXX, 1851). 

      See Sipihr, Nasikh; Hidayat, Rawdat al-Safa-yi Nasiri;  Mazandarani, KZH II; III: 175-185;  Momen BBR 1844-1944: 114-127.

      Mullā Muḥammad-ʿAlī al-Zanjānī, entitled Ḥujjat, "The Proof", (1812 - 1851).

      Mirza Husayn-i Zanjani was commissioned by Bahaullah around 1880 to write a report on the siege of Zanajn:

      • Tarikh-i waqayi‘-i Zanjan 

      Haydar Big, son of Din-Muhammad, Hujjat’s military commander

      • Account of the Zanjan upheaval in the London ms. of the New History of the Bab (see Hamadani, New History, 139–68).

      ‘Abd al-Ahad / Aqa Naqd-‘Ali (two brothers). 

      • “Personal Reminiscences, the memoir of an Azali who had been a child during the siege; the narrative of ‘Abd al-Ahad’s brother, Aqa Naqd-‘Ali, quoted in Nicolas, Ali Mohammed, 332, 338–40  (Aparently lost; so Walbridge, 1996).

      Āqā 'Abdu'l-Ahad-i-Zanjānī / Edward G Browne trans.

      • "Personal Reminisences of the Bābī insurrection at Zanjān in 1850, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland,  29 (1897), 761-827.  

      MacEoin, Denis,

      • "Muhammad `Ali Zanjani" in EI2

      Walbridge, John,

      • `The Babi Uprising in Zanjan' Iranian Studies 29/3–4 (Fall/Winter 1996),  339–62.

      NAYRIZ, نى ر‌ىز  A town in Fars, soth of Iran 220 km SE., of Shiraz.

      Leading Babis and the Nayriz, Upheavals (May 1850-1853).

      See MacEoin, Sources, 176-7;

      Sayyid Yaḥyā Dārābī, Waḥīd (b. Yazd c.1226/1811- d. Nayriz, 1266/1850).

      He was the son of Sayyid Ja`far Dārābī  ibn Abī Isḥāq Mūsawī Burūjirdī Kashfī (b. Iṣṭahbānāt in Fārs, 1189/1775, d. Burūjird 1267/1851) on whom see further Andrew Newman, Sayyid Ja`far Dārābī in EIr. Vol. VII/1, 9-10. Also Moojan Momen, EIr. 1994/2011. `DĀRĀBĪ SAYYED YAḤYĀ'   :

      "In 1261/1846 Waḥīd was asked by Moḥammad Shah (1250-64/1834-48) and Ḥājī Mīrzā Āqāsī (q.v.) to investigate the claims being put forth by the Bāb (Nicolas, p. 233; Nabīl, pp. 171-72)." (Momen EIr.)

      Fayḍī, Muhammad `Alī.

      • Nayrīz-i mushkbīz, Tehran, 129/130 Badīʿ BE/ 1325 Sh/1947 + 1352 Sh./1973.

      Ahang Rabbani,

      • The Bábís of Nayriz: History and Documents II: Witnesses to Bábí and Bahá’í History, available online at (also:

      • `Vahíd and the Nayríz episodes' (pp. 49-60)and `Baháʾí martyrdom in Nayríz' (pp. 49-60) in The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs' (pp. 208-216 (See above under Rabbani).
      • The Bábís of Nayriz: History and Documents II: Witnesses to Bábí and Bahá’í History, available online at : (also:

      `Vahíd and the Nayríz episodes' (pp. 49-60) and `Baháʾí martyrdom in Nayríz' (pp. 49-60) in The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs' (pp. 208-216 (See above under Rabbani).

      Mirzā Muḥammad-Shafiʿ Ruḥāni Nayrizi,

      • لمعات الانوار : (شرح وقاىع نى‌ىز شورانگىز) : عهد اعلى، عهد ابهى  = Lamaʻāt al-anvār : (sharḥ-i vaqāyiʻ-i Nayʹrīz-i shūrangīz) : ʻahd-i Aʻlá ʻahd-i Abhá. Muʼassasah-i Millī-i Maṭbūʻāt-i Amrī,  196?. 
      • Lamaʿāt al-anwār: Sharḥ-i waqāyiʿ-i Nayriz, 2 vols., Tehran:    1971. + 130 BE/1973.
      • Lamʻātu al-anvār : Sharaḥ vaqāyīʻ Nī Rīz-i shūr angīz. 2 vols.  Bundoora, Victoria [near Melboure, Australia]  : Century Press, 2003. 621 pages.

      Hussein Ahdieh,

      See also Bibliography I - again with various sometimes parallel subdivisions and supplementary sections, `The Bab and the Babi Religion, Persian, Arabic Turkish and other related  Sources' : 

      Select bibliographical materials pertaining to Mirza Yaḥyā Nurī (d. Famagusta, Cyprus, 1912) and Azali Babi developments will be found on a separate webpage on this Hurqalya site as will supplementary bibliographical date (see below). They are:

      • Bibliography III. Mirza Yahya Nuri (d. 1912) and Azali Babism.
      • Bibliography Supp. I . Pre-Islamic Abrahamic religions - Jewish, Christian and other responces to the Babi-Baha'i religions.  This supplement will include responses to the Bābī-Bahā’ī Religions generated within Judaism, Christianity (including Christian Missionary related sources) and related sources, pertaining to the Bab and the Babi Religion.  This supplement will also list bibliographical data generated by missionaries who sometimes utilized Azali Babi sources or from those with Azali associations. This will again include both positive, empathetic, as well as negative polemical materials written by Christian missionaries pertinent to the study of the religion of the Bab.
      • Bibliography Supp. II. Islamic Anti-Babi-Baha'i Polemic - Sunni, Shi`i and Shaykhi.  Aside from Sunni and Imami Shi`i anti-Babi-Baha'i polemic, this supplement will include writings of followers of Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i and his Kirmani and other devotees and adherents in Persian, Arabic and western Languages. .